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General Features. 


23 


\ 


( the ittore accurate measurement of a professional survey ; and the 
sam^xplanation may account for the increase in the area under 
watci\ 

T\ie barren land consists for the most part of usar plains, 
which ''extend for miles in certain portions of the loam tract, 
chiefly in parganas Mainpuri, Ghiror, lihongaon, Karhal, Kishni, 
the north of Jlarnahal and Mustafabtwl. They present a most 
desolate aspect and are absolutely irreclaimable. They are of 
little use for anything but pasture, and for that only during and 
iumediately after tlio rains. In certain parts they are coveied 
with the saline efflorescence known as which is used for 

manufacturing glass and for other purposes. 

I A considerable area of the barren land is covered with dhak Jungle#, 

jungle, the remains of the ten Icos belt of jungle which formerly 
ran through Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, Aligarli and Bulandshahr. 

At Uresar and Eka in the north of Mustafabad, there are patches, 

160 and 200 acres in extent, covered with dhak jungle, and at 
Akbarpur Auncha there is a long strip of some thousands of 
acres, interspersed with cultivation. Other fairly extensive 
stretches of the same jungle are to bo met with near liasemar, 
Jawapur, Bidhuua and i’undri, while near Saman and Suuj, in 
the south-east of the district, there is, besides much dhak jungle, 
a great deal of waste land covered with the coarse grass known 
locally as ganra (gandar) or sinkh. The ganra is used for 
^ thatching and for making ropes and mats, and is often leased for 
from one to three rupees a bigha. The lower pointed leaves are 
known as patel and are used for thatching ; the leaves close to 
the stalk are called munj and used for rope-making ; the flower- 
stalks without the munj are called mdei, and with it are known 
as senta. The former is used for ceilings and, instead of a 
tarpaulin, as a hood for carts, and the latter is made into coils 

and placed on the rafters of houses to prevent the roofing clay . 

from faUing through. The value of the dhak timber when cut 
r for fuel varies greatly with the distance from places where it can 
^ be used and the means of communication. Ks, 18 per 100 maunds 
is a fair average price. The babul grows in large clumps on 
the ttsor plains, and is, indeed, the only tree which flourishes on 
them. Its cultivation has for some time past been encouraged 



24 


Mainpwi District. 


Groves, 


Preoarious 

tracts. 


by the increase of moisture due to the canals and the great I 
demand for wood both for fuel and carpentry. Its timber is kard I 
and close-grained and is much used for building purposes,/ fuel 
and charcoal. Its bark is employed in tanning, and its g/im in 
dyeing and in medicine, so that now it is not uncommoi^’^to see 
plantations wherever the surface of the usar receives more than 
the average share of moisture. i 

Mainpuri is a well-wooded district on the whole apart from 
the comparatively bare usar plains. In addition to the treo 
jungle and the babul which has already been described, it is 
abundantly provided with groves of fruit and timber trees, ai:d 
with avenues, among which those in the neighbourhood of Main- 
puri town are particularly . worthy of remark for their fine 
shishams. According to the figures of the recent settlemeat, J 
there would appear to have been some diminution in the area 
planted with trees during the last few^ years, only 17,673 acres 
being shown as against 18,818 acres at the previous survey. Uut 
as the later figure excludes orchards and areas either newly 
planted or almost denuded of trees, the falling-off may be rather 
apparent than real. These plantations consist for the most part 
of mango and shishani, though the jitnouriy guava, orange, pome- 
granate and custard-apple arc also plentiful, and arc only 
established with considerable trouble and expense. But, once 
established, they are exceedingly profitable, the mango being ^ 

here particularly luxuriant and productive, while the shisharii ^ 

grows to perfection and supplies valuable timber. 

The district, if anything, suffers more from wet seasons 
than dry ones. The history of recent famines as the result of 
drought has shown that they hardly affected the district and least 
of all the agriculturists. In fact the district is among the most 
secure from drought in the w'hole of the provinces. Still, there 
are some villages that are insufliciently protected by irrigation, 
notably those of the Isan-Kali Nadi Duab and those along the 
edge of the Jamna. In the Jamna tract irrigation is possible ^ 
and wells are practicable, but ihu depth of the water from the 
surface, amounting to from 60 to 100 feet, reduces the irrigated^ 
area. Canals have been extended as far as levels permit. But 
there are villages that are not commanded or lying only at the. 



26 


Oenerctl Featvi!>*6B. 


T 



\ 




edge or tail of a channel and receiving thereby only a small or 
irregular supply. A further extension of canals is desirable,- as 
well as means for lifting canal water, but with the present restrict- 
ed supply from the Ganges nothing can be done but to wait lor 
the completion of the Sarda Feeder Canal. Most of the Jamna 
villages are provided with alluvial riverain strips in the Jamna 
tar Obi which as a rule require no irrigation and in these the 
villagers depend largely for a livelihood on their dairy produce, 
so that a failure of crops owing to drought in the uplands of the 
village is not such a serious calamity as at lirst sight appears. 
Ill the northern sandy tract the most precarious villages are 
those along the Isan or Ivali Nadi w'hich are neither commanded 
by the canal or whose subsoil is incompatil)le with spring wells. 
In some villages, too, the surface soil is of poor sandy quality 
and not worth irrigating even if that were possible. 

The same remarks as regards the extension of the canal to 
the Jamna villages apply to these also and moreover much can 
be done with special kinds of wells suited to such sandy subsoils. 
The precarious villages of this group arc much fewer in number 
and more scattered and also much less precarious than the Jamna 
villages. Pargana Barnahal, which dtjpends almost entirely on 
earlhen wells, has been suspected to bo precarious as regards the 
w ater-supply in the wells, but the experience of dry seasons of 

late has shown that this suspicion is groundless, though perhaps 

a run of dry seasons would bring down the w ater-level to a danger- 
ously low^ point. It is probably no more precarious than the 
rest of tlie earthen well tract between the Sirsa and the bengar. 

In wet years the northern sandy tract, particularly the 
portion lying north of the Grand Trunk road, sufiers from the 
overgrowth of kans grass, and the cultivated area tends to decline ; 
the Kali Nadi tarai especially is liable to the evil effects of super- 
saturation, so much so that in 1877 and in 1887 the revenue of 
many villages w^as reduced. Another tract liable to ill effects 
from wet seasons is a group of villages along the Bhognipur 
canal near Bhadan, where the increase of vth is giving rise to 
anxiety, but it is hoped that drainage w orks will remove the 
cause, super-saturation from the Bhognipur Branch. A good 
deal has been done in this direction of late years, but it is 


MAINPURl! 

A GAZETTEER, 

invo 

VOLUME X 

Of THB 

DISTRICT GAZETTEERS OF THE UNITED 
PROVINCES OF AGRA AND OUDH. 


EDITED AKD COMPILED 


E. R. NEAVE, LC.S. 



ALLABABiDi 


26 


Mainpuri District. 


Building 

materials. 


difficult to provide any remedy for the growth oi fcans or super- I 

saturation of the Kali Nadi tarai. Reli and the baisuri weed " 

render some villages precarious, for details of which see Chapter 
II. 

Walls are made of clay in ordinary village houses. But 
in towns they are generally made of burnt bricks, which 
are of two kinds, the old typo measuring 9 X 4 X inches 
called raddi or hharra, and the bricks of English size called 
gumrna, measuring 9 X 4j X 2^ inches. The former are burnt 
in kilns with village rubl>i8h and cattle dung, and arc sold at 
lis. 4 to Us. 5 per 1 ,900. They are generally used in private 
houses. The arc burnt in Bull’s patent kilns with coal 

dust, and only in exceptional cases in the ordinary square kiln. 
They are sold at lis. 10 per 1,000. Bricks for wells (garand) are J 

made specially. 'J'heir length varies according to the diameter of 1 

the well, and is a fourth or fifth part of the circumference, their 
thickness and breadth varying between 4 inches and 5 inches. 
They have notches and dowels at their ends by which they fit 
into each other. Tliey sell for 1 anna to IJ anna each. Clay 
for good bricks has to bo selected, as that containing reh or too 
much sand or stiff clay would not answer. For the country 
pattern bricks, the silt clay in the bottom of village tanks is used. 
Fuel for brick-buriiiug has become very scarce of late years 
owing to the comparatively small area under tree jungle, and 
fire-wood can only be obtained by cutting 'down planted / 
trees, and is therefore very expensive, costing about three to 
five maunds to the rupee. Village rubbish for the country kilns, 
also, has to be paid for although in former times it could be had 
for the collecting only. Those facts, together with the general 
rise in wages all round, have caused an increase in the rates 
of bricks from Ks. 8 ten years ago to Rs. 10 now. Lime is 
made from kanktiv which is abundant in the district. It is burnt 
with coke, and in places away from the railway with wood. 

It sells at Us. 20 per 100 maunds. Block kankar ( sUia) is also 
used for walls, especially for foundations and abutments and piers 
of bridges. Good varieties of it are found in the district in the 
uaar plains. It sells at Rs. 10 to 16 per 100 cubic feet cut and 
dressed and makes a good substitute for stone. The rate for 



(A) 


51. NO. (7 3 ‘'7'’ 75 



General Featv/res. 


27 


(parrying (without (Jartage) is Rs. 2 por hundred square feet, 
exclusive of dressing, a skilled job performed l)y masons as a rule. 

Stone is not found in the district or anywhere near. F or l)edplates 
under girders and for corbels or floor slabs it is oldaiuod from 
Agra, where it comes from the Dholpur State. Stone can also 
1)0 imported from Lalitpur. It is sold at Rs. 2 to Rs. 2-8 per 
cubic foot cut and dressed. Roofs are often made of clay rest- 
ing on jamun planks or Ijricks which are supported by rafters 
ov bargah 8, the latter again .resting on wooden l.eams. This 
is the sim])lest form of roof and can l>e mad(( witn luatoiials 
found on the spot. In villages also rolls of sarhmiL i grass are 
used in place of the planks. In poorer houses thatcdi is used. 

In substantial and poriuancnt houses iho roofs are made of tiles 
which are obtained from (Jawnporo. hey sell at from Ks. 40 
to Rs. 60 per 1,000. Small tiles are made locally arid sell from 
Rs. 3 to Rs. 5 per 1,000. The timber used in building is nim, 
shisham, jamun, mango and hubul. All are abundant in the 
district and sell at Re. 1-8-0 to Rs. 2 per cubic foot except 
shishavi, which sells at Rs. 2 to Rs. 3 per cubic foot. Sal is 
used in more important structures. It is obtained from Agra or 
(Jawnpore and sells at Rs. 4 per cubic foot. Iron beams ate 
becoming the fashion in the more ])retcntious buildings and sell 
at Rs. 7 per maund in Mainpuri. In (Jovernment buildings 
iron is often used in place of timber under largo sired tiles. It 
costs Rs. 10 per maund. Road metal, is ro|)rcsonted by the 
bichua or nodulated variety of kanlcav (lime-stone) found in 
usar plains like block hankar, or underlying dumal soil in their 
vicinity. The rate for quarrying and breaking to size (two 
inches) is Re. 1-8 per hundred cubic feet, including a royalty 
of 4 annas, if found in fields, or 2 annas if found in uaar, 
payable -to the landowner. The same royalty is payable on 
block hankar. 

The district is not remarkable for wild animals, though Faun* 
several species are found in it. Rarge herds of black buck roam 
over the extensive usar plains, more especially in the west of 
the district, where they do no small damage to the crops. The 
wild and broken country of the Jamna ravines harbours con- 
siderable numbers of hytenas and an occasional panther,, .while 


GAZETTEER OF HAINPURI. 


CONTENTS. 



Paob. 

Chafteb I. 

)iindarics and area ... 

1 

>pography 

1 

ivols 

2 

tils ... 

2 

ivcrs ... 

0 

lils 

... 13 

rainage ... 

... 10 

asie land, groves and jungle 

22 

;ecariou8 tracts ..t 

.1*. 24 

uilding materials ... 

... 2G 

luna 

... 27 

ittle „• 

... 20 

imate and rainfall 

... 30 

edical aspects i,« 

... 32 

Chaftbb 11. 


altivated area .„ 

... 36 

altivation 

... 37 

arvosts... 

... 40 

*opB ... ... 

... 40 

rigatlon 

... 44 

imines 

... 30 

I'ices 

... 66 

fages ... 

'eights and measures 

... 67 

... 68 

itprest and banks ... 

... 69 

rade 

... 71 

anufac taros 

... 71 

lirs ... 

... 76 

>mmunications 

... 76 

Cbaptbb III. 

)pnlatioii 

... 80 

igration 

... 84 

>x 

... 84 

Bligions ... 

86 



Paob. 

Hindu sects 

... 87 

Castes 

... 88 

Occupations 

... 101 

Language!.. 

... 102 

Literatiuo 

... 102 

Propriotaiy tenures ... 

... 102 

l*ropriotors ... 

... 104 

Cultivating tenures ... 

... 106 

Kents 

... H>8 

Condition of the people 

... Ill 

CHArTBB IV. 


District staff 

... 113 

Formation of the district 

... 115 

Fiscal history 

... 116 

Police 

... 132 

Crime 

... 132 

Excise ... 

... 138 

Stamps ... 

... 139 

Itcgistration ... 

... 130 

Income tax 

... 140 

Post-office and telegraph 

... 140 

Municipality 

... 140 

District board 

... 142 

Fklucation... ... 

... 142 

Dispensaries 

... 141 

Cattle- pounds 

... 115 

Nazul lands ... 

... 145 

Chafteb V. 


History ... 

... 146 

Directory 

... 181 

Appendix 

i— zzxiv 

lodcz 

... i-iv 



28 


Main'pvtri District* 


Fisheries. 


chinkara may from time to time be met with there, ihe hyaena 
also frequents the central portion of the district. Wolves are 
fairly common throughout the district, and a reward of ten rupees ^ 
is offered for the destruction of a full-grown animal. Ihe same I 
price is set upon the head of the leopard, the hyoona only fetching 
one fifth as much. The average amount paid yearly in rewards 
during a period of six years was Ks. 148 and the average 
number of reported deaths caused by wild animals and snakes 
during the same ])eriod was 40. A few nllgcti (Boseltiphiis 
are to be found in the dhah jungles. The com- 
moner kinds of game-birds are fairly plentiful all over the 
district, and in the cold weather the numerous jhils and lakes A 
attract largo numbers of wildfowl and snipe. Pigeons are ? W 
exceedingly common in the south owing to the large number of * 
earthen wells wlu'ro they resort. The peacock is met with every- y 
where, but is regarded as a sacred bird and protected. Black 
partridge are to Ije found along the Kali Nadi only, and grey 
partridge, though met with everywhere, are very plentiful along 
the flamna ravines. Crocodiles and alligators abound in the 
Jamna and Kali Nadi, and occasionally are seen in the 
canals. 

The rohUj parhiny saiUi and siviy are the fish most com- 
monly caught for food, and are sold at rates varying from one 
to two annas a s(r. All castes and religions, with the exception , ^ 
of Brahmans, Jains and certain of the Bania caste, eat fish, 
and there is thus a very considerable demand. The fishing 
rights on most of the tanks and rivers are leased to Kaliars, who 
often pay high prices for the privilege. The best fishing is on 
the Kali and Is an, and in the cold weather parkin and mullet 
from half a pound to three pounds in weight may be taken 
there with the rod. Mahseer have been occasionally caught in the 
canals. The modes of fishing in vogue do not differ from those 
employed in other districts, the sweep-net, hand-net, funnel-net 
{hillc(i)y basket (khoncha) and dam (band), being all made use ^ 
of according to circumstances and locality. There is no fish- ^ 
preserving, and young fry are destroyed in large numbers at the 
beginning of the hot weather by embanking the streams and 
employing a funnel-shapod net. During the rains fish are 



General Features. 


29 


considered impure by most classes and arc then seldom to be Cattle. | 
found for sale in the markets. ‘ I 

^ There are no peculiar breeds of domestic cattle in the dis- | 

trict, and the animals are for the most part of the ordinary type, | 

bred from the dedicated Brahrnini bull. Some attempts have, | 

however, been made to improve the breed, and have met with a 1 

fair measure of success. In 18/0 throe stud bulls were imported | 

from Ilissar, two of them a cross between a Nagor bull and a 
Mysore cow, and the third a cross between a Nagor bull and a 
Hariana cow. There was a groat demand for their services and | 

the experiment was a success. Again, the Court of Wards ^ 

recently brought in two stud bulls, one of the Khairigarh ai\d | 

I the other of the Kosi l)roed, which stood at Baraiili and Arjun- 
pur respectively. The Khairigarh bull i)roduccd good stock 
^and was popular. There is an impoilant cattle market at Sirsa- 
1 ganj, which supplies all animals for agricultural purposes to this c 
and the neighbouring districts. Other important cattle markets 
are at Ghiror and Karhal. The returns of the recent cattle 
census in 1909 showed the district to contain 141,709 bullocks, 
r)G,087 cows, 128,756 buflFaloes, 152,818 young bullocks, calves 
and buffalo calves. There were 82,863 ploughs and 12,295 carts. 

There are herds of wild cattle in several ])arts of the district, the 
largest being located near Jasrana and Ghiror. 

In 1909 there were 17,729 horses, ponies and mares in the Hwbos 
district. The stock is poor, and the results of past efforts to ponies, 
improve it have not been encouraging. It would seem that 
the climate is too dry and the graJiing too scanty for successful 
horse-breeding. There were formerly about six private stallions 
and four Government ones kept in the district, but now not more 
than two are still in private hands and only one is maintained 
by the district board. Common country ponies of small size sell 
at prices ranging between Rs. 5 and Rs. 15, while large ones ^ 

fetch from Rs. 60 to Rs. 100. The supply of horses is replenished i 

from the Batesar fair. | 

L Of the other domestic animals, sheep in 1909 numbered 
^ 37,267 and goats 1S6,672. The former are kept both for wool animals, 
and slaughter, and sell for prices varying from 12 annas to 3 ^ | 

rupees. The improvement of the breed has hitherto received but | 


PREFACE. 


The old Qazetteer of the Mainpuri district was 
edited by Mr. E. T. Atkinson and was based on the 
Settlement Report of Messrs. McConaghey and Smoaton 
and materials supplied by the district officers. In mak- 
ing the present revision I have been much indebted to 
the Settlement Report of Mr. W. J. E. Lupton, I.O.S., 
and notes written by Mr. Morris, I.C.S., when Collector 
of the district in 1904. But I have to express my 
particular gratitude to Mr. A. C. Walker, I.C.S., the 
present Collector of Mainpuri, for his ready and gene- 
rous help. Ho road through the typewritten sheets of 
the whole book (except Chapter V) before it went to 
press, rewriting many paragraphs in the light of his 
own local knowledge, adding a great deal of new material, 
and sparing neither time nor labour to ensure the 
correctness and completeness of the work. He also 
gave me further assistance by reading the proofs. 

Naini Tal : 


i/une 1909. 


E.R. N. 



Cattle 

Disease. 


Olixnate. 


Mainpwi District* 


little attention, though a fruitless ofFort in this direction was 
made in 1870, when two English rams, a Leicester and a South- ^ 
down, were imported, but died soon after theii ai rival. The 
goats known Imth hero and in the Etawah district as the 
Jamnapari brood arc greatly prized and fetch high prices, but the 
ordinary kinds of goat can be bought for from one to five 
rupees. Camels are seldom lirod in the; district, the great source 
of supply for them lieing the Batesar fair. There wore 995 of 
them in 1909. Donkeys, of which there wore 8,285, are of the 
ordinary under-sized type so common in the country, and call for 
no special comment. 

There is always a certain amount of cattle disease in the 
district, but the statistics are not to be relied upon, except, to a 
small degree, in the ease of the contagious diseases specially 
reported. Of those the most serious have, in recent years, beent 
rinderpest and foot and mouth disease, both of which broke out f 
as severe epidemics in 1900-1901, when 752 attacks of the 
former, with 328 deatlis, and 41 1 attacks of the latter, with Ido 
deaths, were reported. The epidemic of rind..!r))ost affected 
chiefly the tahsils of Bhongaon, Mainpuri and Karhal, and foot 
and mouth disease those of Bhongaon and Mainpuri. A 
veterinary assistant is entertained liy tlio distiict board for 
the purpose of dealing with such outbreaks, but his sei vices 
are little in request owing to the ignorance and apathy of the 
people; a veterinary hospital in chai'ge of another assistant has 
begun to do useful ivork in Mainpuri. 

The climate of Mainpuri resembles that of the Duab districts 
generally and presents no peculiar features. In the hot weather 
the thermometer often rises above 110°E. in' the shade, touching 
occasionally 120°, and tho mean temperature for June during the 
last three years has been 96-3°, while the corresponding figure 
for January has boon 58 G°. The district is liable to severe frosts 
in the cold weather, one of the worst on record having occurred 
at tho beginning of February 1905, causing widespread damage 
to the rabi crop and young plantations and destroying the arluir. 
Hailstorms also are of common occurrence in March and April. 
During the hot weather tho west wind (generally north of west) 
blows constantly and with great violence, imparting an intense 









General Fea/twrea. 


31 


dryness to the atmosphere and rendering possible the almost | 

continual use of grass tattis. Duststorms are not infrequent | 

during the same period. In the rainy season the prevailing | 

wind is from the east. | 

Records of the rainfall are available from 1844, and exhibit | 

very marked variations. The average fall during the six years | 

1844-46 to 1849-60 was only 20-96 inches. Between 18G0 and | 

1873 it was 32-1 inches, or 07ily one inch above the district i 

average. During the wet decade 1881-!»0, so disastrous to the | 

district through floods and waterlogging, the average annual fall | 

rose to 34-92, exceeding forty inches in four, of the years, while in | 

1886, the year of the Nadrai aqueduct disaster, Bhongaon received ;i 

66-96 inches, the highest figure yet recorded in any tahsil. The I 

nextten years, from 1891 to 1900, witnessed a return to thenormal ij 

with an average of 31-11, the one year of deficit, 1896, when only 
14-17 inches were recorded, being compensated by 1894, when the 
fall was 43-91. The first eight years of the present century I 

have been unusually dry, the heaviest fall being o3-06 inches in 
1906, while in 1906 only 13-06 inches were recorded for the i 

whole district, and the average for the period was 26-32 inches. ■ | 

The fluctuations in the rainfall from year to year are extreme, j 

ranging, for the whole district, from 48-3t) inches in 1861 to 11-10 j 

inches in 1868 ; but between tahsil and tahsil they are small. i 

Shikohabad generally gets a little more and Karhal a little loss ' 

than the others, but the positions arc not infrequently reversed. 

The rains normally begin in June, though of late years they have 
often not set in till the beginning of July, and continue till late 
in September, rarely lasting into October. The year 1903 
afforded a marked exception to this rule, when a heavy fall in 
October caused high floods in all the rivers and the civil station 
was effectually cut off from the city of Mainpuri for several days 
by a deep and dangerous torrent, which swept over the road on 
both sides of the bridge, and submerged the eastern half of the 
city to a depth of 2 or 3 feet 1867 and 1869 were also abnormal 

m; in this respect. OanaMl 

r The district compares favourably with most other parts 

of the United Provinces in the matter of health. There x 

are no diseases peculiar to the district and there are no ^ ^ 


GAZETTEER OF MAINPURl. 


KEFERENCES. 


Report on the Settlement of tlie Mainpuri district; by 
Messrr?. A. McConaghey and D. M. Smeaton. Allahabad, 1875. 

Settlement Report of the Mainpuri district ; by W. J. E. 
Lupton, C. S. Allahabad, 1906. 

Minute on Talooqdarce Cases by Mr. II. S, Boulderson, 
London : Printed for Private Circulation, by Smith, Elder and 
Co., Co Cornhill, 1858. 

Memoirs on the History; Folklore, and Distribution of the 
Races of the North-Western Provinces of India, being an am- 
plified edition of tlie original Supplemental Glossary of Indian 
Terms, by the late Sir Henry M. Elliot, K.C.B., revised by I. 
Beanies, M.R.A.S., Trubiior, 18G0. 

Ain-i-Akbari ; edited by H. Bloclimaiin, Calcutta, 1873. 
Volumes II and III, by Colonel H. 8. Jarrott, 1896. 

The Bangash Nawabs of Farrukhabad, by W. Irvine; 
J. A. S, B., 1878 and 1879. 

Soir-i-Mutaqherin by Ghulam Husain Khan ; reprint, 
Calputta, 1902. 

Memoir of the War in India, conducted by General Lord 
Lake and Major-General Sir A. Wellesley; by Major W. Thorn, 
London, 1818. 

Hastings and the Rohilla War, by Sir John Strachey ; 
Oxford 1892. 

Mutiny Narratives, N.-W. P. ; Allahabad, 1859. 

History of the Indian Mutiny, by Sir John Kaye and 
Colonel Malleson ; London, 1888. 

Tribes and Castes of the N.-W. P. and Oudh, W. Crook ; 
Calcutta, 1896. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

J. R. A. 8.— Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

J. A. S. B.— Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society. 

£. H. I.— The History of India as told by its own Histo- 
rians ; by Sir H. M. Elliot. 



32 


Mainpuri District, 


special features which have a bearing on the incidence of 
disease. 

Vital The vital statistics for the district from 1891 onwards will be 

^ * ' found in the appendix. It will be seen that there have 

' been considerable variations in l)oth the birth-rate and the death- 

rate during the last eighteen years, though the former has, except 
in 1897, 1905 and 1908, always kept well ahead of the latter. 
This falling off can be explained by the fact that in 1897 there 
was a severe outbreak of small-pox in addition to a famine, and 
though the district did not suffer as a whole from the scarcity, 
yet there was enough distress to unfavourably affect the birth- 
rate during the two following years. The birth-rate then rose 
suddenly to 50-52 per millc, the highest point it had yet reached, 
and did not fall seriously again until 1905, in which year there 
was another scarcity, and the plague epidemic was at its worst. 

On the whole, Mainpuri compares favourably with other districts 'I 
in point of health, the average death-rate for the eighteen years | 
since 1891 being 02-:38, ranging from 20-19 in 1893 to 53-70 
per mille in 1908. In 1908 the figures were abnormal, the birth- 
• rate being only 31-74 and the death-rate rising to as high as 

■ • 53‘70 per 1,000 ; the comldned result of high prices and scarcity 

on tho one hand, and, on the other, the extremely virulent malaria 
epidemic that devastated these and the neighbouring provinces 
in the autumn of tho year. It is noticeable that from 1897 on- 
wards tho recorded death-rate has been consistently higher than in ^ 
tho preceding period, never falling below 31 per mille, while before 
1897 it had never risen as high as 27 per mille. This high death- 
rate has, however, been accompanied by a corresponding high 
birth-rate, the average births per mille for the two periods being 
34-53 and 38-34. The difference in the two periods is indicative 
of previous bad registration. 

Fever. Tho principal causes to which the mortality is to be 

attributed are .-^hown in Table IV of the Appendix. It will here 
bo seen that, as is usual in this country, the vast majority of 
deaths are ascribed to fever, and that there has been a marked 
increase in tho number of deaths under this head from 
’ • 1897 onwards. While there is some reason to believe that the 

mortality from fever of the intermittent type has been increased 



General Features. 


33 


by the rise in the water-level which has accompanied the construc- 
tion of canals in this district, it is hard to see why this rise in 
the death-rate should first manifest itself so long after the first 
introduction of canals. The figures for fever are always open to 
a certain amount of suspicion. The mortality statistics for the 
villages are derived from the reports of the village watchmen, 
who are in turn dependent on the information given by the 
family of the deceased. As fever is a symptom of a very largo 
number of diseases, many of which are not easy of diagnosis even 
for e.xperts, it is extremely probable that a large proportion of the 
deaths which are attributed to fever in the mortality statistics 
ought to be classified under other heads. The mortality 
from fever reached its climax in 1908, when 41,749 deaths were 
ascribed to this cause, and though the numbers have fluctuated a 
good deal before then they have never exceeded 25,000, except in 
1899. 

Cholera is not as common in this district as in many others, 
the average mortality from this cause during the last 18 years 
being only 187, while but for two severe epidemics in 1892 and 
1894 the figure would be very much lower. In the former year 
no less than 1,150 deaths were duo to this cause, and in the latter 
year 752. Other epidemics of a less serious character occurred 
in 1901 and 1903, while in the intervening year the district was 
almost free from cholera, only 3 persons falling victims to it. In 
1898 no deaths at all were recorded from cholera, and only one 
death in each of the years 1899 and 1905. Outbreaks of cholera 
have usually been traceable to bad sanitation, coupled as a rule 
with a dry season, the highest mortality being reached towards 
the end of the rains. 

Mainpuri is generally fairly free from small-pox. In only 
three years out of the last eighteen have the deaths from this 
cause exceeded 65, while between 1898 and 1902 it was almost 
unknown. In 1896 and 1897 however there wore serious epidemics 
of the disease, 1,377 persons perishing in the first and 1,699 in the 
second year. Another less severe epidemic occurred in 1906, 
when 499 persons died. The comparative immunity now enjoyed 
by the district from this scourge is undoubtedly due to the 
spread of vaccination, some 26,000 persons being as a Jide 

3 


Cholera. 


! 


Small-pox. 







CHAPTER I. 


Gkxkkal Features. 


Mainpuri, a district of the Agra division, is hoiindod on tho 
North by the Etah district, on tho East l)y Farrukhabad, on the 
South by Etawah and Agra, and on th(3 West by the districts of 
Agra and Etah. It lies botwoon North latitude 26° 53' to 
27° 31' and East longitude 78° 27' to 79° 26'. The area of 
the district in 1899 was 1,071,969 acres, or 1,674*95 square 
miles, and the population in 1901 numbered 829,357 persons, 
or 496 to the square mile. Of those 781,210 wore Hindus, 47,794 
Musalmans, and 353 Christians. The average length of tho 
district is about 56 miles, and the breadth varies from about 42 
to 18 miles, the average being about 33 miles. Of the total area 
590,434 acres, or 55*08 per cent., are cultivated, and 145,068 acres 
(including 17,573 acres under groves), or 13*53 per cent., are 
culturable. The boundaries have varied considerably from time 
to time owing to changes which will be described in Chapter IV. 

The district generally presents the apj>earance of an exten- 
sive level plain broken only by the sand ridges on the western 
border, the rolling sand hills and undulations of tho Kali and 
Tsan rivers, and the ravines along the Jamna to tho south-west. 
The Kali Nadi forms tho boundary of this plain on tho north 
and north-east and the Jamna encloses it on the south-west. 
Both these rivers flow towards the south-east, and between them, 
in almost parallel courses, run the four smaller streams, the Isaii, 
the Arind, the Sengar, and the Sirsa, following tho general slope 
of the country from north-west to south-east. Taking the 
district from north to south, tho average fall of the rivers, exclud- 
ing the Jamna, is 1*5 feet per mile, and the average slope of the 
surface of the country is 1*2 feet per mile. A line of levels 
taken across the district from the Jamna to the Kali shows that 
the watersheds of the streams running through it at the point of 
intersection are almost exactly the same height abdve the level 

1 


Bound* 
arios and 
Area. 


Topogra- 

phy. 



34 


Mainpuri District. 


Plague. 


Other dis- 
eased* 




vaccinated every year. A very considerable proportion of the 
population is now protected and every epidemic of the disease 
whicli occurs is of gradually decreasing virulence. 

The first death from plague occurred in' April 1903 at 
Shikohabad, an’ imported case. Two deaths occurred a month later 
at Karhal, and two more in December of that year at Shikoh- 
abad. Tn 1904, 155 villages and towns were affected with a 
total mortality of 2,33 1, the disease seeming fo spread from the 
Ktawah direction along the main lines of communication, and 
having little effect on out-of-the-way tracts. In 1905 the 
epidemic readied its height, spreading to 1,077 out of a total of 
1,388 villages in the district, and attacking every part of it, and 
the mortality rose to_10,886. In 1900 tlicro was a decline, the 
disease seeming to have spent itself temporarily, as only 12 
villages in the north of the district suffered with 172 deaths, and 
in the next two years, 1907 and 1908, the deaths were below 1,000, 
the north of the district again being the worst affected. The 
history of the epidemic shows that it originated in the south 
along the railway liiu^, being imiiorted by refugees from infected 
districts. The spread of the disease was rapid and general over 
the whole district, but in the fourth year it liogan to abate, those 
parts which wore first affected being the first to recover. In the 
following year it was almost extinguished, and though it has once 
more begun to increase in virulence it has done so much more 
slowly than on its first introduction. 'I’ho obvious inference is 
that the population together wdth rats which a’-o the vehicles of 
the disease wore botii or either immunised by some natural pro- 
cess. Artificial means of combating jdague were resorted to 
here, as elsewhere, with little success, chiefly owing to the apathy 
of the people towards rat killing and inoculation, but as a nile 
the villagers recognise the value of evacuation and generally 
practise it. The epidemic is confined to the first four or five 
months of the year, though during the early part of the cold 
weather isolated mild cases occur among human beings, and a 
few rats die in places. 

Dysentery and bowel complaints are common diseases in 
the district, much more so than would appear from the statistics 
in the Appendix, and are responsible for a considerable number 


2 


Mainpuri Vistnct, 


Ldvels. 


of tho sea. The highest point in the district is only 139 feet 
above tho lowest. 

Levels aro extromcly important in a canal district like 
Mainpuri and ai*c constantly referred to by the Canal Engi- 
neers, who have tlioir own private beiicli-marks, generally 
tho mile- stones along tho main canals. ^Fho main bench- 
marks aro tho Grand Trigonometvi(‘al Survey bench-marks. 
The one at Ghiror at tho corner of tho (iliiror canal inspection 
house in tlio Etawah canal division is marked /527*29 above tho 
sea, and on the top of tho north-western wall of tho Ghiror Canal 
bridge is another such mark showing 5oi*23 feet. In tho llaragaon 
village in Mustafal'ad pargana is a third, showing 573*3 feet. 
At Mainpuri opposite tho entriinco of tlic jail two paces inside 
of tho LouJidary is a fourth with 5.1 1 feet. In the IMainpuri 
Canal division, Jiewar branch, tho bridges are used as bench-marks 
as a rule. The only Grand Trigonometrical Survey mark in this 
division is one at Siughpur on the Etawah road with 517*83 feet, 
situated near tho south-east corner of the canal chaiblci There 
aro no Grand Trigonometrical Survey bcncli-iiiarks on tho Bhog- 
nipui* or Aligarh branches, and only one in tho Cawiipore 
division, at Bainnagar, two paces from the south-east corner of the 
Tarha Canal chaiiki on tho Cawnporo branch ; height 494*31 feet. ' 
Tho East Indian Bail way has bench-marks at railway stations 
on tho Earrukhabad , branch with reduced levels as follows 
Shikohabad, on the well south of tho lino 1,300 feet from tho 
conti’o of tho Shikoluibad station towards Earrukhabad, 532*65 ; 
Araoii, on pillar 200 Let north of tho lino 100 feet on tho Shiko- 
habad sido of 1st span of G feet girder at the Shikohabad end of 
tho station yard, 518*16 ; Araoii, on parapet of culvert at the 
Earrukhabad end of tho station, 523*01 ; Kosma, centre of station, 
80 feet south, 517*41 ; Mainpuri, on boundary pillar to the north 
at the centre of tho station, 510*92; Mainpuri, on furlong post 
no. 2 to the south, 300 feet on the Shikohabad side of the bridge 
of 2 spans of 28 feet over the Sathni Ealippur drain, 510*64; 
Bhougaou, stone no. 8 to the south at tho Earrukhabad end of 
the station yard, 506*62 ; Mota, no. 7 mile post to tho north, 100 
feet beyond the girder of one span of 12 feet, 700 feet beyond 
the Earrukhabad end of the station yard; 504*52. 



General Features, 




of deaths every year. It is probable that much of the mortality 
which is really due to them is wrongly attributed to fever. 
Phthisis, tubercular diseases, and inflammatory diseases of the 
eye, especially that form known as granular eyelids, are not 
uncommon. 

Statistics of infirmities are collected at every census, but they 
are not of very much value, as it is almost impossible to check 
their accuracy, and the reporting agency is not of a character to 
inspire great confidence in its diagnosis of insanity. According 
to the census of lUOi, the total number of afflicted persons in 
the district was 1,758, only seven districts returning a smaller 
total. As usual everywhere but in Bundelkhand, the number of 
males sufiering from infirmities far exceeded that of females, the 
respective totals being 1,070 and (388. The discrepancy is 
probably due to concealment. Only 79 persons were reported 
insane, of whom GO were males. Lepers also were few in number, 
only 73 being returned, of whom all but 9 wore males. Deaf 
mutes numbered 2G1 and blind people 1,342, females in this case 
'more nearly approximating to the males and amounting to over 
43 per cent, of the whole. 


Infirm 

ities. 


Gene'i^al Featured, 


3 


Generally speaking the soils of the district are typical of those Soils, 
found elsewhere in the Iiido-Gangetic plain, and are classified on 
two principles according as the distinctions recognised arc natural 
or artificial. Both are well understood and commonly employed 
by the cultivator. Of the natural divisions hhur is the narao of 
the soil containing a largo proportion of sand, while matiyar is 
the name of that containing a large proportion of clay, and be- 
tween these t^vo extremes is a loamy soil called diimat having clay 
and sand more evenly divided as its name implies. A lighter soil 
than d'umat is known as coming between dumat and 

hhur. The distribution of tliose soils appears to bo connected 
with the rapidity of the drainage of surface water from the almost 
flat alluvial plain, for gaud is found wherever there is u river with 
a comparatively deep bed wdthin a few miles, and clay is common- 
est near swamps and other ill- defined drainage lines, and it is 
manifest that the liner particles of clay having a low inertia are 
washed out of the higher tracts into the depressions and deposited 
under favourable circumstances, but where the drainage is too 
fast to permit of their being deposited they are carried down. 

On the whole the district, lying as it does midway down the Duab, 
is typical of the Duab and contains an average proportion of 
the clay and sandy soils. The barren soil known as near is 
found at the heads and partly down the courses of the smaller 
rivers such as the Ahnaiya and Puraha, the Seiigar and Arind, 
and the numerous minor streams, and appears to bo a clayey 
deposit too compact to permit of cultivation and in places too 
impregnated with reh and other deleterious mineral substances to 
permit of the growth of even grass. 

Of the four natural soils excluding usav^ imtiyar is a stiff, JHatijfar, 
unyielding clay of a dark colour, shrinking and cracking in 
dry weather into a network of fissures, but expanding when 
moistened into a sticky clayey mass. It is usually found near 
usav and jkile and generally wherever water collects, having 
an immense capacity for absorbing and retaining moisture, of 
w^hich it can hold more than twice its own weight. If the rain- 
fall be either excessive or deficient matiyar can scarcely be 
cultivated at all, the plastic adhesive clay rolling back from the 
clogged plough into its old position in the one cose, while in 




I 


Cultivated 

area. 


CHAPTER II. 

Agricultuee and Commerce. 

The agricultural history of the district exhibits very 
marked fluctuations from period to period in the area under cul- 
tivation. At the settlement of 1876 the cultivated area was found 
to be 609,642 acres, no less than 94,746 acres in excess of the area 
recorded at the previous settlement. During the next thirty 
years, however, the district underwent somewhat violent vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, and in 1885-86 the area under the ’plough had 
sunk to 674,853 acres, a diminution of nearly 6 per cent, j l)y 
1890-1 it had further dwindled to 554,642 acres or nearly 9 per 



cent, loss ; while at the recent settlement it had risen to 590,435 
acres, or still 3 per cent, below the figures of the last settle^ 
ment. The present area, which represents 55*08 per cent, of the 
total area of the district, may probably be taken to be about the 
normal, that recorded at the last settlement having been 
attained only at the culmination of a long series oE favourable 
seasons, and never readied before or since. The remarkable 
variations in the period intervening between the two settlements 
are accounted for by a number of serious agricultural calamities 
and pests. Kans grass was rife in tlie northern bhur tract even 
at the last settlement, and a continuous spread of its growth was 
noticed in subsequent years till it finally culminated in a 
terrific outburst in the wet seasons between 1885 and 1890, 
reducing, in the latter year, the cultivated area in the bhur circles 
of Bhongaon and Mainpuri by over 30 per cent. The valuable 
alluvial tract of the Kali Nadi khadir had not had time fully to 
recover from damage and deterioration caused by floods, when, 
in 1885, it was devastated in overwhelming fashion by the; 
disastrous Nadrai aqueduct flood which tore along the valley in ? 
a broad, high wall of water, causing immense damage both to life 
and property. One effect of this flood was to damage part of 
this khadir more or less permanently by a deposit of sand, while i 


4 


Mainpiiri DistricU 


Bhur. 


Burnai 
and P»/ta. 


the other the surface^ of the temper and consistency of baked 
bricks^ defies the utmost efforts of the husbandman to break it 
up. In favourable circumstances mMiya/r will bear good crops 
of rice, and can be utilized for the rabi, but its worst quality, 
generally known as maiyar or Jcabar, is a miserable soil capable 
only of producing the poorest rice and a scanty crop of barley. 

The second natural soil is hhur, which is in all respects the 
opposite of matiyavj being loose and sandy, and quite incapable 
of retaining moisture. Both are extremes, the one is compact 
and hard, the other loose and yielding; the one hoards its 
moisture and manure miserly, the other spends is thriftlessly. 
Bhur can bo ploughed at all seasons with little labour and 
rapidly absorbs the rainfall, allowing it to drain to the subsoil 
beneath. Bibth is the name given to bhur where it runs 
in uneven ridges above the level of the surrounding country. In 
the sandy circles of pargana Kuraoli there is a peculiar soil 
resembling, but easily distinguished from, hlmT^ which is known 
as tikuriya. It is harder and redder than bJmr and though occur- 
ring oftenost in sandy tracts is also to ))o found with dumcnt. 
Its characteristic qualities are its power of absorbing a great 
quantity of water without injury to its productivity, and the 
rapidity with which it dries up. It has, on the other hand, the 
disadvantage of requiring more water, and where two waterings 
will suffice for bhur, three will bo required for duniat, and four 
for tikikriya. 

Neither hhv/r nor matiyar possess the characteristics of 
really good soils, and the maximum of productiveness is found 
in the soils which combine, in moderate proportions, the qualities 
of the two. These are the loams, dumat and pilia or pira, >vhich 
form the remaining two natural soil divisions. Durndt, as its 
name implies, comprises sand and clay in almost equal proportions, 
while in pilkt the sand somewhat predominates. Both insen- 
sibly merge into one another, but the worst dimat can always 
be readily distinguished from the best pilia* The former is 
generally of a rich brownish colour, adhesive without tenacity, 
friable without looseness, slippery and greasy when wet, and 
with a soapy feeling when dry, and cutting like a cheese when 
ploughed wet. The piln, as its name shows, is of a yellowidi 



Agriculture and Commerce, 37 


a series of abnormally wet years following kept the whole in the 
state of a reeking, useless morass. These wet years also caused 
much damage throughout the rest of the district by waterlogging, 
which was aggravated in parts of Shikoliabad and Mustafabad by 
the opening of the new llliognipur canal without the accompaniment 
of a proper contemporaneous system of drainage, thus giving rise 
to excessive subsurface percolation in the Uglit sandy soil of this 
tract. 

As has already been stated, the area of the district which is fit 
for but not under the plough amounts to 146,0G8 acres or 13*58 
per cent, of the whole. This shows, as might be expected, a material 
increase since the last settlement. But the proportion is not 
really a very high one, and in this respect the district will stand 
a comparison with its neighl)Our8. For the cuUurablc waste 
includes the land under groves and both old and now fallow as 
well as that wliich though capable of being cultivated has been 
left untouched. Both groves and now fallow should properly be 
deducted from the total, as the former can scarcely be classified 
as waste, and the latter is only temporarily out of cultivation 
owing to the necessary rotation of crops. The exclusion of the 
areas under these two heads reduces the total figure by nearly 
one-fouvth, and leaves 54,867 acres of waste land, and 54,549 
acres of old fallow. The agricultural history of the district 
shows that a certain amount of the latter might bo again brought 
into cultivation, but it is extremely doubtful whether any of the 
former, which is probably land of very poor quality, would repay 
the cost of tillage. 

The methods of cultivation employed in the district are the 
immemorial ones common to the provinces in general, and few 
or no improvements have been introduced among a peasantry 
that prefers the inherited experience of centuries to any novelty 
grounded on uncomprehended theories. The cultivator of Main- 
puri still uses the same simple plough, the same hoe, the same harrow 
as his ancestors. He prepares his ground in the same way, 
sows it as bis father did before him, with an equal indifference 
to the quality of the seed, and varies his crop from year to year 
in the order prescribed by an inflexible tradition. The recently 
founded Krishi Sabha (Agricultural Association) of Mainpuri 


Cultur- 

ablo 

Waste. 


Cultiva- 

tion. 


Omeral Featwres, 


S 


colour. A mixture of dmrnt and sand, found in Kuraoli, is 
there called milauna, and the red sand underlying the water- 
shed between the Isan and the Kali is known as Jeabsa. 

The artificial division of soils is based on their position 
in relation to the village site. The belt immediately surround- 
ing the village site, which is always well manured and highly 
cultivated, is known as gauhem or bara and pays the highest 
rent. The next strip, which shares to a less degree in the same 
advantages, is called manjlirty while the outlying lands are 
termed barha. 

Soils are further classified according to their position as 
hangar, or upland, and taraly the low-lying alluvial strip along 
the river valleys. In the Jamna ravine tract there is a further 
local subdivision into (1) the loparluir or land on the plateau 
level of the rest of the district, (2) the behar, or ravines proper, 
where are found some inferior soils known as jhori and danda; 
and (3) the kachkar and tir soils alongside the stream nnd the 
bfiagm or old bed of the river. 

The character and quality of the local drainage exercises, 
as mentioned above, a considerable influence upon the quality 
and distribution of these soils. The Isan, up to its junction 
with the Kaknadi, flows slowly in a shallow bed, but after that 
the bed deepens, the current grows stronger, and the volume 
increases. Similarly, the Sengar, up to its junction with the 
Senhar, is a sluggish stream ; but after receiving its tributary, 
it becomes a rapid river, flowing through a deep and well- 
defined bed. The Arind is always slow, shallow and winding, 
and the Sirsa varies very littlo in its course. Parallel to 
these rivers, and with the same direction, are the three great soil 
tracts ; the northern sand tract between the Isan and the Kali ; 
the central loam tract between the Isan and Kaknadi on the 
north, and the Sirsa on the south ; and the southern mixed tract 
between the Sirsa and the Jamna. 

From the thin strips of alluvial land forming the bed of the 
Kali, on the east of the district, the surface of the country rises 
rapidly to a line of barren sandy mounds and hollows. A 
strip of level country then intervenes for a short distance before 
the descent to the Isan is reached. The slope is gradual here, for 


The great 

soil 

traotg. 


Theiaady 

tract. 



38 


Mainpu/ri District 


Agrioul 

tural 

Opera- 

tions* 


has, however, begun to make headway with the aid of the Agri- 
cultural department towards improvements, particularly with 
regard to implements, water lifts, and selection of seed. The 
plough, called kal as cdsewhere, and the henga or harrow, are of 
the ordinary pattern, the former sometimes having attached to it 
the drill or httns. In swampy land a heavy roller called the 
patela or sohagu, generally made from a large log of khajur, is 
used for breaking up the clods. Wlicre tobvieeo is grown, a broom, 
made of cotton twigs, called ^ is employed to distribute 

the seed. Other common implements are the phaora or large 
hoe, the kudra, or |)ick, the khudarl, or adze, and the hasua, or 
sickle. 

The harvests are known by the ordinary names of kharif, ^ 
rabi, and z(fykL The last named consists chiefly of melons and 
the like grown on the sandy banks of the Isan in the vicinity of '■ 
the city of Mainpuri, but though the industry is a profitable one 
the figures l)ulk small, amounting to only one-half per cent, 
in the total. In the district as a whole the rnbi and khar%f 
crops are roughly e(iual, and seventeen per (^ent. of the total 
cultivated area is double-cropped. 

For the kkarij the land is usually ploughed throe or four 
times, and for the r((bi from ten to fifteen times. An average 
pair of bullocks will plough about one-half an acre in a day, and 
as a rule there are about 4 acres of rcfbly and 2 to 2 J acres of 
kharif\ witli one acre for dofasll crops, kept in cultivation by 
one plough. The kharif crops are known locally as sayari, 
rabi crops if unirrigated as sahiriya, and if irrigated as bharai, 
while the do fasti crops are called dosare. Rotation of crops is 
well understood and regularly employed. Arhar is sown with 
all kharif i^TO^s on good land, but nOt usually on sandy soil, as 
it is there easily injured by frost, and requires watering to save it. 
Cotton is sown before all the other kharif crops, except maize, 
which is usually sown before the rain falls. Caraway, chaina, 
marua and rice are supposed to exhaust a field ; bajra and juar 
also make it less productive, but it can be restored by manure. ' 
Barley does not spoil the soil for kharif crops, but wheat injures 
it and renders manure necessary. Sugarcane improves the land 
for wheat in the following year, but no kharif can be sown after 


6 


Mainpun District, 


The loam 
tract. 


tho bed of the Isan at a distance of from four to six miles from 
the watershed between tho rivers is at a higher level than the bed 
of the Kali Nadi at a distance of two to throe miles. The 
characteristics of this Kali-Isan duah are the preponderance of 
sand ill the soil, the scantiness of irrigation, and tho consequent 
difliculties in seasons of drought. But it is not uniform in 
appearance- or quality and contains much loam in the northern 
■ part. If a lino be drawn from Bhongaon to the edge of the 
district beyond Akbarpur Auncha, and another lino from' 
. Kuraoli to tho same point, iheso lines, with the Grand Trunk 
road as their base, enclose a triangular tract in which loam with 
jhils and dhak (BiUea frondosa) jungle continually appear. To 
the north-east of tho Grand Trunk road and between Kuraoli 
and Bhongaon there is a disti’nct band of loam, about two miles 
in breadth. The drifting sand runs in two ridges along the 
banks of the Kali and Isan, and continues along the Kaknadi 
from tho point of bifurcation at Gopalpur, These ridges gra- 
duaMy intermingle w’ith the plain between the river valleys, and 
as the distance between tho rivers iucroases tho character of 
tho soil improves. Thus, in tho centre and western portions of 
the small pargana of Bowar and tho portion of Bhongaon imme- 
diately to the soutli, where tho Kali and tho Isan approach one 
another more nearly than elsewhere, the sand ridges are exten- 
sive and tho level plain between them is restricted in area and 
light in soil. On the other hand, between Kuraoli and Bhon- 
gaon, where the distance between tho two rivers is doubled, the 
intervening level plain spreads out, and, as noted above, con- 
tains considerable patches of loam. 

The second or loam tract comprises the entire country 
between the Isan and tho Sengar, extending in many places across 
the Sengar to tho Sirsa. The country intersected by the A rind 
is of the same character. In tho south-east the transition from 
sand to loam is somewhat gradual, a little mixed soil being found 
where tho sandy belt along the Isan mingles with tho loam. With 
this exception and the appearance of tho mixed features of the'‘ 
southern tract along the upper course of the Sengar, there is 
little else besides loam and clay wdth tosar the concomitant of clay 
in this loamy tract, which comprises the southern halves of 



AgrieuUwe and Gomifnerce. 


39 


j it. The usual rotation is to growrffi6j. crops one year and kharif | 

the next year, but in gauhani land, the rich strip round the = 

I village site, maize, sown in Asarh, can bo followed by wheat or | 

barley in Kartik, and juar, sown at the end of Asarh, can bo | 

succeeded by barley in the if the land bo manured. Land | 

intended for cotton and maize requires from two to five plough - 
ings ; for juar and bajra from one to five ploughings. But as a 
rule the more the soil is pvdvt.'risod and mixed, the less expense 
there will be for weeding. Indeed, such are the advantages to j 

be derived from frequent ploughing, that if the soil bo ploughed 
for the kharif, in Phagun and Chait, no manure will bo necessary i 

except for sugarcane. The quantity of seed required varies 
considerably with the crop to be sown : half a aer of bajra . 

being sufficient to sow one kachcha bigha, while for the i 

same area ouo srr of juar, tiioth, rausa, urd, mung, chaina, 
kw'i and cotton are needed. If maize or indigo are to bo ! 

sown, 1 J to sera will be wanted ; if til, 1 chitak; if ear son or 
duan i aer ; if aan 4 aera ; and if potato, 60 to 80 sers. Jwar 
and bajra seed are sometimes merely scattered over the surface 
of the land and afterwards ploughed in. As a general rule, crops 
sown ill matiyar require four waterings; in first-class dumat, 
three ; in second class dumat, two ; in bhur, one or two ; and in 
pira or tikuriya, five. Wheat has to be watered from three to 
six times, according to the variety and the soil, and barley needs 
■i one watering less than wheat. Gram sometimes gets one water- 
ing in matiyar, but, as a rule, none is given. Between the time 
of sowing sugarcane and the rains, the crop requires from eight 
to ten waterings, and from one to three afterwards, according as 


the rains are late or early. 

Manure is highly prized, and is always used where procur- 
able. But, as usual, the cattle droppings, which ought to return 
to the land, are made up into the cakes called uplaa and used as 
fuel, owing to the scarcity of wood, and no means are employed 
to store manure of any kind so as to preserve its quality. Ashes, 
stable litter and refuse are all made use of to supplement the 
inadequate residue of cowdung, and the leaves of certain crops, 
such as hemp, cotton, indigo and tobacco afford a valuable leaf- 
manure sufficient, when ploughed in, to prepare the soil for aoy 



General Features. 


parganas Kishni-Naliigaiij and Bhongaon, tho whole of Karhal, 
the northern corner of Bariiahal, the whole of Ghiror, the greater 
part of Mainpnri, the southern corner of Kuraoli, tho whole of 
Mustafahad, and a great slice of tho northern portion of Shikoli- 
ahad. This central region stretches from east to west in one 
unbroken expanse of high cultivation or absolutely I'arren 
iisctr plains, and hears on its culturablo areas luxuriant crops 
under copious irrigation culminating in tho IMustafahad pargana, 
in which all advantages, natural and artificial, are found 
combined in a rcmarka])lo manner. From tlio junction of the 
Songar witli the 8onliar, lioweviir, tho firm loam yields to a light 
soil, which hero and there breaks out into sand ridges, cuts into 
the surrounding country widening as it goes on, until, on nearing 
tho Etawah frontier, tlio gradually narrowing tongue of loam and 
usar disappears, and merges into the southern tract. Tho central 
and northern portions of tho loamy tract an; cov<Tod with j/ulSf 
and there is a considorahlo amount of jungle in tho extreme 
south-west. Pargana Ghiror cspc(‘ially has great strclch(;s of 
usar which, in tho rains, hccomc sheets of wat(;r. Tho water 
deepens in pargana Karlial, forming jhlls and marshes, and 
further in the south-east of Bhongaon, Xishni-Xahiganj, and 
Karhal, there are groups ol jhlU many of wliich are always filled 
with water. It is hero that tho largo dhah jungles are found. 
The entire tract is singularly fr(;o from sand. In Mustafahad, 
however, one lino of sand runs almost due north and south and 
can easily be traced from the borders of tho Firozahad pargana 
through Mustafabacl and Shikohabad until it merges in the Jamna 
ravines. It is considerably above the level of tho surrounding 
country, rises rather abruptly from it, and tho line of demarca- 
tion between its soil and tho loam on cither side is clearly 
marked. It appears to have no connection with tho country 
through which it passes, differing in this respect from the sand 
ridges on tho Kali and Isan wliich grtwlually merge into the 
adjoining loam. A similar though smaller ridge adjoins it on the 
east. The soil to tho north of Shikohabad resembles that of Mus- 
tafabad, and stiff loam and large ^isar plains abound. High 
hliwr tracts occur especially in belts running .parallel to the 
Sengar and near its banks, and there the soil is poor and ita 




Mainpuri District, 


MM 

crops. 

Wheats 


crop bui; sugarcane. Nuna matti, a kind of clay saturated 
with ammonia and phosphates procured from village sites, is 
spread upon the land along with ordinary manure for both 
tobacco and caraway. The quantity of manure which experience 
has shown to be really requisite is considerable, and very 
much in excess of the possible supply from the scanty resources 
of the village. For the majority of crops, not less than 
a ton is needed to the hichcha higha, while for sugarcane the 
minimum is half as much again. The only portion of the 
village lauds that is over at all sufficiently manured is the narrow 
bolt which immediately encircles the inhal)ited site. A prejudice 
still prevails against the employment of the night soil from the 
large towns, and there is only a small demand for it among the 
Kachhis and Lodhas for use in the suburban melon beds and 
vegetable gardens. 

Statistics of the principal crops grown in each tahsil will bo 
found in the a])pendix. A remarkable feature of the crop history 
of the district during the last thirty years has boon the groat 
development of the system of double cropping and mixed cro])- 
ping. The former is no doubt largely due to the influence of 
the canals and the latter may be a sign of inferior cultivation. 
The area from which two crops were taken in the year was, at 
the last settlement, 7 per cent, of the whole. It is now 17 per 
cent. Formerly cotton, jioar and hajra wore almost univer- 
sally grown by themselves. Now they are scarcely grown at 
all except in conjunction with arhar. The presence of a largo 
proportion of the leguminous nitrogen-producing crops in both 
the hharif rahi counteracts the exhausting of the soil due to 
cereals and millets and the double or oven treble cropping M’hich 
an increasing number of fields are now called upon to bear. 
The outturn of the principal crops per acre as shown by 
crop-cutting experiments is as follows: — Wheat 11^ maunds, 
barley 18f maunds, gram 5 maunds, sugarcane 35J maunds. 
The figure for gram is slightly below and of sugarcane slightly 
above the normal of the district. 

The principal rabi crop is wheat, comprising when sowi^ 
alone and in combination with other crops more than half the 
total rabi area. By itself it occupies an average area of 112,231 


Ma^'pwri BUtfid* 


surface is often uneven and broken with ravines. The prevailing 
characteristic soil is, however, a light but rich yellow loam form- 
ing a kind of mean between pure loam and sand. It is much 
superior to sand and but little inferior to natural loam. 

South of the central tract lies the tract of mixed soils 
situated between the Sirsa and the Jamna which comprises a 
mixture of sand and loam in a proportion not found elsewhere. 
The southern portion of this tract is distinguished from the 
northern by a firmer and more fertile soil and a greater uni- 
formity in the surface. It is again distinguished from the central 
tract by a greater admixture of sand, a smaller proportion of 
well irrigation^ a loss high class of cultivation, and the absence 
of uBOr and marsh. As the Sirsa is approached from the north, 
VtSar almost entirely disappear» and a uniform plain of high 
cultivation is reached. About two miles to the south of the 
Sirsa the land becomes less fertile, %imr is unknown, and there 
are few ;Ms of any size. Close to the town of Shikohabad the soil 
is the finest loam of a light colour (pira), more friable and 
easily worked than the loam proper, and very fertile. Water is 
found at from 25 to 45 feet from the surface, and the substratum 
is firm and the spring habitually reached. To the south of the 
Sirsa the •pira tract is lighter, irrigation grows scanty, the water 
level sinks rapidly until the Jamna ravine division is met, where 
it is found at from 80 to 100 feet below the surface. Here, owing 
to the depth of the water-level, the broken nature of the surface 
and the gritty character of the soil, cultivation is sparse and 
irrigation almost impossible. To the south of the ravines, on 
the banks of the river, is found the valuable alluvial soil known 
as kachhnry and a similarly fertile strip running through the 
ravines of Orawar is known as hhagna. 

On the whole therefore the soil of the district is good with a 
predominance of loam. With the loam there is intermixed, as 
usual, a great proportion of usavy but being absolutely barren 
it does not tempt any one to eke out a precarious livelihood, while 
it is useful as grazing ground. The sandy tracts which stretch 
from the Ganges westwards over the neighbouring districts of 
Etah and Farrukhabad run only a short way into this district, 
and on the other hand it is separated, for the most part, from the 




AgricvltVire and Commerce, 


41 


I 






i 


acres, and in combination with barley and gram 167,233 acres. 
The proportion is remarkably constant throughout the district, 
the percentage of land sown with wheat and mixed wheat, barley 
and gram, to the total rabi area being, in the Mainpuri tahsil, 
74 per eent., in Bhongaon, 79 per cent., in Shikohabad, 83 per 
cent., in Mustafabad, 72 percent., and in Karhal / 7 per cent. 
Several well-established varieties of wheat are grown in the 
district, but as a rule they arc all grown together iiidiscrimi- 
natoly in the same field, no attempt to sort the seed being made 
either by the bania who advances it or the cultivator who 
sows it. The most important arc swt mariya, a reddish grain 
without awns ; stt'fc reddish but awned; snfed mai iyn, 

white and awuloss; safed tikniri, white and awiied; and the 
awned and awnless varieties of httiya or red wheat proper and 
samhariya. The first two have a white grain ; they require 
three waterings, yield most produee, and sell at about one nfr 
to the rupee higher than the others. Similar to these and next 
in value come the second two; the safed mariya in particular 
gives a largo return, but requires plenty of water (four or five 
waterings) and is chiefly grown by Lodhas and Kachhis. The 
httiya is the hardiest of all and the most productive, but is only 
third in value, and both the grain and the flour are of a reddish 
colour. The grain of the samhariya is longer than that of 
the ordinary wheat, and is more common in Bah Banahat, on the 
right bank of the Jamna. Next to wheat in importaneo in tl.o 
rabi programme comes barley, a considerable amount of which is 
grown alone in addition to that which is sown along with wheat, 
gram and other crops. At the recent settlement, in the year of 
verification, 36,171 acres were found to bo under barley, nearly 
6,000 acres in excess of the previous five years’ average. Of 
this area 12,307 acres were situated in the Mustafabad tahsil, 
where barley sown alone formed 20 per cent, of the total crop. 
The next highest percentage was in Mainpuri, where 11 ixir cent, 
of the tahsil was occupied by barley. In the others the 
percentage was just under or just over 8 per cent. The cul- 
tivation of the poppy made until recently very great strides 
in Mainpuri, the area under this plant having increased 
from 2,091 acres in 1376 to 27,369 acres in 1906, though for 


General Feaiwfee. 


9 


broad belt of sand which runs along the Jamna further west. 
Moreover, throughout the district irrigation from wells or canals 
is easily obtainable and tolerably certain. 

The Jamna, which flows along the south-western boundary 
of the district, is its largest and at the same time its most 
interesting river. Its course is in a general direction 
towards the south-east, a distance of 18 miles in a straight line, 
but with its bonds the river covers 43 miles : in fact its course hero 
and further west over the Agra border is much more winding 
than that of any other largo river in the provinces. Compared 
with the country further down its course, that through which 
it flows here is soft and sandy and liable to erosion, from which 
cause no doubt has arisen its sinuosity. Having established, 
however, a winding channel, and thereby reduced its own 
velocity, it tends to remain permanently in its course, and 
sudden changes, moreover, are hindered by its depth below the 
general alluvial plateau on either side. Still &uch changes are 
possible, and have actually taken place at at least three points, and 
bends of the river have been cut off and loft silted and dry. Of 
these diversions the most important is that at Orawar and 
Punchha, 9 miles in length ; anotlior is in Pariyar, 4 miles in 
length ; and the third, in the Agra district, between Batesar and 
Narangi Bah, is about three miles long. Close to Harha there is a 
loop of the river 9 miles in length comprising three villages in 
the Mainpuri district, which are doomed to lie cut off sooner or 
later, when the river has worn through the narrow neck of land 
connecting them with the left bank. The neck of land contains 
only 100 yards of high ground with a maximum height of 20 
feet above the high flood level, and any extraordinary flood 
would precipitate matters. Should this occur the town of Batesar 
lying at the bottom of the loop with its bathing ghats and temples 
would be left at least three miles from the river. A similar bend 
on the right bank near the village of Dandauli would transfer a 
large area to the Mainpuri side should the river break through at 
its narrowest point. Apart from its winding nature the bed of the 
Jamna at this point has sunk much lower below the surface of 
the alluvial plain than the Ganges, one reason no doubt being 
its longer course from its debouchment from the bills to its 


Biyen. 

The 

JamnSb 


42 


Mainpiiri. District. 


1907 and 1908 the figures were 19,965 and 14,750, respectively, 
showing the effect of high pri<;es of wheat comj_%eting to the 
detriment of i\w. poppy area. This enormous rise is duo to 
the ('anals, which supply the plentiful Mater required for the 
successiiil culture of the plant. Gram is not grown to a very 
large extent hy itself, only accounting for 11,325 acres, a figure 
differing hut little from that at M^hich it stood at the former 
settlement. To))a(*(*o and potatoes, Mdiich at the last settlement 
covered only 73 acres, noM^ occupy 2,250, a thirty-fold increase; 
and other garden crops have risen from 533 to 2,836 acres. 
There is a growing demand for potatoes and cauliflowers, the 
fashio]! having sj)read from Farrukhabad. Mustard, rape, peas 
and the other usual minor rcthi crops are not groMui by them- 
S(4ves and for them no separate statisti(;8 arc available. 

l>y far the largest part of the lcli(f/rlf harvest consists of 
jibicr and hifjra^ groM ii primdpally together and in combination 
with arhdr, in the year of verification no less than 151,042 
acres out ol the kinfri f total of 347,552 acres M’ere found to be 
under this mixed crop, while 15,384 and 22,204 acres of th(j 
remaindm* Mere taken uj) by Inijra and ju(f}\ resp(jctively, grown 
by themselves. The iiu'reased popularity of the practice of 
mixed cropping has already l)een commented on, and in this 
connection the figures of the last settlement are of great interest, 
for th(‘y ]>rove that the area somui with this combination of 
grains lias lieen multiplied nearly a hundred-fold in the last 
thirty years, though the total area under baj'^'ct and juar has 
diminished by nearly 9,000 acres. With the exception of 
Shikohabad, M’here 66 per cent, of the khdrif area is taken up 
by these millets, either singly or along with arfiar, there is little 
variation in 'the prujiortion throughout the district, all the other 
tahsils showing a percentage of rather over 50 per cent. The 
crop next in importan(*e to the millets, both as a food staple 
and in regard to the quantity produced, is maize, and the extent 
to which its cultivation has increased of late years is, in this 
as in so many other districts, one of the most notable features 
of agricultural history. It noM" covers 60,048 acres as against 
16,448 acres at the last settlement. Cotton is another crop 
which illustrates the present tendency to combine crops instead 


10 


Mainp^ri DistrioL 


confluence with tlio Ganges. Having on this account a lesser 
gradient than the Ganges, it follows that its greatest depth below 
the Ganges must be at a point about midway between Allahabad 
and the Siwaliks, ])rovided that the gradient is uniform and the 
level of ('ach at the Siwaliks is about the same. The Jamna, too, 
differs from the Ganges in that its volume is fed by the sudden 
floods of tlio Central Indian rivers, and these must have scoured 
out its bed deeply. Tlio lianks rise in some ]>laces abruptly to a 
height of eighty or a hundred feet, leaving at their base barely 
room for a narro^v In-okon footway above the stream, and 
again in other places they rise gradually upwards and leave 
room for fertile expanses half a mile or more in width of 
alluvial land, known as hfchhar, and occasional lieds of 
sand. The h ichhar land is submerged only at times of excep- 
tional floods, but produces luxuriant crops without irrigation. 
From the top of the bank the ravines stretch from a quarter 
of a mile to a mile inland. They are almost entirely void 
of cultivation, but afford good jiasturago to cattle, U'hich 
are kept in groat numiiors by the tribe of Phaiak Ahirs, who 
settled hero some c;3nturio3 ago. Hlmilar to the havlihar hut of 
greater fertility is the old river bed called hharjna winding 
through the ravines of Piinehlia, Orawar and Orawar Manrua. 
Its name, peculiar conformation and local traditions, all point 
to its having been at some very remote period the bed of the 
Jamna. It joins the river at both end-? ; is about the same 
breadth as the existing bed with its h'lchhar, and is similarly 
bounded on l)oth sides by precipitous ravines. Some years ago 
a cultivator while sinking a well found the remains of a boat in 
a fair state of preservation imbedded in tlio hhagna many feet 
below the surface; a strong proof of the correctness of the 
commonly accepted theory of the origin of this peculiar physical 
feature. AV’’olls are made at the edge of the hhagna^ as in the true 
Jamna valley, (dose to the high cliffs of the plateau, but irriga- 
tion is scarcely needed even in dry seasons. The western branch 
of the hhagna has deteriorated considerably from the erosion of 
the small torrent called the Nandia; former owners of the 
village of Puuchha hod erected masonry embankments to 
prevent the scour of this tributary of the J^mna and the remains 




Agricvltwe and Commerce. 


43 


I 

f 


of sowing them separately. Thirty years ago only 748 acres 
were planted with cotton and a,har together, 'rhis^crop now 
covers 36,153 acres. On tlic other hand, only 11,056 acre,s of 
cotton by itself arc now recorded in lieu of a former 48,241 
acres. The total area iindcu- cotton thus e.\liil)its a slight 
falling off. but this Would appear to be only temporary, and in 
the opinion of the settlement officer '• all other indications are 
that the cotton area will expand in this district.” Arhar, 
whicli is so largely grown in comlanation wilh the millets 
and cotton, is rarely or never found alone. 'I'he remaining 
Icharif croiis are rice, sugarcane, indigo and some garden 
and other miscellaneous crops. The rice-growing area in tlie 
district is not a largo one, lint the low-lying (i,.sor day soils 
provide a fairly constant average of some 20.0(10 to 25,000 acres 
of this crop, consisting chidly of the early varieties. Sugarcane 
was never an important crop in this dist rict,, and its area has 
lioen steadily diminishing, until it now stands at only 8,212 
acres, or less than lialf ivhat it, was at, the former sett, lenient. 
(,’uriously enough, this decrease in popularity has coindded with 
iniiiroved methods of sugar extraction, and the siilistitut ion of 
the modern iron press tor the old sUme one. Indigo lias also 
a])pre(na])ly decreased in area and is praclieally dcdiiiKd, only 
about 500 to 1,000 acres l.eing now grown, though during the. 
past settlement period there was at one time a great impetus 
o'iven to the cultivation of the plant, nearly every other village 
Lving set up its little factory, turning out some 50 to 100 
maunds of the dye. But the decline of indigo in recent years 
has left the countryside dotted with the vats and limldings now 
crumbling to decay, the gloomy memorials of a ruined industry 
and spent capital. 'I'he stoppage of the supply of the indigo 
manure has already been felt, and will continue to be a serious 
loss • but on the other hand the numerous good wells Imilt for the 
factories remain as an appreciable gain. Garden crops, which 
once covered over 8,000 acres, have now shrunk to little over 2,000. 
The other miscellaneous kharif products are not of sufficient 
individual importance to call for separate mention. 

The zaid harvest is insignificant in area, representing only 
one half per cent, in the total. It consists almost entirely of 


Zaid 

harYOBt* 


General Featiires* 


11 


of two structures are to bo seen at its mouth, where the Naridia 
curiously enough has cut its way to the Jamna through a cliff 
on the western side of the hhagm. The hhagna at Pariyar is 
only four miles in length of loss fertility and of obviously older 
formation. On account of its high banks and sluggish current 
the changes in the river are neither so great nor so frequent as 
in the Muttra district further north, and gain or loss from 
alluvion or diluvion arc of small importance. -Pelow the hichhar 
land is the river bed soil or tir in whi(‘h as soon as the rainy 
season floods subside the plough is run and the seed sown with- 
out the labour of irrigation or preliminary cultivation so needed 
elsewhere. Tho river is fordable^ at a few places in the cold and 
dry seasons, especially when tho canals aro absorliing tho rivm* 
water higher up and tho year has boon one of scanty rainfall. 
There are ferries at prawar Manrua, Pajpiir Ilalai, Para Pagh, 
Patesar, Pikrampur and Parna, all except tho first being con- 
trolled by the Agra District Poard. At Narangi Pah on tho 
road to Patesar tho river contra(*ts to a width of about 150 feet 
in the cold weather, running swiftly in a narrow deep channel of 
kankar and here is located a temporary pontoon bridge replaced 
by a ferry in the rainy season. The site of the pontoon bridge 
is an ideal one for a more perraanont structure. About a mile 
from Narangi Pah on the Agra side of tho river in the old bed 
begins the ground where tho annual horso and cattle 
fair is held in connection with the full moon bathing festival 
of the month of Kartik (November) at Patesar. The town of 
Patesar itself is throe miles from Narangi Pah facing the Jamna 
at the other end of its old bed opposite the village of Phar Tar 
on the Mainpuri shore. Except Patesar there are no important 
places along the river and jiavigation and trade aro practically 
nil. 

There are no actual tributaries of the Jamna, but two ravine 
torrents, the Nandi a mentioned above and the Patsui nala, flow 
into it in this district. ^J'he Naiidia before it cuts through the 
hhagna near Punchha village drains a large area and forms a 
separate system of ravines reaching for miles into the district. The 
Nandia assumes a definite bed at Rudau, 5 miles to the south 
of Shikohabad. but its draina 2 re extends almost as far as the 




44 


Mainpuri district. 





melons and similar products grown on the sandy tarai banks 
of tlie Isan Nadi, in the vicinity of the city of Mainpuri. 

Irrigation. Mainpuri is exceptionally well irrigated from all sources — 

canals, wells, jhilSj and the rivers. The last named are not of 
much direct use for irrigation, but their khadir or tarai , the 
lowlying ground along the sides of the main stream which is 
overflowed during the rains, needs, as a rule, no further watering 
to enable it to prodiKie good crops. At the recent settlement, in 
the year of record, it was found that of the cultivated area of 
590,435 acres no less than 497,411 acres or 84 per cent, com- 
manded irrigation from one source or another. The latter 
iiguro was deduced, village by village and field by field, from 
the actually irrigated areas of the more seasonally normal years 
preceding the record year, so that this aggregate area may be 
taken as a reasonably correct estimate of the normal irrigable 
area at the present time. The actual area found necessary to be 
irrigated in dry years, however, comes to about §rd.s of that figure, 
but in any case slightly exceeds half the cultivated area. The 
parganas with largest percentages of actual irrigation are Karhal 
70 per cent, and Ghiror 03 per cent., while the lowest percentages 
are liewar 42 per cent., Kishni 44 per cent., and Shikohabad 46 
per cent. An examination of the detailed figures will show that 
of this total, 183,577 acres or 37 per cent, of the total irrigation 
are supplied from the canals, 274,530 acres or 55 per cent, from 
wells, and only 39,304 acres or 8 per cent, from other sources, 
i.e. the jhils and rivers. Even the 93,024 acres returned as 
unirrigated cannot all bo considered totally dry, as this figure 
includes a number of plots in lowlying tarai areas, in the jhils 
and river beds, such as the Dhayiia of pargana Shikohabad, the 
soil of which ordinarily retains sufficient moisture to carry it 
through the whole rahi season without further artificial irriga- 
tion. The totally dry area, therefore, does not exceed 8,600 
acres at the outside. The improvement during the last settle- 
ment period has been very remarkable. The actual increase in 
irrigable area amounts to some 40,000 acres or 12 per cent, on 
the former irrigable areas. But this is no measure of the increase 
in the stability and assuredness of the irrigation. Thus, the 
canal supply which, unlike that of the wells, is independent of 


12 


Ma/inpun Distfid. 


The Kali 
Nadi. 


railway lino west of Shikohabad, and includes that of the Aonri 
and Dundiamai cuts. The Patsui nala^ so called in canal 
department phraseology, starts in mauza Rhandri near Patsui^ 
south of the canal between Shikohabad and Sirsaganj, and flows 
as an artificial drainage line to mauza Galpura near Bhadan, 
where it meot^ the Juhmai, Ujrai, Alampur, and Nagla Tal 
drainage cuts. Here those fall into a natural ravine running 
south of Bhadan into mauza Mai where the ravines terminate in 
the Jamna. Both these ravines are causes of serious erosion to 
the alluvial plateau on either side of them and schemes for con- 
trolling them are in hand. Not only these l)ut the minor Jamna 
ravines also are gradually and irresistibly encroaching on the 
level plateau and furnish an engineering problem of some 
importance. 

The Kali Nadi forms the north-eastern boundary of the 
district, separating it from Etah and Farrukhal ad. It is a 
narrow stream, but perennial, and even during the spring and 
summer months is only fordable at certain places. There is a 
bridge of five 48 feet spans on the Farrukhabad road near tho 
village of Sakat Be war and the railway to Farrukhabad crosses 
it at Dayaiiatnagar Mota by a bridge of ten spans of 70 feet ; 
elsewhere it is crossed only by ferries at Allupura, Hannu Khera, 
Bhanau, Hajghat (controlled by the Mainpuri District Board), 
Dobinagar and Partabpur in the Etah district, and Itupnagar 
in Farrukhabad. Even in the rains the current is not strong 
and tho river bed shifts but little. It runs through a belt of low 
alluvial soil which is bounded on either side by high steep blufis 
of sand. Sometimes tho river keeps a middle course between 
these sand ranges, but oftencr keeps close to one of them, throw- 
ing tho whole of the kJuidir to the other side. This alluvial land 
often extends to a widch of half a mile, and, owing to the height 
of the banks, was not formerly subject to annual inundations 
except near Jamlapur, to the north of pargana Kuraoli. Of late 
years, however, considerable flooding has taken place from the 
use of the river as a canal escape. The steep character of the 
banks in many places precludes tho possibility of any benefit 
being derived from tho river, either as a depositor of alluvial 
soil or as a source of irrigation, during its course through 



Agriovlture and Commerce, 


46 


1 


the local rainfall, has more than doubled itself, increasing by 
91,896 acres. In other words, the thirty years have seen some 
16 to 16 per cent, more of the whole cultivated area taken under 
the stable canal irrigation. At the same time, the number of 
wells, both whole and part masonry, has increased from 7,972 
to 13,064, a largo increase of 6,092, and of these 13,064 now 
existing, 7,270 (3,313 whole and 3,957 lialf masonry) are newly 
built sinco the last settlement. These new wells represent an 
investment of at least 6 lakhs of rupees sunk in the land for 
agricultural purposes, and at any rate iiulicato a fairly comfort- 
able surplus of means among the villagers. A noteworthy index 
of the security and prosperity r.'sulting from tho oxtonsiou of 
canal irrigation is to be found in ])argana Eewar and the north 
of pargaiias Kislini and Bhongaon, whore tho population was 
► formerly thinnest and the losses most severe in periods of 
' depression. In this tract, sinco tho opening of the new Bowar 
canal, the population has increased by 22 per cent, and 551 now 
village sites have sprung into (jxistenec. Ihe district as a whole 
is now adequately protect(;d by irrigation, as the history of 
recent famine years will prove ; l)ut there are still some tracts 
mentioned above in the paragraph on precarious tracts, to which 
the canals do not penetrate, and whore, for one reason ora,nother, 
tho well suiiply is unsatisfactory. Tho percentage of irrigation 
to cultivation is naturally highest in the best portion of the 
' canal tract, whore it rises as high as 94 per cent. On the other 
hand, in the Jamiia ravine tract the percentage is still only34i)er 
cent., while, except in just a few of tho more fortunately situated, in 
tho villages along the Kali Nadi the proportion of wot to total 
cultivation does not exceed 47 per cent. The rest of the central 
loam division and the Sirsa Nadi portion of tho southern traef 
have 90 per cent, of their cultivated areas commanded by irriga- 
tion; the better villages of tho northern bhur tract, which are 
now commanded by the Bewar canal, have 86 per cent, of their 
^ ( areas irrigated (nearly all from tho canal), while the inferior bhur 
portions of both the northern and southern bhur tracts have some 
69 and 70 per cent, irrigable. 

But while the canal irrigation is of immense value to the 
district, it has apparently assisted the spread of reh. It would, 


) 



\jiemrab jemwes. 


10 


Kuraoli, but further east the khadir becomes more uniform, and 
from its inherent moisture requires little irrigation. It is in its 
glory in bad seasons when the rains have been very light ; when 
the rainfall is above the average, the soil becomes water-logged, 
reh is thrown to the surface, and the seed germinates but sparsely. 

Water is found close to the surface all over tho khadir y often at a 
depth of only a few inches, and where wells arc needed they can 
be dug in a good firm soil. Latterly during years of drought 
chain pumps have been found useful, and in places canal water 
finds its way into the taraL The Nadrai Aqueduct flood of 1886, 
which is mentioned in Chapter II, caused immense damage to 
the land and houses of the khadir and swept away the bridge 
near Sakat Bewar. 

Next to the Kali comes the Tsaii, which is here a consider- The Isan. 
able stream, fordable only in a few places in the rains. But 
during the remainder of the year the volume of running water 
is small, and in years of unusual drought there is no apparent 
stream, but the pools that remain are fed l)y springs. It is 
bridged in five places : twice close to the civil station of 
Maiiipuri, at the llobi temple on the Mainpuri-Kuraoli road, 
close to Mainpuri, at Madhan on the Ghiror and Kuraoli road 
and at Eusmara on the Etawah and Farrukhabad road. Luring 
the first part of its course, and to within four miles of its 
junction with the Kak Nadi about three miles north-west of 
Mainpuri, it runs through a loam and U8ar country, has a 
comparatively shallow bed, and often overflows the neighbouring 
lands in time of flood. Here it has a considerable expanse of 
lowlying alluvial land of tolerably good character along its 
banks, but during the dry season the water is too scanty and 
uncertain to admit of its being used for irrigation. Beyond this 
point the character of the stream and the aspect of the country 
through which it flows change completely. The bed becomes deeper, 
the banks more steep, and the current stronger, while the area of 
inundation is considerably confined. Instead of near, high 
banks of white and undulating sand appear, and the soil for a 
long distance on either side is light and mixed with sand. Not 
only is the area of alluvial land very much smaller, but the deposit 
left by the river has a larger proportion of sand in it and. is not 



46 


Mainpuri District* 


of course, boa palpable error to attribute what reli there now is 
affecting the cultivated area wholly to the canals. In the first place, 
the jNlainjmri cultivator is uotexa(*tly ])rone to economy in the use 
of canal water. There has recently Ix'cii a steady substitution of 
a lift for the direct flow ’’ supply. But where the supply is by 
flow the cultivator’s method of applying water to his field is often 
to open out all the channels overnight and to go to bed, leaving 
them running. It matters nothing to him that by the morning 
besides Ids own field, many surrounding plots, which did not 
want the watia*, are unnecessarily swamped. Secondly, the 
distri(*t suffered much between 188/5 and 1891 from abnor- 
mally heavy rainfalls, and large tracts remained for several years 
water-logged. Nevertheless, the provision of an easy and phuiti- 
fill supply of canal water has assisted the formation of reh in 
fields still unaffected, ^tiid there ari' now in the canal-irrigated 
portions of the district some hi villages in pargana Shikohabad 
and 25 in tahsil Karhal in whicli the ])henomenon is very 
apparent, and there are some others along the canals in tahsils 
Mustafabad, Mainj>uri and Bhongaon, but the Sengar Sirsa and 
Kali Isan Duabs an^ free from reh. The Bhognipur branch 
again has not been an unmixed lilessing to the Sirsa Nadi tract 
of ])argana Shikohaiiad. Apart from th(‘ deterioration, includ- 
ing damage to house property (for which the necessary relief was 
given at thii time), which this canal caused to the villages in its 
vicinity owing to the absence of a proper contemporaneous 
system of drainage, the canal has caused a more or less permanent 
excess of dampness in the soil of the villages along it and a 
tendency to ixh. and has in others effectively impaired if not 
destroyed the previous excellent well capacity. Further, as a 
subsequent effect of the development of the drainage systems, 
the larger volumes of Hood and surplus waters now sent along the 
former natural rain channels of tlie ravines have caused the loss 
of some valuable alluvial soils, hhagna and kachhar, of the 
villages along the Jamna. 

Another unsatisfactory feature of the canal system that has 
come into evidence in late years of scanty rainfall is the short 
supply of canal water due to the low state of the Ganges, and the 
consequent diversion of the canal supply to the less favoured 


Tho Arind 
or Bind. 


14 


Mainpuhri District* 


so highly prized, except close to Mainpuri and some of tho larger 
villages on its bank where a near market makes it valuable for 
growing melons and hot-weather vegetables. There are a few 
places where the Isan spreads out for several hundred yards, and 
a few where deep pools exist all the year round. In favourable 
seasons it is fordable during tho rains ; but as a rule bamboo rafts, 
supported on earthen vessels, are used for crossing. From 
Mainpuri downwards the river is a good deal used for irriga- 
tion, though the sandy ridges along its banks often prove an 
insurmountable obstacle, and occasionally earthen emijankmeijts 
arc constructed at LFnchlia Islamabad near the Farrukliabad 
border and another is regularly constructed every year just 
beyond tho border. 

Tho Arind (or Kind as it is' called further down its course) 
is a very insignificant stream m this district, whi(;li it enters to the 
north of pargana Mustafabad, between the Ktawah and Cawnpore 
branches of tho (langes Canal, and traverses in an exceedingly 
sinuous course from tho extreme north-west to tho extreme south- 
east corner. A straight line from its point of entry to its point 
of exit is almost tho longest which could be drawn on tho district 
map. In seasons of ordinary rainfall it dries up after the rains, 
and very often througliout the first half of its course its bed even 
is cultivated with vahi crops. Of late years its use as a canal 
escape has compelled the cultivators to abandon this practice to a 
great extent, but tho benefit which the adjoining lands derive 
from tho water more than compensates for the small area thus 
rendered unfit for cultivation. Temporary earthen embank- 
ments are constructed, as in tho Isan, but to a greater extent, 
Tho Arind is said to be fordable everywhere during the rains, 
but in times of very high flood it can only be crossed in certain 
places. It presents a striking contrast to the Kali and Isan. 
It has a singularly winding course, following every slight 
depression in tho surface of the country, and sometimes return- 
ing on itself. In tho Ghiror pargana, for instance, it was 
found by actual measurement that its course was close upon 
three times as long as a straight line between the two extreme 
points. The stream is therefore even jn the height of the rains a 
slufif&rish one. the bed shallow and little below^the level of the 



Agriculture and Oomnierce. 


47 




■> 




districts lower down the Duab. The proposed Sarda feeder, 
however, should remedy this deficiency and lead to desirable 
extensions of channels to villages hitherto not reached by the 
eanal and devoid of an efficient well supply. This partial 
failure of 'the canal (ioupled with a run of dry seasons has 
encouraged the making of wells, and it is hoped that the district 
will be able to absorb annually about one lakh of rupees of 
(iovornment loans that are forthcoming for this purpose. 
AVith all its defects, however, canal water is on the whole more m 
demand than well water, and its supply must be very unc.u-tain 

for it to be ousted l)y the latter. 

The original (iangos ( ’anal, opened in 18.71, traversed Main- 
puri with the Cawnpore and Ktawah brainlies, both of thoTU follow- 
ing the same lines as at present. 'I'ho amount of irrigationnbtain- 
alde from the canal was limited, and in ISIKi a committee was 
appointed by the (lovernment of India to consider the question 
of its remodelling and the supplementing of its supply by a new 
eanal taken out of the Gang. s at a Iow.t point. The committee 
reported in favour of the proposal but suggested the postpone- 
ment of any action till the valu.'S of water for irrigation should 
have risen. The failure of the rains in ISGli, however, 
emphasized the necessity for immediate action, and in 18(5'.) preli- 
minary survey operations \ver<^ commenced with a view to the 
selection of a site for the weir and the location of the mam lino 
of the proposed canal in connection with the existing Cawnpore 
and Etawah branches of the Ganges Canal. detailed survey 
in the following year clearly indicated Marora, a village about 
oO miles to the north-east of Aligarh, as the best available site 
for the weir, and in 1870 a detailed project for the I.ower Ganges 
Canal was prepared. This project proposed to make the mam 
canal from Narora to Allahabad, feeding the Cawnpore and 
lOtawah branches by a supply channel and crossing the former 
at the 115th mile of its course at Tarha, and to make a new 
Bhognipur branch, taking out of the Etawah branch just beyond 
the boundary of the Mainpuri district. Work was began in 
1872, but in 1877 the Local Government submitted a revised 
project, abandoning the proposal to carry the main canal to 
Allahabad, and substituting for it the Bewar branch, to follow 


Canals. 


General Features, 


15 


surrounding country. Ilenco its floods spread wide and form a 
broad sheet of lazily moving water which, on subsiding, fertilizes 
the country over which it has passed with a rich alluvial deposit, 
very different from the frecpiently sandy and gritty deposit of the 
Isan. IMorcover, the whole country traversed by the Rind is 
exceptionally free from sainly soil. It Hows through that part 
of the district in whicli wir loam and clay are the constituent 
soils, and the bhibr ranges of the Kali Nadi and Isan are no- 
where met with along its bank. Near its point of departure from 
the district, in the Kishiii pargaua, a remarkable change comes 
over the stream; its bed becomes deeper and siraighter, its 
current more rapid, its deposit less fertile and its inundation-area 
more confined, thus preparing for the development of sand- 
hills and even ravines which are found further on in the Ktawah 
district. The only bridges over th i Arin I are on the metalled 
roads, at Parham, Kalhor, Gliitauli, and Arsara near Gopalpur, 
also the Lower Ganges Pcedcr Canal traV( rscs it by means of a 
syphon, in connection with which the river bed has been trained 
and deepened. 

This, though smaller than the Isan, is a much more important The Sou- 
stream than that just described. Kntering tluj district on its 
north-western frontier, in pargana Mustufabad, it drains the 
whole of the (jxtensivo watershed lying between the Ariiid and 
tlie Sirsa, and is never dry except in years of extreme drought, 
while its volunn is considerably increased in wut seasons by 
escape wat^v from the canal. In the upper portion of its course 
it comprises two branches, the Sciigar proper to the north and tho 
Senhar or second Sengar^' to tho south. These unite at 
Kheria on tho confines of pargana IMustafabud and up to their 
point of junction resomldc the Arind in tho country through 
which they pass and tho oxcollenco of their tarai ; but beyond 
tho confluence poor soil and sand ridges begin to appear 
along the banks, tho stream increases in rapidity, its bod becomes 
deeper, and small ravines shoot out at right angles from it, 
which, further on, in tho Etawah district, almost rival those of 
tho Jamna in depth and wildness. Both branches in sevci^l places 
stretch out into wide expanses, such as those of Pilakhtar 
Pateh and Dundron the Sengar proper, and Dihufl on the Senhar* 





Mainpuri DistrioL 


the same alignment, but to terminate at the lean Nadi. The main 
canal was to be continued along the supply branch, crossing the 
Cawnpore branch at Gopalpur by a level crossing, up to Jera, 
near Eka, whore tho old Etawah branch meets it and where the 
new branch would take ofif from it, and the Bhognipur branch 
was to start from Jera and traverse tho southern portion of 
Mainpuri, instead of beginning in tho Etawah district. These 
modifications were accepted by the Government of India in 1877, 
and in 1880 tho new l)ranchcs were opened. The district is now 



Canal 

Divisions, 


therefore traversed hy tho Lower Ganges canal and four of its 
leranches, and every pargaiia is more or less protected by canal 
water. Tho main canal, entering the district at its north-western 
corner, flows through the Mustafabad tahsll from north to south, 
while its four branches strike off to tho south-east and run in 
more or loss parallel courses through tlie breadth of tho district 
from west to east, but always bearing to the south. Tho most 
northerly, tho so-called Bewar branch, loaves the main canal at 
mile 40, in the Etawah district, entering the Mainpuri district 
at its 25th mile. Next to it, to the south, is tho Cawnpore 
branch, which takes out of the main canal in its 5Gth mile at 
Gopalpur in pargana Mustafabad. Six miles further south, at 
Jera, the main canal bifurcates into two branches, tho Etawah 
branch and the Bhognipur branch. Tho former of these runs 
eastwards in a direction roughly parallel to tho Bewar and 
Cawnpore branches, while tho latter continues its course almost 
duo south till it reaches the tahsil town of Shikohabad. It there 
swings round to tho east as it approaches tho lino of the East 
Indian Railway and follows thenceforward a course parallel to 
those of tho other branches. Tho water from the upper Ganges 
canal system also supplements the supply of tho feeder canal at 
Gopalpur and Jera. There are regulators at each of the canal 
heads, and bridges at Gopalpur, Uresar, and Sarabpur (Eka) ; 
also a syphon over the Arind. 

The canal divisions under executive engineers of the Irriga- 
tion department are distributed throughout the district without 
relation to other administrative boundaries. The Mainpuri 
division with headquarters at Mainpuri covers the north of the 
district north of the Arind river, excluding the small areas on 


I 


4 


,1 




16 


Mainpuri District, 


As a source of irrigation^ the Sengar is, during the lower part of 
its course, even less important than the other rivers, while in the 
upper portion the smallness of the supply renders it almost use- 
less for this purpose. The Sengar is bridged on the metalled 
roads atJasrana and Azamabad Araon, and the Senhar at Aturra; 
while near Earhal on the Sirsaganj-Karhal road there is a fair 
weather bridge. Both these streams like the Sirsa are crossed by 
the main Bhognipur canal. 

Sirsa. The Sirsa enters the Mainpuri district at the south-west 
corner of pargana Mustafabad close to ^Siaori, approaches 
Shikohabad after passing under the Bhognipua canal and 
thence runs between and parallel with the Ktawah road and the 
canal. Its drainage area in this district is restricted, and it runs 
through an almost continuously cultivated tract characterised by 
a light soil of sand and loam. There is little usar along its banks, 
and sandy ridges are only met with close to the town of Shikoh- 
abad. Little water remains in its bod after the cessation of the rains, 
the supply being barely sufficient to irrigate thotaraior lowly ing 
lands on each side of the stream. The banks are well defined 
and the alluvial land is more extensirc and more fertile than that 
sdong the Sengar. The soil, which is naturally excellent, receives 
moisture by percolation from the Bhognipur canal and hardly 
requires any irrigation in ordinary years, when it produces luxuri- 
ant rabi crops, and there is no doubt that the river bed will have to 
be deepened to prevent reh at Bhadau and other villages due to this 
percolation spreading. There are bridges on each of the roads 
leading to the railway stations of Bhadan, Kaurara (Sirsaganj) and 
Shikohabad, and on the Agra road ; and even in the rains it is 
fordable in many places. 

Among the minor streams, the Aganga is a small and 
unimportant drainage line which takes its rise in a tank near 
the town of Shikohabad, runs through parganas Shikohabad 
and Barnahal and falls into the Sengar a few hundred yards within 
the Etawah district. For the first half of its length it is merely the 
connecting link between a series of marshes, and it is often difficult 
to trace its course ; but, towards its junction with the Sengar, its 
bed is d^p and well defined, and sand^idges and even smidl ravines 
are developed along its banks. It dries up i&mediately after 



'AgrievUwi and Commerce. 


I 

I 




the east and west under the Cawnpore and Aligarh divisions 
respectively. It also includes the Bhognipur branch up to the 
Shikohabad tahsil boundary southwards from Gopalpur, and 
overlaps the Etah district as far as the head of the Bewar branch, 
which is entirely within this charge. The hcadworks of all four 
branches are within this division, of which Gopalpur on the 
extreme western boundary is the most important ; and scarcely 
less important is the system of regulators at Jera for the Bhogni- 
pur and Etawah branches. A sub-divisional officer is always 
permanently located at Gopalpur in connection with the regula- 
tion of supply to the main branches. The Aligarh division with 
headquarters at Aligarh covers the area irrigated by the 
distributaries fed from the Upper Ganges Canal system above 
Gopalpur and .Jera. The Sciigar Nadi improvement to the west 
of the Bhognipur branch, and. the I’ilakhtar, Nuh Suraya, and 
Katana distributaries are within the division. The Etawah 
division is conterminous with the Arind-Sengar duab below 
Jera. The Cawnpore division extends eastwards from the Tarha 
bridge on the extreme eastern boundary of the district, and is 
limited to the Arind-Isan duab. The Bhognipur division starts 
at the Sirsa river on the Bhognipur branch, and ends so far as 
this district is concerned at the Etawah border in Shikohabad 
tahsil. For irrigation purposes these divisions are Avell defined 
and include the main canal and branches therefrom within the 
above-mentioned areas. For drainage purposes the boundaries 
are not so exact, and the Sengar-Sirsa duab east of the Bhogni- 
pur branch is not included in any charge, but very little drainage 
if any is actually needed here. 

This branch, which was opened in 1880, irrigates the Saki ^ 

pargana in Etah, and the Kali-Isan duab in the parpnas of 
Lraoli, Alipur Patti, Bhongaon, Bewar, and Kishni in Mainpun 
as well as part of Farrukhabad. It enters the Mainpun district 
at Panwah and comes to an end in the Isan Nadi near..Tar a. 

With the exception of a stretch of loam betw^n the towns of 

Kuraoli and Bhongaon, the country through which It flows 18 

Ldy and was in former years exceedingly liable to suffer in years 
of drougl^t, but has now been transformed into a most 
•and secure agricultural region. lu times of fuU demand rte. , , 




General Feaiunea, 


17 


the rains and is Consequently useless for irrigation purposes. 
Like the other streams, it also has its narrow belt of tarai land, 
which is very fair indeed except at its approach to the Sengar, 
where the soil becomes barren and denuded. A large portion of 
its bed is under cultivation during the rabi season. The Kak or 
KakNadi,a tributary of the Isan^ which it strongly resembles 
in every respect, rises in pargana Sakit of the Etah district and, 
after a somewhat winding course through parganas Kuraoli and 
Mainpuri, joins the Isan near Gopalpur, a short distance north* 
west of the town of Mainpuri. The Chhaha Nala starts in the 
Sultanganj drainage cut on the Bewar canal and joins the Isan 
near Gobindpur three miles south of Bhongaon. The Rasemar 
Nala conveys the drainage from the Rasemar jhU on the 
Mainpuri-Kuraoli road into the Kak Nadi. The Nandia 
or Fatehpur Nala and the Patsui Nala described above in con- 
nection with the Jamna are merely the largest and the most 
important of the many torrents which carry off to the Jamna the 
superfluous water not absorbed by the soil after any heavy 
rainfall. They rise rapidly and flow violently for a few hours, 
and then as suddenly cease. The Ujhiani Nala starts near 
Bujhia in mauza Urthan in pargana Karhal and drains the area 
between the Takhrau and Karhal distributaries. Between 
Pasupur and Ujhiani the stream lies to the cast of the Takhrau 
distributary under which it passes twice at the points above- 
mentioned by means of syphons. At Ujhiani the stream com- 
mences to have a marked bed and, crossing the Karhal road 
near Heonra inspection house in the Etawah district, joins the 
Sengar two miles further on. The Puraha has two sources, one at 
Buna five miles north-west of Kurra in pargana Karhal and the 
other at Timrakh three miles to the north of Kurra. The Timrakh 
jhil and the Sauj and Saman lakes are connected by the Saman 
Nala, which flows through the western limb of the latter lake 
and unites with the eastern branch of the stream beyond the tail 
of the Sauj minor in mauza Karri in pargana Etawah. The 
eastern branch is called the Karri Nala. The Ahnaiya lies to 
the west of the Bansak distributary and between it and the 
main canal. These three streams, tributaries of the Arind^ hav^ 
scarcely any existence in this district and it is not until 

2 




60 


Main^vi DiBtrict. 


discharge at the head is 712 cubic feet per second, and it runs every 
alternate week. It is not navigable. Its distributaries in this 
district are the Birsinghpur minor, the Bankia, Bhongaon and 
Bajhera on the right bank, and the Malawan, Kuraoli, Bewar, 
Nigoh, and Binsia channels on the left. With the exception 
of the Malawan, Nigoh and Binsia distributaries, which also 
serve parts of Etah and Farrukhabad, the irrigation from 
these channels is entirely confined to Mainpuri. The 
disastrous breach of the Eali Nadi a(|ueduct at Nadrai near 
Kasganj in Etah in 1885, to which reference has been made else- 
where, besides devastating the whole valley of the Kali Nadi, also 
involved the closing of this canal for a considerable time. The 
area commanded by this branch is 127,933 acres and the maxi- 
mum yet irrigated by it has been 58,101 acres in 1905-06. The 
area irrigated in the 1907-08 famine was rather less, amounting 
to 53,080 acres only. There are bridges at Panwah, Tilokpur 
(Lakhaura), Saraiya (Sarai Latif), Kunwarpur (Bikrampur), 
Kuraoli, Nanamau, Bichhwan, Kinawar, Bilon, Jalalpur, Raj- 
wana, Barauli, Manpur Hari, Bewar, Majholi, Sobhanpur and 
Todarpur. There are falls with regulators at Kuraoli, Jalalpur, 
and Majholi and two tail falls at Bahramau and Ahmadpur of 
12 feet each into the Isan. There is one syphon at Tig wan. 

This, like the Etawah branch, originally formed part of the 
Ganges Canal system, and was only transferred to the Lower 
Ganges system in 1877. It now takes off from the main canal in 
its 56th mile at Gopalpur in pargana Mustafabad and flows 
south-east as far as Dannahar, where it makes a slight curve to 
accommodate itself to the course of the Arind river. The canal 
passes through the parganas of Mustafabad, Ghiror, Mainpuri, 
Bhongaon and Kishni, entering the Farrukhabad district in its 
60th mile, near Dhakroi, and irrigates the country lying between 
the Isan and Arind rivers. In times of full demand its 
discharge at the head at Gopalpur is 1,600 cubic feet per second. It 
is provided with numerous bridges at Gopalpur, Ninauli, Kailai, 
Muhkampur (Aurangabad), Nagaria (Nagla Salehi), Pacha- 
war, Karaoli, Dannahar, Rustampur (Dharmangadpur Nagaria), 
Singhpur (Auren Panraria) Patarhar, (Angautha), Bhanwat, 
Baaawanpur, Kasardh, Raihar (SingAi), Dhaoraus, Tarfea, an4 


18 


Mainpuri Distnct* 


Lakes 

and 

Marshes. 


have passed into the Etawah district that they assume any 
importance. It is only in the rains that they are distinguish- 
able as streams, but at other seasons they are marked by 
detached jfiils or lakes. All the minor streams and drainage 
lines are devoid of water during the dry season and during the 
rains they offer no impediment to communications. 

Mainpuri abounds in swamps and marshes, particularly in its 
central portion, but few of them are of sufficient size or perma- 
nence to deserve the name of lake, ^loiition will only be made 
hero of the more considorablo ones, and for the others reference 
should be made to the accounts of parganas. In all 36,870 acres 
are recorded in the revenue records as under water. This 
figure, which includes the rivers, di«cril)e8 the area which in a 
normal year is from this cause rcndorcjd incapable of cultivation, 
but there are numbers of depressions which, at the end of the 
rains and during the early cold weather, are covered with water, 
but are brought under the plough for the mhi crop. Even the 
largest, as they are seldom supplied from springs, are liable, in 
years of excessive drought, to dry up altogether, or to become 
mere ponds. There are two lakes of fair size in pargana Kuraoli, 
at Panwah and Rasomar, both connected with the Kak Nadi, by 
which they are alternately filled and emptied. During the rains 
it pours into them its overflow, whi(jli later on its diminished 
stream drains off. The former, now divided in two by the Bewar 
canal, covers 17G acres with a depth of 3 to 4 feet of water in 
the cold weather, but during the summer much of this is lost. 
The northern portion is now drained. The latter, with a 
maximum length of nearly two miles and breadth of about 400 
yards, also dwindles rapidly after the cessation of the rains. In 
pargana Mainpuri is the Karimganj jhil, nearly a mile in length 
by 300 yards in breadth, coveiing an area of 79 acres, which is, 
however, materially decreased in the hot weather. There is also 
a long narrow lake of considerable size to the south-west of Main- 
puri city, between it and theCawnpore branch of the Ganges canal, 
which drains by two cuts towards the Isan. Pargana Bhongaon 
is full of large stretches of water. North-east of the civil station 
and in close proximity are the Airwa and Sikandarpur jhUs, and 
to the east of the Grand Trunk road, at Kinawar, is a marsh 



61 


Agriculture and Commerce. 


Fatehpur (Kumhaul), A largo distributary known as the Naga- 
riarajbaha leaves this branch on the left bank near Nagaria (other- 
wise known as Nagla Salehi) and another lower down at Tarha. 

On the riglit bank arc the Pachawar and Sakrawa distributaries. 

The Pachawar distributary starts at Pachawar, and skirts the 
main canal to its tail at Dhanraus. The Sakrawa distributary 
starts at the Tarha bridge and irrigates throe villages before enter- 
ing the Farrukhabad district. As this is a navigable canal there 
are weirs aud locks at Tarha, Nagaria (Nagla Salohi) and Gopal- 
pur. The area irrigated in 1906-07 was 44,838 acres for both 
seasons, out of a commanded area of 1,003,761 acres. 

This branch irrigates the duab between the Arind and Etawah 
Sengar rivers, running parallel with the Cawnpore branch as far 
as Gangsi, whore it takes a turn to the south. Its head is at 
Jera, a hamlet of Eka in Mustafabad, and it runs for 41 J miles 
in Mainpuri before it enters the Etawah district. It crosses the 
natural drainage lines at several points. At Ghiror a large 
escape with a regulator into the Sengar river has been construct- 
ed. There are bridges at Sunari, Fatehpur, Katana, Nagla 
Tiwari (Eka), Paindhat, Kanwa Kana, Patikra, Baragaon, 
Kusiari, Nagla Fateh Khan, Ghiror, Nagla Jarari (Kosma), 
Jawapur, Gangsi, Nitaoli, Bujhiya fUrthan), Nagla Basa, 
Dundgaon, Takhrau and Bilanda (Rurua). The right main 
^ distributary no longer exists, its place having been taken by 
* several independent distributaries from the main canal. The 
principal distributaries are now the Kaurara (Buzurg), Kusiari, 

Karhal and Takhrau rajbahas on the right bank, and the Jarari, 

Gangsi and Bansak channels on the left. The total length of the 
distributaries and their minor channels in this district is 199 
miles, and they irrigate 238 villages. The area commanded by 
this canal is 138,164 acres, and of this area about 60 per cent. 


can be irrigated in a year of drought in the two seasons. The 
normal full discharge or volume passing the regulator at Jera is 
% 2,049 cubic feet per second. There are falls at Patikra, Kusiari, 

f Ghiror, Gangsi, Nitaoli and Bilanda. The canal is not navig- 
able, nor are the weirs at present used as sources of water power. 
This was opened in 1880. Like the Etawah branch, it starts 
Jerft, aud forms the more southerly of ^he two brfkuphes in^o 



Omeral FeaiwreR» 


19 


66 acres in extent. Others are to be found further south and east 
at Bhanwat, Rui^Manchhana and fundri. Eastagain^in Eishni- 
Nabiganj, is the more important lake of .Tanaura with an area 
of 208 acres and a depth of 12 feet, situated in the centre of a 
sandy tract. This lake was drained into the Kali Nadi by a 
syphon under the Be war canal, but the syphon was closed up. 
It is, however, proposed to drain it again in the same way. 
Close by, and connected with the last named, lies the Chirawar 
jhil extending over 116 acres. Still further south in the same 
pargana is found a group of extensive) lakes: Saman, 233 acres in 
area and 25 feet in depth, Pharenji, and Basait. There is a jhil 
at Paraunkha in Bowar ])argana, and in ( Jhiror there are several 
shallow jhilsj the largest being at Pachawar, Bidhiind and Bigrai. 
Mustafabad, again, is full of swamps, but all, exci'pt Utrara, are 
of minor importance, drying up with great raindity. On the right 
bank of the Etawah branch of the ( ranges canal, in the extreme 
north-east of pargana Barnahal, lies the Saj Ilajipur jhil, cover- 
ing 61 acres. In Karhal pargana there are numerous lakes 
and marshes, the sources of the Ahnaiya, Puraha and Ujhiani 
streams. Of these the most important are the Dookali, 62 acres 
in area, and very deep, and the 8auj, of about 149 acres, which 
drains into the groat Saman lake and is also connected with the 
neighbouring Rarer reservoir. The latter is long and narrow 
like most of the lakes in this district, but of great depth. Close 
by is the Timrakh lake with an area of 92 acres. Tiio Shikoh- 
abad pargana contains a few jhUs to the north, among whicli the 
Sarakh and Baijua may be mentioned. All these lakes and marshes 
expand very considerably during the rains, and few of them dry 
up altogether except in seasons of intense drought but generally 
keep a good supply of water through the hot weather. The 
figures given above are estimates of tiie superficial area of the 
water remaining at the end of the cold weather and can only l)e 
laken as approximate, varying os they do with the character of 
}he lake and the nature of the rainfall. 

The general slope of the country, as has been already 
[escribed, is from north-west to south-east, and this is the direc- 
iion in which the rivers run and which is therefore followed in the 
nain by the drainage. There are, however, numerous inequalities 



62 


Mainpv/ri DistTict. 


: 


which the main canal divides at this point. Its course is at first 
due south to Araunj, near Shikohabad town, but from this place 
it curves to the east and runs between the railway and the Sirsa 
river into the Etawah district. At the 3rd mile it crosses the 
Sengar, at the 10th mile the Senhar, and at the I9th mile the 
Sirsa by means of largo syphons. At Jera there is a telegraph 
office instituted with the object of regulating the supply of water 
to the Etawah and Bhognipur branches. The area commanded 
lies in Shikohabad, where it irrigates the duab, from 3 to 9 miles 
wide, of the Sirsa and .Tamna rivers. The maximum normal 
discharge of this branch with the full gauge of 7 feet at the he^ 
is 1,200 cubic feet per second. The starting level of the bed, viz. 
the fioor of the regulating head at Jera, is 637’63 feet above 
mean sea level. The width of the canal bed varies from 52 feet 
at head down to 46 feet at the 38th mile, whore it leaves the 
district. The slope of the bed is 1 in 7,600 throughout with a 
fall of 1*75 feet in the 25th mile, known as the Bhandri fall, and 
another of 2 feet, in the 29t!i mile, known as the Surajpur fall. 
The Ubti distributary, the most important in the reach, takes off 
on the right of the canal between the I9th and 20th miles, with 
a full discharge of 93 cubic feet per second, and runs in a south- 
easterly direction. The two other distributaries in the district 
are the Ahmadpur, taking off on the left bank in the 25th mile 
with a discharge of 28 cubic feet per second, and the Bhadan, 
with Ujrai minor, taking off on the right a furlong beyond the 
28th milestone, with a discharge of 41 cubic feet per second. 
These distributaries run, according to the present arrangements, * 
two weeks in three, and their aggregate full discharges ought to 
irrigate 21.646 acres in the rabi season each year. The actual 
maximum irrigation hitherto effected in two seasons of one year 
amounted in 1905-06 to 35,363 acres out of a commanded 
area of 95,748 acres. In other words, 37 per cent, of the 
commanded area has come under irrigation. The Ubti 
distributary has lately been remodelled, and the other two are 
being similarly treated, with the object of making them work 
absolutely without closure of their outlets, an importanC point 
in the working of a canal. There are bridges at Gaheri, Musta- 
fabad^ Darapur Baseni, Jajumaij Kateua Harsai Naiyamaii 








'ij 




Main^ri DistrioL 


of surface caused by the greater or less elevation of the river 
beds and by the sand ridges, and the general disposition of the 
drainage differs somewhat in different portions of the district. 
In the central tract, which lies highest, the main drainage 
arteries are the lean and the Arind. The bed of the former has 
a somewhat greater fall than that of the latter. In their course 
through the west of the district the Isaii is only 4-7 feet below 
the Arind, but opposite Mainpuri the difference has increased to 
16‘46 feet, and at Tarha to 16*68. Tlie Bewar branch canal, 
running through the north of the central tract, follows the water- 
shed of the Kali and Isan rivers, and most of the drainage in 
this north-eastern portion now falls into the Isan and not into 
the Kali Nadi. 8outh of the central tract the natural drains arc 
the Arind and the Sengar, and the Etawah canal, which keeps to 
the watershed as far as Gangsi, does not interfere with t!iem up 
to that point. But from this point southwards there is an impor- 
tant change in the level of the country which leads to the develop- 
ment of a series of now drainage linos. Pargana Karhal has 
been seriously affected by the canal. The Arind has now to 
• carry off a portion of the water w^hich formerly fell into the 
Sengar. The Kankan and Katbhanpur drainage, which for- 
merly joined it, is now impeded by the Gangsi and Bansak 
rajhahasj and has to find its way as best it can into the Arind. 
The drainage area of the Puraha, though not obstructed by the 
canal, is so uniformly levol and has such a gentle slope that it is 
hardly more than a chain of pools and only runs as a stream in 
the jains. To the west of the Sengar the drainage naturally falls 
into the Sengar and Sirsa with the latter’s tributary the Aganga. 
South of the Bhognipur Canal the drainage lines slope towards 
the Jamna ravines. The Kali and Isan and their catchment 
basins all belong to the Ganges system, and all the other rivers 
to that of the Jamna. 

Orainaga These natural drainage lines have been to a great extent 
interfered with by the canals, and resort has therefore been had 
to artificial channels. It will be most convenient to consider 
in connection with the various canals. In the central 
tractj, ‘where the Cawnpore branch follows the watershed of the 
Isan imd Arind, several artificial channels have been made to 



AgriOViUWi (Md OOVMMVCCt 




Araunj,8hikohabad,A8wa,Bhaiidri,Amhaur, Surajpur, Jahmai, 

Bhadan and Khondar Ajnaura, and a syphon at Bhogpur. 

The Upper Ganges Canal (Etawah branch) under the Aligarh 
division waters a few villages in Mustafabad from the Katana OanaL 
Nali, and Pilakhtar distributaries. There is one bridge at 
Suraya, and a drainage work, the Sengar Nadi improvement. 

More than half the irrigation of the district, as has « 
already been observed, is still carried on from wells, but tho . 
area dependent on this source of irrigation has materially 
declined, only 274,530 acres being now watered from wells 
as against 328,400 at the last settlement. This decrease is 
entirely confined to earthen wells, as the number of masonry 
wells in the district has nearly doubled in the same period. 

/When canal water is available it is naturally taken, and the , 
recurrent labour and expense of excavating tho short-lived 
earthen well are avoided, though there is a generally prevailing 
belief, for which scientific justification can perhaps be found., in 
tho superior fertilizing qualities of well water. This is particu- 
larly the case in regard to wells in the near neighbourhood of old 
villa<re sites, which probably absorb a good deal of ammonia, 
nitrates and other salts by drainage. The nona clay, which 
is well known to be a great fertilizer, is habitually collected by 
cultivators from old village sites and used in combination with 
manure On the other hand, the natural soils and strata some- 
times impart properties the reverse of beneficial to well water 
For instance, in the large fctonw or bitter tract in Mustafabad 
cultivators eagerly embrace any chance offered of availing 

themselves of canal irrigation, although the subsoil 18 good and 

firm and wells can be easily and cheaply constructed, and last 
for years. Besides rendering tho earthen well unnecessary in 
its iighbourhood the canal has in many places, Pa'^Jicularly 
in the sandy tract, made it impossible by saturation of the sub- 
soil, which causes the sides of the well to fall m, and makes 
unsupported excavations to any depth impracticable. By far the 
greaLt number of earthen weUs is found 

abad in the south-west of the district, where the soil is firm, and 
ttilies at an average depth of forty f.t from the surfa., 

while parganaBarnahal is almost entirely irrigated from them. 


% 








General Features. 


21 


iuduce the obstructed drainage to fall into one or othor of these 
rivers. To the left bank of the canal arc cuts at Bharera (in Etah), 
Satliiii Dalippur, Nagla Gulal (Karaoli), Nagla Gulabi (Nagla 
Achal), Kaihar (Sobhanpur), Pusena, Bhaiiwat, Singhpur (Mohdi- 
pur), and Ajitganj, loading into the Isan. The second of these 
acts slowly and is incapable of carry ing off flood water while 
the Isan is in spate, to the occasional detriment of the country- 
side. On the other bank drains have been dug at Pachawar, 
Kustampur, Kasardh, Chinari, Nagla Sujanpur (Bhanwat) and 
8athgawan into the Arind, which has been widened near Gopal- 
pur and Urosar in connection with tho Arind Nadi improvement. 
Tiiero are two syphons under tho Tarha distributary, and along 
the Etawah branch, especially in the south-eastern portion, a 
considerable amount of artificial drainage has been found neces- 
sary. There are drainage cuts at Jodhpur (Farida Paindhat), 
Patikra, Kusiari, Jarari (Kosma), I)i]>rauli, Sikaudarpur Patara, 
and Gangsi, into the Arind, and at Koson, Jawapur, Agrapur, 
Urthan, Nitaoli, Begampur, and Karhal into the Sengar. There 
are also numerous syphons on the distributaries of this branch. 
The Bhoguipur branch below Jera (Eka) crosses by syphons the 
Sengar at Yaghmurpur Pabrai, tho Senhar at Dihuli, and the 
Sirsa at Araunj near Shikohabad. Near Raseni the Sengar has 
been improved, this work being maintained by the Aligarh 
division, and two cuts on cither side of the canal join the river 
at its crossing. The B’logpur and Fatchpur Katena drainage is 
syphoned under the canal at the 12th mile and flows northward 
into the Sengar. There is a small drain at Chhichbamai near 
Shikohabad falling into the Sirsa on its right bank and on tho 
left bank is the Nagla Balua drain. Tho Aonri and Dundiamai 
drains fall into the Nandia ravine at Siarmau Ram Lai and tho 
Kesri drain meets the same ravine in Fatehpur Karkha, whence 
their drainage falls into the Jamna, cutting with disastrous effect 
through tho fertile bkagna of Punchha. From Bhandri eastwards 
the country along the main canal suffered severely from water- 
logging in the wet period culminating in 1894 and numerous 
drains have been dug to give relief and prevent the growth of 
reh, which seems to have been unknown prior to the construction 
of this canal.^ On the north of the canal are the Sanypari 






Methods 
of making 
and work* 
ing wells» 


To the east of the district where the water level rises to ten or 
fifteen feet from the surface, the soil is unfavourable to the 
construction of such wells that they require constant renewal. 
In the central tract many have been destroyed by percolation 
from the canals. 

The masonry well is called huan and an unlined earthen 
well Icuiyan. There are several kinds of masonry wells in use in 
the district, some being of block kankar {silici)^ either with lime 
mortar or fjara or mud, others of brick, burned or sun baked, 
and also the (jand or gurh well. 

The kankar well, which is practically everlasting, varies 
in cost according to the depth at which water is found, but can 
scarcely be made for less than Rs. 200. The small g trh well is 
formed of huge bricks, four or five of which placed together ^ 
make up a circle leaving an aperture barely suflBcient to allow 
of the lowering of a bucket. This typo of well is only used 
when the water is at no groat distance from the surface, and is 
inexpensive, costing only from Rs. 25 to Rs, 60, but lasts only 
10 or 12 years. 

Most masonry wells arc spring wells resembling generally 
the ordinary spring wells found throughout the alluvial plains 
of the Indo-Gangetic Valley. The sub-soil, after cutting 
through the upper arable soil, is generally found to be composed 
of alternate layers of different thicknesses of sand and hard 
clay with or without kankar. At a certain depth, averaging 
usually from 20 to 30 feet, the percolation level {chnan) is reached 
where the soil is moist throughout the year and where water 
tends to collect slowly in an open excavation, and may 
suffice for the supply of small water lifts such as dhenklis or 
even for one bucket {charsa) of a bullock lift worked slowly. 
Wells so constructed are percolation wells, and are generally 
unprovided with a masonry cylinder owing to their temporary 
nature. Sometimes percolation wells are constructed in river 
beds as well as in ordinary soil. A percolation well is usually 
sunk down into the first sandy stratum below the percolation 
level and the difficulty is to chock the tendency of the saturated 
sand of that stratum to enter the well, choking it, and causing 
subsidence of the sides, and ultimate collapse of the well. The 


Mainpuri District 


Wmks 

•nd. 


Ahmadpur, Chirhaoli and Baclihemai drainage cuts flowing into 
the Sirsa, and an the south flowing into the Patsui Nala are. the 
Patsui, Ujrai, Jahcinai, Amhaur, liajaura, Bachhernai, JSfagl&Tal, 
Alampur Jhapta, Lahtai, and Maolihela (Galpura) drains. There 
are syphons under the Ahmadpur, Hurajpur, Khonrai Bhadan^ 
Ujrai, Uhti, Nain, and llanwantkhera distributaries, and a 
syphon under the main canal at Aswa. On the Bowar branch 
there are drains into the Kali Nadi at Panwahi, in connection 
with the iSaraiya (8arai Latif) escaije, Walipur, Sirsa, Lahra, 
Bilon, Rajwana, ( hauinajhi, Bowar, Sakat Be>var, Bajhora, 
Todavpur and Janaura. The last named used to pass under the 
Nigoh distributary through mauza Nabiganj, but some years ago 
this channel was stopped owing to the damage done, but it will 
be re- opened shortly. On the right bank flowing into the Isan or 
its tributaries are cuts at Eampura (flowing into the Kak), 
Sultanganj (connected with the Chhachha Nala), Bajhera (run- 
ning parallel to and west of the Etawah-Parrukhabad road), 
and Arjunpiir. A project has been originated to divert the Kak 
Nadi under the Bowar branch at Kuraoli, with a view to mitigate 
the floods in the Isan valley, particularly at Mainpuri, where 
parts of the town and civil station were submerged in October 
1903. The Lower Ganges canal has a drainage cut at Sarabpur 
(Eka), draining Idea, Uresar, and the neighbourhood, syphoning 
under the canal at Sarabpur and joining the Arind between 
Uresar and Eka. It also crosses tlio Arind by a syphon. The 
civil station of Mainpuri lias t^YO drains, carrying the water from 
two depressions near the police lines into the Isan, and a third 
drain connects with these two on the Bhongaon road. These 
drains are controlled by the Collector, and not the Canal depart- 
ment, as is the case with all the other drains described above. 

The area of non-culturablc land in the district recorded at 
the recent settlement is 336,467 acres as against 347,600 acres at 
the last. Of this 13,434 acres wore classified as village site'^, 
36,870 acres as covered with water and the rest as otherwise 
barren. At the previous settlement the area shown as village 
site was 13,096 acres, while that covered by water was 21,142- 
acres. The decrease in the total barren area is perhaps to be 
attributed, like the cori'esponding decrease in the total area^ to 



65 


AgrtouUnrt a^* Commerce. 




V 


sides of the well have therefore to be supported, and at the same 
time provision has to be made for admitting water free of sand 
as far as possible, but as it is impossible entirely to keep 
sand from entering the well through the bottom and sides 
when drawn upon the well becomes useless after a compa- 
ratively short time, the length of which varies according to the 
supply taken from it, and the nature of the sub-soil. Simi- 
larly a masonry well sunk as far as the percolation level only and 
resting on sand will ultimately bo undermined and collapse or 
break and in either case be rendered useless, and therefore it does^ 
not pay to invest in such a w ell, so that percolation w’ells are 
generally unliiied with masonry and are of a temporary nature. 

masonry well is therefore sunk through the first w^ater-bearing 
sand down to at least as far as the next hard stratum {inoUt or 
gharra) which is impermeable to w^ater, and embedded thereon 
carefully so as to exclude all water and sand. The w’ell having 
been emptied and proved to be w ater tight, a hole is drilled through 
the mold with a crow-bar or spear and whaler is admitted from 
the sandy stratum underneath, whence it is forced up into the W’ell 
by hydrostatic pressure, varying according to the depth of the 
Tinotd and other factors. This is called striking the ^sot^ov 
spring and such wells are called sub-artesian. Owing to the 
extreme flatness of the alluvial plain no true artesian w^ells are 
to be found, at any rate in this district, and the water ultimate- 
ly .reaches a level averaging from 20 to 30 feet below the 
ground level, approximating to the percolation level. After 
the spring has been struck and the well used, the sand of the sub- 
jacent water-bearing stratum tends to come into the w’ell for 
a short time until a water cavity is formed under the mold 
sufficiently wide and deep to maintain equilibrium of the parti- 
cles of sand forming its sides, for in proportion as the cavity 
grows wider less water flows past each particle until the sand no 
longer tends to be carried along with the water into the well. 
The size of the particles of sand in this subjacent stratum 
affects the supply; if they are minute they check the supply, 
and if large and granular they give a freer passage to the water* 
The thickness of the mola is an important factor inasmuch as 
it forms a support for the well cylinder. If it is not strong 







66 


Mcdnpuri- District, 


I 


enough to support the cylinder over the water cavity, the well 
will collapse and become useless, but usually a thickness of b or 

7 feet is sufficient for a four-bucket well, provided of course 

thatthemoiaisof a firm consistency and free of friable soil. 

The best kind of 'mota is one that has hard IcanUr nodules 
mixed with the clay and is imposed on a coarse bed of sand. 

If the wota is too thin or weak it is necessary to sink the 
cylinder on to the next firm mota. If the mota is absent or 
inefficient the well is a failure as a spring well, but the district 
is now provided with a well-borer under the Agricultural Depart- 
ment who has his time occupied chiefly in remedying existing 
wells, and also to a less extent in making trial borings for new 
wells If the mota is absent.or defective the bottom of the well 
is plugged and through it a pipe is sunk to the next efficient mota. ^ 
The expense of an iron pipe is very little, and a well may raw 
on a deep and therefore reliable water supply at a cost of about 
Rs 60 or so, instead of being sunk in the usual laborious 
fashion at a cost of perhaps ten times that amount. The Isau 
and Kali Nadi valleys in the northern sandy tract constitute 
practically the only parts of the district where the mota is deficient 
or absent at ordinary depths. The method of sinking the 
cylinder {gola) is to construct first a wooden cylinder {jakan) 
which is inserted in the excavation above percolation level and 
rests on a wooden frame {ralch). The latter frequenUy extends y 
beyond the cylinder for 18 inches. The cylinder is built up' 
on the raM until in some cases it projects beyond the ground 
surface. Sufficient weight for sinking, having thus been procured, 
the rakh is carefully undermined, the wet soil and water being 
drawn out as required. When the mota is reached the inter- 
stices between the rakh and the mota are packed with kankar, 
hemp and molasses, making the cylinder water-tight. The well 
is then finished off by striking the spring and completing its 
upper portion. In earthen non-masonry weUs where sandy 
water-bearing strata are met the sides are lined with rope-like ^ 
coils of twigs pegged down layer by layer, such a well being 
caUed a him well, and resembling the other variety of earthen 
well called hitd/ijar, which is protected by a frame-work o! 
stakes interwoven with twigs of arhar, cotton or tamwisku 


AfftiovUvire und Oowmeree. 


67 


i 


a Wi well. aUo cUed a g^rari er “““f “ 

circular lioiag ol slakes on which planks are nailed and «rm y 
tatcned together with iron clamps. Where ‘h« 
sist, o£ a Urm white clay (moto) the or nnhued well ca 

he miulo and will often last as long as 20 years, and rn fact ono 
such weU has been in use for nearly 100 years. Tko'e w ■ 

M be met within the south of pargana Shikohabad, but else- 
where the life of an earthen well is from one to two years, but 
a, their cost averages from 11s. 10 to Rs. 12 in 
they are made they ate readily renewed a, reimrcd. At the samo 
time it must bo stated that the tendency to replitee carlhe^ 
by masonry wells is growing, even in places where earthen we 
dmw from springs. When the drawing of water from a wcl 
i, first started the water surface sinks rapidly until it 
the resistane. in the watei-learing stratum, wlie.-enpon tto 
incoming water begin, to balance the ontimt and maintain 
a constant level. It may happen, especially in year, of 
drought when the sub-soil water has sunk, and in places 
where the «.(« is comparatively near the surface of the ground 
that the water surface may sink so much as to leaio too 
little water for filling the bucket. Short of her 

lower spring, such a well will have to bo worked "'only, or 

aWoned.^The majority of Hwing wells however av^-h 

a copious supply that they can lie ^ the 

bullock, continnonsly, two pair, on one Sid. “ 

opposite side; very few spring wells are to Im found that do not 
X water enough for at least two pair, of bn locks, and m 
place. 0 or 8 bucket, can be used. ^ *onr-bnckct well is on^ 
" ith 4 intir. or too. (bnlloek runs) and is gen^y wot 
than 8 feet in diameter. The Persian wheel {rahAt) ib ^ver 
J this dUtnet neeanso of it. bnlkinee. and/or 
efficiency, and the ordinary water-lift is the pur 
W toiet bag eontalning a. a ralo 26 gaUons, ^ 
iTholal way, by a pair of Wloeks y.^to onee^ 

„po to the ether end of whieh i. “'“"'■f 
block, driven by the driver advance np the 
of the run towards the weU letting the bag down, the ^ 
passing oyer a pulley fghiri or cUrhhi)} when the ftg 



Mainpuri District. 


68 

they return, descending into the naichi or pit at the end of the 
run as far as the hahoro or turning point at the end. The 
pur is caught and emptied on reaching the well brink by a man - 
named pur hi and parcha or parchawalaj and the water is dis- 
tributed in the fields by the pan-laga or pan-lcata. Thus three 
men are employed on one bucket, but two pairs of bullocks on 
one side of a well can be worked with one driver and one purhi. 
The pulley is supported generally on a forked tree-trunk (kaur 
or kuhar)y to which its axle Is held by pegs. The whole of this 
apparatus is portable, and removed when required, the pulley 
and axle being always taken away every evening after work. 
More rarely the pulley is attached by uprights to a cross beam 
(mair) resting on earthen or masonry pillars. With a depth of 
26 feet (a very general depth) one 25-gallon bucket (the usual ’ 
capacity of a chccrsa) will give 30 gallons to the minute or 300 j 
cubic feet per hour, or 2,400 cubic feet per working day of 8 
hours. 

With the dhenkli the heavy 2 >'ior is not employed but only 
a lighter vessel of earthenware. This simple device is of the 
standard pattern, consisting of a long lever or beam (dhenkli), 
working on an axle fixed in a low forked post (manjha) as 
fulcrum, with its short end heavily weighted with lumps of clay 
(chakhu hat or thua). To the extremity of the long end is 
fastened a rope (barari), to which is attached the bucket 
(karwara). The cultivator, taking hold of the rope, pulls on it 
and lowers the bucket into the well or tank; then, releasing his 
hold, allows the weight at the other end to fall and draw up the 
water. The vessels used ordinarily hold about two gallons, so 
that the process is both slow and laborious. Often, however, 
cultivators will club together and have five or six dhenJdie at 
work at the same place, at the same time, pouring all the water 
into a common channel. This both saves labour, as only one 
man is needed to distribute it to the several fields, and also 
avoids much loss by percolation and evaporation. The area ^ 
irrigated by a well varies very considerably with the nature of the 
well and the character of the soil. It is usual for masonry wells 
to have as many as 3 or 4 laos, or runs, while earthen wells have 
seldom more than one. Actual measurements made in a dry 


AgricuUwe and Commerce. 


year in pargatia Kuraoli, where the soil tends to be sandier than 
most, showed that on the average each lao of a masonry well 
with a 20-feet lift could irrigate annually 5 acres; each run of 
an earthen well, fed by the spring, nearly 4 acres ; while the 
^ percolation well commanded about 2| acres, and the dhenJdi 
only a little over one acre. These estimates are probably rather 
below than above the mark. 

About 8 per cent, of the irrigation of the district comes from Other 
^ r I • ^ A r\r\f\ Bouroe* 

tanks and rivers, the actual area being some 4U,UUU acres. 

The contribution of the rivers to this total is a small one, the 
Isan and the Arind being the only ones whose water is of much 
service, and even their usefulness is mainly confined to the upper 
reaches, though dams are made lower down for this purpose (see 
the article on rivers in Chapter I). As a rule, the steepness and 
height of the banks and the scanty supply of water in the season 
when it is most wanted militate against any extensive employ- 
ment of the rivers for this purpose ; while the bed of the stream, 
and its khadir or tarai on either side, stand in no need of irriga- 
tion, thanks to the thorough saturation already received by the 
soil during the rains. To bring the water from the jhUs or 
tanks on to the land the dhenkli is employed where practicable, 
but more often it is baled out and thrown up by hand. The 
method is simple. A large, flat basket called lahnri {Leri) or 
benri (beri), about 16 inches across and a few inches deep, is the 
implement. Four ropes are attached to this and hold by four 
men, two on each side. A largish hole is dug at the head of the 
water channel, which may be as much as five feet above the 
tank, though usually less, and another directly below it in the 
bed of the tank. These holes are protected from erosion, the 
upper one with a bundle of straw or grass and the lower with 
bricks. The men dip the lahnri into the pool and then swing it 
up, throwing the water into the prepared basin. The work is 
hard, and two shifts of four men each are required to carry it on 
k continuously. Sometimes the basket is replaced by a leather bag 

r of similar shape, but about double the capacity, called a paroha or 
dd. It is not uncommon to see water being raised more than 
one stage in this manner, and two sets of men working tandem- 
fashion, one behind the other : in some cases the dhenUi is made 


60 


Main^ri District 


Famines. 


use of for the final lift. Latterly the Agricultural Association 
of Mainpuri has been pushing chain pumps as supplied by the 
Agricultural Department, to replace the basket lift, and one or 
two 16-feet pumps have been successfully used on the Kali Nadi, j 
where the lift is about 12 feet. Hitherto no one has installed a 
power plant, but there is no doubt that they will be adopted in 
time, not so much on the Jumna, Kali Nadi or Isan as in 
ordinary wells in the interior, whore the springs and sub-soil 
strata are satisfactory and tho irrigable area is ample. Along 
the rivers there is little need for irrigation in normal years. 
Chain pumps will no doubt bo brought into voguo by the Irriga- 
tion department for raising water from distributaries, but the 
supply in tho ordinary village channels is not sufficient to supply 
these pumps, which at low .depths draw from two to three times ^ 
tho amount given by the basket lift at a similar expenditure of 
labour. Tho gallonagc per minute of a basket lift is 76 and of { 
a 6 -foot chain pump 150, as compared with 30 gallons given by 
the ordinary bullock lift. 

There are no records of tho famines which afflicted the dis- 
trict in tho eighteenth century or before it, but its position leaves 
no room for doubt that it must have shared in the great droughts 
that devastated all Hindustan in 1770 and 1783; unprotected as 
it then was it must have suffered the full violence of those 
visitations. During the early years of the nineteenth century a 
succession of droughts and famines afflicted the whole Duab. In 4 
the early part of 1803 the crops wore much injured by hail- 
storms; and tho rains failed altogether about tho middle of 
August, after a few scanty falls. This resulted in the almost 
total loss of the Icharif harvest, a calamity followed by the failure 
of the winter rains, and consequent partial loss of the rabi. 
The distress was groat and widespread, and, though to some extent 
relieved by largo suspensions of revenue and fair harvests in 
1806-6, left the country in no position to face another untimely 
cessation of the monsoon in August 1806 and another unproduc- 
tive kharif. 1810 and 1812 were also years of drought, and itt^ 
ISlS-ld the scarcity was serious enough to deserve the name of 
famine, though not so sorely felt in Mainpuri as in some of the 
neighbouring districts. There were several seasons of drought 


Agrie¥Mwe and Oommerce, 


between 1814 and 1837, but it was not till the latter year that 
the district again experienced a really severe famine. In 18o8 
Mr. K. N. C. Hamilton reported after visiting Farrukhabad : 

“ Mainpuri was in a somewhat worse state. The parganas 
which the road traversed were barren and parched, the crop m 
the ground stunted and light and no appearance of any kharif 
having been reaped, but towards and in Sirhpura (now in the ]t,tah 
district) the cultivated area seemed much impimved.” Captain 
Wroughton, the surveyor, writes of his visit during the preceding 
year (1837) to Etah, Kuraoli, Shikohabad and (Jhiror that, 
whereas in ordinary years a cultivator with one plough tills 40 
bighas (rather under 20 acres), of which one-half is irrigable, this 
year none of the dry area was cultivated and only four-fifths of the 
wet. The hernias, as usual, assisted tlio cultivators with seed, but 
when they saw the unfavourable nature of the season, they refused 
to advance grain for subsistence until the new crops were ready. 
The consequence of this may bo imagined. “The cultivators 
neglected their sowings, which perished, and multitudes of them 
fled to other parts of the country, where reports led them to con- 
template a more promising state of affairs.” Kuraoli was much 
worse off than Etah, its soil being chiefly hhur or sand. The 
irrigated area was much smaller than in previous years, and 
fodder was only procured with the greatest difficulty. One- a 
of Mustafabad was in a passable state, tlie wet cultivation show- 
' ing an increase of about 25 per cent, on previous years. But the 
condition of the other half to the south-west was deplorable, 
and from a rapid survey Captain Wroughton estimated that it 
could not have more than one-quarter of the normal amount of 
wet cultivation. In both Mustafabad and Shikohabad there was 
no dry cultivation whatever, and fodder in the shape of grass 
was not procurable. Numbers of cattle perished from want of food 
and water, for in the country towards the Jamna the depth of 
the water from the surface rendered the raising of it in sufficient 
L quantities too laborious to be practicable. In Ghiror there WM 
an increase in the wet area of fully 25 per cent., but no dry til- 
lage Captain Wroughton writes Though the cattle have, 
genially speaking, not died, the hot wind ^ 

out, for oven in working now their limbs bend uftder the 




62 


^Main^ri District, 


shadow of a carcase. Grass is to be had, but is still extremely 
difficult to procure, and when obtained, if I may say so, contains j 
as much nutriment as rc'jocted rope-yarns, and is beyond the j 
masticating powers of any animal that I am acquainted with, ^ 
save and except a hungry Diiab bullock.’^ The efiTocts of this 
famine were seen, not only in untillcd fields, in the loss of men 
and cattle, and the deterioration of the working power of the 
survivors, but also in the violent changes which took place in the 
constitution of the existing social body. As will be seen here- 
after, very many of the transfers of land which subsequently 
took place owed their origin to the indebtedness caused by this 
famine, and the usurious interest charged by the hanias on loans 
for the purchase of seed and the necessaries of life, and it was 
many years before the district recovered from the check then ji 
given to its prosperity. The remissions of revenue for the two 
years amounted to Rs. 72,931, and the net balance at the close 
of 124G fasti (1838-39 A.D.) amounted to Rs. 4,09,804 on the 
district as it then stood. The next famine came in 1860-1, and 
found the district officers better prepared to deal with it. The 
Shikohabad road was taken in hand and gave daily employment 
to 4,000 persons while the distress lasted. A sum of Rs. 30,874^ 
(including Rs. 2,350 from local subscriptions) was placed at the 
disposal of the local committee, and of this Rs. 29,665 were 
expended in relieving a daily average of 4,605, or a total of ^ 
690,173. This does not include the sums spent on relief works, 
the Rs. 20,113 advanced to cultivators for seed and cattle, the 
greater part of which was never recovered, or the portions of the 
balances of land revenue, amounting to Rs. 1,06,421, which were 
subsequently remitted. The drought of 1868-9 caused little 
suffering in the district. During August 1868 the Collector 
anticipated that his district would be the centre of an enormous 
famine tract, but fortunately the rainfall in September came in 
time to save the district from ruin, and the eventual outturn of 
the spring crop was estimated at about three-fourths of the ^ 
average. Prices were kept high by the export of large supplies 
of grain to Central India. 

In 1877 the rains failed almost entirely, only 2-9 inches 
falling instead of over thirty as in normal years. Less than a 


1877 - 8 . 


THa People. 


86 


1 0('0, Dhanuk 1,136. The difference between the three highest 
and the three lowest castes here is striking. And it is worthy of 
remark that the Ahirs are a caste of which some sections at least 

were formerly prone to infanticide. 

The returns of 1901 show that Hindus preponderate to an 
overwhelming extent. Of the total of 829,357, no less than 
774 GOO or 93 4 per cent., are Hindus in the strict sense. Mu- 
hammadans number only 47,794, or 5-76 per cent., Jains 6,318, 

Aryas 1,250, Christians 353, and Sikhs 42. The distribution by 
tahsils and police circles will be seen in the tables given in the 

appendix. ^ . 

The Musalmans are mainly congregated in a few villages, 

largely at and about Qasba Shikohabad and villages in the 
vicinity, such as liapri, which, like Shikohabad, was once tho 
seat of a Musalman dynasty. Tho iMusalman population has 
increased at a somewhat more rapid rate than the Hindu, as is 
usually the case, the respective percentages being 15 and 9. 
Tho different Musalman scots have varied in numbers in a 
remarkable way in the last thirty years. In 1872 tho Shaikhs 
numbered 20,851 ; they arc now only 8,0G7. Saiyids show a 
slight increase, from 2,689 to 3,094; but Fathans, again, have 
diminished from 11,195 to G,579. The real increase has taken 
place in the sects which in 1872 were lumped together without 
specification to the total of 5,921. Dhuniyas, for example, alone 
now nearly equal this total, the return giving 6,248 of them, an 
increase of over 2,000 since 1891. Their primary occupation is 
the carding of cotton by vibration of a bowstring ; but they al^so 
go in to some extent for shopkeeping on a small scale. Another 
sect that now constitutes an important fraction of tho Musalman 
population is that of the Faqirs under their vafious denomma- 

tions of Jogi, Ghazi, Turkiya and Eegar. They mustered 5,692 
members. The Bihishtis with 3,475, the Bhangis or sweepers 
with 2,419 and the Qassabs or butchers with 2,340 representa- 
tives apiece, are, unlike the last, not only oi^cal 
importance, but indispensable to the community, Julahas, 

or weavers, contribute 2,274 to the total, and the KunjrM, or 
Mewa-farosh, whose business, as their name implies, is the sale 
of fruit and garden produce, can count 1,421. Other sects are 


BoligionB* 


Musal* 

mans* 


MaMi'puri District. 


Jains and 
Aryas, 


Christian- 

ity. 


’86 


the Manihars, who work in glass and tinfoil, particularly in the 
decoration of the glass bangles which are among the few arts and 
crafts of the district, and whose numbers have risen from 1,032 
in 1891 to 1,397 in 1900 ; the Bhatiyaras, properly speaking the 
keepers of inns and cook-houses, and tobacconists, but also 
fishermen, who number 1,131 ; the Banjaras, of whom there are 
841 of the Musalman faith, formerly the carriers of India, who, 
now that the advent of railways and metalled roads has rendered 
their system of bullock transport to a great extent obsolete, have 
taken to cultivation and cattle-dealing and have an evil reputa- 
tion for dacoity and other viohmt crimes ; and the Rangrez or 
dyers, who have increased from 193 to 712 during the decade. 
As usual ill India, the vast majority of the Musalmans are of 
the Sunni persuasion, only 392 men and 379 women being 
returned as Shlas. 

The figures for Jains exhibit a slight falling off since 1891, 
when there wore 6,760 of them in the district. They are most 
numerous in Mustafabad, though both Mainpuri and Shikohabad 
show a good proportion of the total. The Arya Samaj, on the 
other hand, has, here as elsewhere, made remarkable strides. 

. In 1891 there were only 326 of them ; there are now 1,260. 
Nearly half of this total live in the Bhongaon tahsil, the remain- 
der being pretty evenly distributed through the vlhor tahsils, with 
the exception of Karhal, which has only 36. 

In 1881 the number of Christians stood at 146, in 1891, at 132, 
and in 1901 at 363. The American Presbyterian Mission of 
Mainpuri dates back to November 1843, when the Rev. J. L. and 
Mrs. Scott took over from Dr. Guise, the Civil Surgeon, a boys^ 
school he had recently started. The school grew rapidly, and in 
1866 Mr. Freeman erected at a cost of Rs. 6,000, subscribed from 
: all parts of India, a new^ school building. During the Mutiny 
the missionary’s house and the chapel were plundered and burned, 
and the grounds appropriated by the Raja of Mainpuri, who, 
however, preserved the school building, using it as a court of 
. justice. In 1868 the mission reocenpied its premises and rebuilt 
the chapel and house. The mission expanded rapidly, there 
being built by 1872 one more residence, 10 girls’ schools and a 
normal school, and in 1882 a church was built in the city netar 


The People^ 


87 


the Lane tank. In 1883 the boys’ school was made a high school, 
the only high school in the district till 1908, Training classes 
were provided for teachers in 1902. The church in the city was 
disposed of in 1908 as being unsuitable, and the school building 
is now used for worship. The present staff consists of two mis- 
sionary families, four ordained native ministers, three catechists, 
twenty-six men teachers, eight women teachers and three Bible 
women at work in Mainpuri, Shikohabad, Jasraua, Kuraoli, 
Bhongaon and Bowar, and surrounding villages. Ten years ago 
the baptised community numbered less than 1 50 ; to-day (1909) 
it is about 2,500. 

The American Methodists have some work in and about 
Shikohabad and Kuraoli, with headquarters at Shikohabad. 
The main body of Native Christians is drawn from the sweeper 
and Charaar castes. 

In Mainpuri, as in the provinces generally, the great major- 
ity of Hindus were merely recorded as such, without any further 
specification of religious denomination. And it is obvious that 
an illiterate population of agriculturists, like the Hindus of 
Mainpuri, is not likely to have a very acute appreciation of the 
subtle distinctions of theoretical Hinduism. From a certain 
number, however, the questions of the enumerators elicited defi- 
nite replies, and the more important classes into which these fall 
may be mentioned. It appears that about 3 per cent, of the Hindu 
population declared themselves ‘^Monotheistic,” between 2 and 
3 per cent, were recorded as Vaishnavitos and rather more than 
1 per cent, as Baivites. The worshippers of Panchon Pir were 
slightly more numerous than the Saivites. 

The only other sects with any following worth notice were 
the Lingaits with 8,025 believers, the Kabir Panthis with 2,193 
and the Nanakshahis with 2,843. But if the sects are few, the 
castes are many, no less than 100 being represented in the dis- 
trict if we include sub-castes, while 209 persons who styled 
themselves Hindus failed to specify their castes. Sixteen of the 
castes have a membership of over 10,000 apiece and together 
make up 88*87 per cent, of the total, and thirteen have less than 
100 representatives each. There are no castes peculiar to Main- 
puri; though there are several, such as the Ahirs and Kahars, who 


gg il($inpu’iri Di^rict 

are found in greater numbers here than In any other district of 
the division. 

Ahiw. In point of both numbers and influence the Ahirs come first T 

in the agricultural community. Numbering 142,998 they form 
18*46 per cent, of the entire population. They belong to the Nand- 
bans division of the tribe, and their most numerous gotra is the 
Phatak, 83 per cent, of the whole tribe being settled in this 
district. These latter claim to be of Rajput origin, being 
descended from a Raja of Chitor by a dola marriage with the 
daughter of Digpal, Raja of Mahaban, an Ahir. They explain their 
name by the legend that when oik^c Chitor was assaulted by the 
Emperor of I)ehli, of the twelve gates (pliAtUiJcs) of the city, only 
one held out. To commemorate the signal bravery of the guard of ^ 
the twelfth gate the Raja issued a decree that they and their 
descendants should over after be distinguished by the name of 
Phatak. The descendants of the Raja and his Ahir lady settled 
first at Samohan, whence they gradually spread till they estab- 
lished themselves along the banks of the Jamna, and from this 
inaccessible stronghold raided the territory to the north, finally 
obtaining possession of the whole Sirsa and Jamna duab in 
pargana Shikohabad. Until quite recent years the Phatak Ahirs 
kept up their ancestral tradition of lawless violence and were a 
source of constant anxiety to the district authorities. They were, 
besides, thorough recusants in paying land revenue and among 
the worst offenders in the matter of female infanticide, a practice 
which they probably inherited from their Thakur ancestors. 

About the middle of the last century their lawless audacity 
culminated in a deliberate attempt to murder the District Magis- 
trate, Mr. Unwin, in revenge for the energetic measures he had 
adopted for the suppression of infanticide. Mr. Unwin escaped 
through a change of plans, but the unfortunate officer. Captain 
Alcocks, to whom ho had given up his doli, was killed before the 
murderers discovered their mistake. The execution of the ring- 
leader, against whom his brother turned approver, exerted a 
* salutary influence on the clan, and a steady amendment of 

manners has taken place, though they have not yet completely , 

cleared themselves of the suspicionrof making away with their 
girl infants. Strangely enough, during the Mutiny, under the 


The Peo]^, 


8 % 


influence of Eahim-ud-din Khan, Tahsildar of Mustafabad, 
the Phataks remained for the most part loyal to the government 
and aided the Bharaul Ahirs in resisting the rebel llaja ie] 

Singh. The Phatak Ahirs are not numerous in the district 
except south of the Sirsa. In the Shikohabad tahsil the fifteen 
note of the Ahirs form nearly one-fourth of the Hindu popula- 
tion, and in all the tahsils but Bhongaon, where they are 
slightly outnumbered by both Chamars and Kachhis, they are 
the numerically largest caste. There arc no large individual 
Ahir zamindar,, but, like thoThakurs, they generally hold their 
lauds in communities, which are numerous all over the district, 
except in Alipur Patti. The cliief Ahir family in the district is 
that of Bharaul, in the north of Shikohabad, whose possessions 
have been augmented by grants of villages as rewards for services 
in the Mutiny. 

Next to the Ahirs in number come the Chamars, of whom Ohamar*. 
there were 107,386, or 13-86 per cent, of the total Hindu popula- 
tion. Most numerous in Bhongaon, they are pretty evenly 
distributed throughout the district in proportion to the popula- 
tion of the several tahsils. This is natural in a caste which forms 
the bulk of the labouring population and small artizan class. 

Owning practically no land they hold as tenants 8-76 per cent, 
of the total cash-rented area of the district. Their character as 
cultivators varies ; where they are associated with the less 
industrious castes, their cultivation becomes equally indifferent; 
but where Kachhis or Lodhas or other good milti-vating castes 
prevail, the Chamars become but very little inferior to them 

and can pay their high rents with ease. » v tr- j WMlAk 

Kachhis numbered 68,382, or 8-83 per cent, of the Hindus, Kachhis. 

having decreased to some extent of recent years. Most numerow m 
Bhongaon and Mainpuri, which between them contain two-thirds 
of the community, they are fewest in Shikohabad, where t ey 
form only a trifle over 4 per cent, of the total population. As in 
other districts they are more successful as cultivators than m 
land-owners, excelling particularly in market-gardening. Their 
most important local sub-castes are the Kachwahas and Saksenas, 
the former claiming descent from the Kachwaha Thak^s by a 
slave girl, thedetter attributing their origin to the fmous Buddhist 


i 


60 


Mainpwri Diatriot. 


city of Sankisa on the borders of Mainpuri, Farrukhabad 
and Etah. 

Very close after the Kaehhis come Brahmans, with 68,085 
souls, or 8'79 per cent, of the total Hindu population, a very 
considerable advance on the figures of 1891, when they mustered 
only 66,301. This caste is pretty equally distributed through 
the tahsils, being almost exactly 10 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion in fehikohabad and Karhal, 7 per cent, in Mainpuri, and 8 
per cent, in the other two. They are not only increasing in 
numbers but also in importance, coming steadily to the front 
both as tenants and owners of laud, and now hold 20-37 per cent, 
of the cultivated area of the district. Their villages are gener- 
ally well, if not strictly, managed and they are good average 
cultivators. One considerable loss to be sot off against the 
general gain of the Brahman community in the district is the 
almost complete disappearance of the possessions in this district 
of the Brahman family of the Chaudhri of Bishangarh (Binsia) 
of 3; arrukhabad, owing to spendthrift extravagance, wild litiga- 
tion and dishonest management by unscrupulous agents. The 
great majority of the Mainpuri Brahmans belong to the Sanadh 
subdivision, and trace their descent from the old Chaudhris of 
Delhi. The principal settlement of Sanadhs is in Barnahal and 
Bhongaon, where they are steadily increasing their already 
considerable possessions. Next in importance come the Kanau- 
jiyas, deriving their origin, as their name implies, from Kanauj 
in Farrukhabad. They furnish a certain number of recruits for 
Brahman regiments, and are better agriculturists than most 
other Brahman septs, as they are not above driving the plough 
themselves, instead of taking only a vicarious part in the opera' 
tion. The only other section of the caste which is at all 
numerous is that of the Gaurs. Mention may also be made of 
the Mathuriyas of Mainpuri town, who are said to have come 
here with the Chauhans, and the Bhats and Bbadauris, the last of 
whom subsist by begging and are in low repute. The Mathuriya 
Ghaubes say that their ancestors Kamalakar and Bikarmajit 
were Chaudhris of Muttra in the time of Ala-ud-din Ghori. 
They quarrelled with the Musalman Qazi and killed him and so 
bad to fly from the country. Bikarmajit fled to the east, but ym 


pursued, and in a battle fought at Raya, six miles from Muttra, 
his four sons were killed. He escaped to Phavauli in the Etah 
district, where he settled, and his descendants adopted the profess- 
ion of arms, one of them being a manaabdar of 600 horse in 
Aurangzeb’s reign. Many of them took service with the Raja of 
Mainpuri, and there has been a large colony o£ them in Mainpuri 
itself and other villages belonging to the Raja over since. 

Rajputs or Thakurs numbered 67,828, or 8'76 per cent, of Bajputs. 
the Hindu population. Their distribution varies from slightly 
over 10 per cent, of the total inhabitants in Shikohabad to rather 
less than 5 per- cent, in Mustafabad. ihey have increased 
largely since the last census, when their total number was only 
63,550, but have boon dwindling somewhat in influence audpossess- 
ions for a considerable time past. At the last settlement they 
owned rather more than half the district, 44 per cent, of the 
total number of villages belonging to them, and their villages 
being generally the largest. At the recent settlement the per- 
centage of area in their possession was 45'71. They are usually 
indifferent cultivators and hold their lauds in largo coparcenary 
communities, though there are some large proprietors. At the 
recent census the Mainpuri Rajputs included representatives of 
37 different clans, while over 10,000 were recorded merely as 
Rajputs or Thakurs without specification of elan. 

First in number as in importance come the Chauhans, form- Bajput 
ing 33 per cent, of the whole. One of the four great Agnikula 
or fire-born tribes of the Rajputs of the solar line, whose first 
eponymous ancestor was created, by the prayers and incanta- 
tions of Vasishta, to war against the demons who defiled and 
rendered vain the Brahmans’ sacrifice, their genealogical tree 
gives thirty -nine princes anterior to Prithiraj, from whom the 
Mainpuri Chauhans claim descent. Prithiraj was the last Chauhan 
King of Delhi and lost his life and throne in 1193 A.D. after 
his defeat at Panipat by Muhammad Shahab-ud-din Ghori. But 
the genealogy is contested, and it is probable that the real ^ 

founder of this branch of the clan was Deo Brahm, a less 
distinguished cadet of the same house, who at some time after ;| 

the defeat of Prithiraj and the faU of the Chauhan dynasty , Vg 

oame whli a numerous following to Bhongaon; and settled do^ : 


Kajput 











about a mile to the east of that town. Here he built a village, 
urbioh was subsequently enlarged and fortified by Pratap Rudra, 
tlie fourth in descent from Deo Brahm, after whom it to this day 
bears the name of Partappur. This Pratap Rudra is perhaps 
the Rai Partap who in the reign of Bahlol Lodi (1450 to 1488) 
held Bhongaon, Patiali and Kampil. A strong point in favour 
of the identification of this Rai Pratap with Pratap Rudra is that 
according to both the genealogists and the Musalman historians 
his son’s name was Narsingh Deo, who was assassinated by Darya 
Rhan Lodi about 1454 A.D. But these dates make the interval 
of nearly 300 years between the death of Prithiraj and the era 
of Rai Partap somewhat difficult to bridge. Even the Main- 
puri traditions, which give the names of all the princes in the 
direct line from Prithiraj to Partap Rudra with the length of 
their reigns, fall to account for more than 170 years from the 
death of the former to the accession of the latter. So there 
must be an “ error in the compute ” somewhere. It is possible, 


of course, that “Rai Pratap” may have been a generic term 
used by the Musalman writers, notoriously indifferent about 
details when discoursing of infidels, to denote the chief of 
Bhongaon for the time being. Jagat Man, the eighth in descent . 
from Pratap Rudra, Ijransferred his seat from Pratappur to 
Mahabatpur or Jagatnagar, which now forms the western suburb 
of the town of Bhongaon. He took arms against the aborigind 
Chirars, who had, by their lawless habits, become a source cl ^ 
much aunoyance to the Musalman Government, and, as orm 
tradition goes, fell suddenly upon them while congregated wife 
their wives and families at a great religious fair at Jamaufa, 
and, with the assistance of the Kayasths of Bhongaon, slaughtered 
them without distinction of age or sex. According to another ; 
tradition, on fee advice of the Kayasths, he invited fee <2hiw**.^ 
to a least, and, when they were stupefied wife liquOr^^^ 
combined Chauhan and Kayasth forces attacked and maaaae^||| 
femn in cold Wood, filling up fee measure of their; trea«^^ 
■ by butchering the pregnant women and children. , From 
part they acted on this occasion the Bhongaon 
aaid to have earned the nickname of ot ttdd 








mmmmmmm 




took a leading part in the subjugation of these uborigipes and • 
thereby gained the favour of the Musalman Government, TvhiJ 
at the same time they annexed the extensive possessions of the 
Chirars and thus considerably increased their influence. Owing 
to subsequent trouble with these Chirars, and probably in dread of 
the jealousy which his rising power might excite in the omils, 
Jagat Man deemed it prudent to retire from Jagatpur to the 
extensive Khera of Asauli, which he had taken from the Chirars, 
and there he built a fort and established himself. Not long 
afterwards, however, he transferred his headquarters to Mam- . 
puri, where, assuming for the first time the title of Raja, he laid 
the foundation of the present fort, in which the head of the 
family has since resided. No historical facts worthy of notice 
J are recorded of the family till the time of Dalip Singh, the fifth 

* in descent from Jagat Man, who, in an encounter with Bhun 

Khan, an officer of the Farrukhabad Nawab,.wa8 defeated, taken 
prisoner and slain. His widows committed sati, an act com. 
memorated to the present day in a memorial building. His 

successor seems to have revived the prestige of the family, for 

in 1749 he is found busy in extending the city and founding 
Muhkamganj, now the most populous and commercial quarter 
of the town. The name was given in honour of his childlMS 

, brother Muhkam Singh. With Sultan Singh, Jaswant Singh s 

I successor, the direct line of descent was broken, for he di^ 
childless, and a collateral relative, Dalel Singh, was summon^ 
from Angautha, in the Mainpuri pargana, to assume the head- 
ship of the clan. He was the reigning Raja at the cession in 
1801, and received a khUat and a parwana from Lord Wellesley 
in 1803 for his loyalty in attacking and driving off the Marathas 
from Shikohabad, and he afterwards rendered good servioo 
against Holkar in 1805. He died in 1829 and wm succe^ 
by his son Raja Ganga Singh, during whose life time » 
hh>w was dedt to the fortunes of the house, a protraoM 
L during the progress of settlement operations ma& by , 

»^iS. BSa«onetone resulting in the^^^ losing proprn^ 


i 



. 94' Mainpuri J)i8trict. 


of Eaja Ganga Singh, his brother Narpat Singh succeeded to 
the title, but died after holding it only two years. A dispute 
arose as to the succession, which was eventually decided in 
favour of his son Tej Singh, to the exclusion of his uncle Zalim 
Singh, who appealed to the Privy Council. While the appeal 
was pending the Mutiny broke out. Tej Singh rebelled : the Eaj 
was confiscated and ultimately bestowed on his cousin Bhawani 
Singh, who had remained loyal during the outbreak, though 
the title was conferred only ns a personal honour. The present 
Eaja Shoomangal Singh, Avhose title was made hereditary on the 
25th Juno 1900, is the grandson of Bhawani Singh. 

Other Other elans important in this district on account of their 

numbers are the Jadon (5,038), the Bais (4,267), the Eathor (4,064), 
the Bhadauria (2,727), the Tomar (2,382), the Gaur (2,375), the 
Parihar (1,864), the Kachwaha (1,720) and the Dhakra (1,630). 
At the 1891 census the Mainpuri Jadons numbered only 1,348, 
and the present figures are to be explained by the fact that the 
Kirars, whoso claim to bo reckoned as Eajputs was allowed at 
this census, have returned themselves as belonging to this sept, 
which is styled by Colonel Tod “the most illustrious of all the 
tribes of Ind,” and claims descent through the Yaduvansi from 
Krishna. The leading Jadon in this district, and the only one 
whose claim to kinship is allowed by the Karauli Darbar, is the 
Thakur of Phariha Kotla. The family of the Eaja of Awa, which 
owns several villages in pargana Mustafabad, is described in full 
in the Etah Gazetteer. The Bais Thakurs claim to bo true Tilok- 
chandi Bais, who emigrated from Dundiakhera in Baiswara in the 
fourteenth century and settled in Bewar, which they colonized. 
As far back as 1391-2 A.D. they in concert with the Eathors 
created such disturbances here and in Farrukhabad that large 
bodies of imperial troops had to be sent out to quell them. 
They still own a large number of villages in that pargana and 
several also in Barnahal and Shikohabad. Dihuli, the chief 
seat in Barnahal, is mentioned in the Tarihh-i~ Muharih Shah as 
“the strongest place in the possession of the infidels,” and as 
' having been attacked and destroyed in 1420 A.D. by Sultan 

TThi^r Khan on his march from Koil to Etawah. Always noted 
lor turbulence nnd recusancy, it was probably from them th^ 


fhJk Peoflt, 


96 


Akbar met with the resistance at Paraunkh, in pargana Bewar, 
which is described in the history. In the Mutiny, again, Ganga 
Singh of Dihuli, the recognized head of the family , rebelled, and 
'* his property was confiscated. The Rathors are descended from . 
an inferior branch of the Kanauj family known as the Dhir 
Sah Sakha, and formerly owned a chatorasi (or group of 84 
villages) in Kuraoll, Bhongaon, Mainpuri and the neighbouring 
pargLas of the Etah district, where they settled after their expul- 
sion from Kauauj on the defeat of the celebrated Jai Chaud by 
Muhammad Ghori. The Sujrai family, in which the title Chaudhri 
is hereditary, is the head of the clan. The Bhadauriyas are 
chiefly met with in Shikohabad, where the Raja of Bhadawar in 
the Agra district, the head of the clan, owns the two kach- 
i har villages of Bhurtar and Kalianpur on the .Tamna, facing 
Batesar. °They are revenue-free in perpetuity and are at present 
managed by the Court of Wards, d'ho Tomars are scattered over 
the district and do not occur in compact bodies with definite 
historical associations. They say they come from beyond the 
Chambal. The (iaurs arc said to have come from Katehri, and 
their story is that the daughter of one of their leaders married 
the sou of the Raja of Mainpuri and the clan thereby obtained 
eight Ahir villages. The Aliirs, however, say that they took 
from the Gaurs live out of twelve villages appropriated by the 
latter from the Chirars. The Farihars, who at the 1891 census 
numbered only 685, had in the past an unsavoury reputation as 
lawless desperadoes, which, however, they no longer deserve. 
Legend makes them the first-born of the four Agmkula, whoso 
ancestor was found incompetent to w'ar with the demons, and so 
placed as guardian of the gate (lVi«/a to (fmfmt^Pharihara). 
The Kaehwahas from across the Chambal hold a couple of villages 
in pargana Mainpuri and shares in villages in Alipur Patti. 
They say they came here in consequence of a marriage with a 
member of the Chauhan family of Mainpuri, and the head of their 
clan resides at Deopura, close to the city. The Dhakras are 
chiefly found in Shikohabad, Barnahal, Mustafabad and Kishni, 
where their possessions are now small, though they once owned a 
wide territory. They seem to have come from Ajmer early in 
the sixteenth century and to have gained a firiq footing in that 




Mainpuri District. 


j[iOdlias« 


line of country now traversed by the East Indian Eailway from 
Etawah to Barhan in Jalesar. They were notorious in the 
beginning of the eighteenth century for their lawless depreda- 
tions and gave the imperial officers much trouble in the neigh- 
bourhood of Agra, rendering the communications between that 
city and Etawah insecure. Their insubordinate conduct brought 
its own punishment, for before the close of the century they had 
greatly diminished in numbers and their possessions had dwindled 
down to a few scattered villages. Otlicr representatives of great 
Eajput clans are the Gautaras, Bacbhals, Eaghubansis, Bargujars 
and Gahlots, but neither their numbers nor their influence are 
sufficient to warrant detailed description. Mention may, however, 
be made of the Tanks, who* are no longer separately recorded in 
the census, on account of a remarkable featxrre of their tribal 
organization. Originally settled in a cluster of 12^ villages, 
called the Sarheharah gaon, round Kosma,in the Ghiror jxargana, 
they were always noted for their pi-edatory habits, and in the 
reign of Akbar they attacked and plundered an imperial convoy. 
As a punishment for this daring robbery one of the two brother 
chiefs was carried ofi' to the capital and there compelled to 
embrace the Muhammadan religion. Ever since then the family 
and property have been divided into two sections, “Kosma 
Muslimin ” and “ Kosma Hinud,” and, strangely enough, the head 
of the Musalman section is equally looked up to by the whole 
Tank community with the head of the Hindu branch, and the 
joint headship is fully recognized by every member in all matters 
affecting the internal economy of the clan, while the customs of 
the converts to Islam still partake greatly of a Hindu character. 
Eefcrenee may also be made to the Bhale Sultan tribe on account 
of the extraordinary disproportion between the sexes, only 4 
males being recorded to 109 females. Ihe Eaja of lirwa, who 
is a Baghela Eajput, owns .considerable property in Barnahal 
and also the village of Tinraoli in pargana Mainpuri : an account ' 
of his family is given in the Farrukhabad Gazetteer, 

Sixth in numerical importance comes the Lodha caste with 
a membership of 47,688, or 6-16 per cent, of the Hindu population. 
They are first-rate cultivators and hold 7'46 per cent, of the total 
Cf^h-rented area as tenants, and a great deal more as sub-tenants 


tf , . 


The People, 


97 




ofThakurs and Brahmans, who cannot so far derogate from 
their dignity as to touch a plough. But for all their excellence 
as cultivators they are not successful landowners and their pro- 
prietary holdings have been steadily diminishing till they now 
own only -39 per cent, of the total cultivated area. Like the 
Kachhis they claim a Eajput origin, and are probably the off- 
spring of Aryan fathers and aboriginal mothers. They are pretty 
evenly distributed among the tahsils except in Karhal, where 

they only number 1,705. 

The Gadariyas, or shepherd caste, are found in Mainpuri to Gadariyw. 
the number of 31,785, or 4T0 per cent, of the Hindus in the 
district, a small increase on the figures of the previous census. 

In addition to the practice of their titular vocation, they have 
long since taken to cultivation and now hold 3-38 per cent, of 
the cash-rented area. At the 1840 settlement Gadariyas w'ere 
among the village communities engaged as biswadars, but they 
early lost their rights and sank from proprietors to tenants. 

They do not favour any particular portion of the district, but 
arc found in all tahsils alike. 

The Kahars or Dhiraars, formerly the carriers of palanquins, Kahars. 
now cultivators, particularly of water-nuts, and fishermen, 
amounted in 1901 to 26,471, or 3-42 per cent of the Hindu popu- 
lation of the district. They are chiefly concentrated in the 
Bhongaon and Mainpuri tahsils, but about one-third of them 
are divided up in almost equal proportions among the other 
three. As tenants they hold 1-46 per cent, of the cash-rented 
area, but the majority of them are engaged in various pursuits 
connected with the water, especially in fishing, of which they 
practically have the monopoly, most of the tanks and rivers 
being leased out to them. 

The great trading and money-lending caste of Banias, with Baniu. 
its Mahajau and Marwari sub-divisions, is represented by 
22,459 members in this district, less than 3 per cent, of the 
Hindu population. Of this total no less than 9,456 are Mahajans, 
who in the Mainpuri tahsil outnumber the Banias by more than 
four to one. This tahsil also contains almost all the Marwaris, 
only nine being found in Bhongaon and one in ICarhaL In this 
district as in all others the caste is slowly but surely ousting the 



Qg ilfaiitjmri District. 

cultivating classes proper from their proprietorship of the land, 
though here the process has begun later and develop^ more 
slowly than in many places. In 1873 the Banras^ held 4-53 pm- 
cent, of the district as proprietors; the percentage m their hands 
is now 8-21. This tendency of the land to pass into the hands 
of the trading classes is pretty general all over the district, and 
only inparganas Kuraoli and Bewar has it been resisted at all 
successfully : in the latter case no doubt because until the opening 
of the new canal that pargana offered singularly few attme- 
tions to the prudent investor. Very few Banias take to cu tiya- 
tion as tenants, only -23 percent, of the cash-rented area being 
held by this caste. They do not make good landlords. Generally 
absentees they regard their villages purely in the light of invest- 
ments which are to be made to yield the maximum return possible, 
and their management is accordingly strict and merciless. 

No other caste is found in numbers exceeding twenty thou- 
sand but Koris, Telis, Nais, Barhais, Dhaiiuks, Dhobis and 
Kumhars have each over ten thousand apiece. Koris numbered 
18 661, an increase of over 4,000 since the previous census, and 
wOTe ioxind principally in Bhongaon, though occurring in con- 
siderable numbers in all tahsils. They are the Hindu weaver 
caste and for the most part follow their traditional avocation, 
though some have taken to agriculture and others to masonry 
work. The Tells, or oil-pressers, of whom there were 16,496, are 
generally regarded as one of the lowest of all castes. In this 
district, however, their pretensions are considerable, as they claim 
to have originally been Kathors of Kanauj. This claim is not, 
however, recognized outside their own community. Their num- 
bers have increased by 3,000 during the decade, though the com- 
petition of foreign mineral oil has seriously affected their 
business and driven many of them to seek new spheres of labour. 
The Nais, or barbers, amounted to 16,320, distributed as is 
natural pretty evenly over the district. They hold a prominent 
place among the village servants, exercising not only the funo- 
tions of hair-cutting, shaving and massage, but also, as^ m 
eighteenth century Europe, the craft of the physician. In ^di- 
tion to all this the Nai is the general village matchmaker and go- 
between in matters of marriage and betrothal, while, at a pinch, 


The People. 


99 


if uo Bralimau be available, he will himself officiate at a wedding 
or a funeral. Another important village menial, the Barhai, or 
carpenter, was represented by 16,279 members. He makes and 
repairs the village carts, ploughs and other agricultural imple- 
ments, generally receiving a fixed allowance of grain annually as 
a salary therefor. The Dhanuks, again, of whom 14,863 were 
enumerated, are mostly village servants, the men acting as 
watchmen, messengers and musicians at weddings, and the women 
as midwives. 4'he men also work as day labourers and some- 
times do a litthi cultivation, l>eing occasionally remunerated for 
their services with a patch of rent-free land. Two other castes 
whose labours are indispensable to the village community 
reckoned over 10,000 members apiece— the Hhobis, or washermen, 
with 13,721, and the Kumhars, or potters, with 11,890. Next 
in number, but much above these in importance, come the 
Kayasths with 9,223. Though tliey only make up a little more 
than 1 per cent, of the population, they hold as prbprietors 6-43 
per cent, of the cultivated area of the district, and formerly owned 
a still greater i)art of it. Scattered over all the tahsils they are 
probably the descendants of individual adventurers who followed 
the fortunes of other invaders and made themselves invaluable 
to their masters as scribes and accountants. Under the Musal- 
mans several of them Itecamo hereditary qanungos, and they 
appear to have gradually converted the assignments of revenue 
which remunerated their services into assignments of zamindari, 
thus acquiring considerable landed interests. Their descendants 
have now largely dissipated the ancestral property by idleness 
and sloth, but they still hold large estates in Bhongaon, Bewar, 
Alipur patti, Kuraoli, Mainpuri and Shikohabad. In the last- 
named tahsil two branches of the clan-one at Madanpur and the 
other at Qasba Shikohabad— have well maintained their positions 
as zaminda/rs and raieea. The Madanpur branch in particular, 
whose head is Lala Madho Narayan, manage their estates well and 
are good landlords. They did loyal service in the Mutiny and 
received some villages in reward. Most of the patwaris and 
qwnungoa in the district are Kayasths, and they fill many other 

appotoents in Government service. Other castes with a mem- 

betshin of over 6,000 are the necessary Bhangi, the Bharbhunja, 



t. 


Criminal 

tribes. 


: ■( 




MctinpuH District 


or graiu-parcher, that excellent agriculturist the Kurmi, the 
Lohar or blacksmith, and the Faqir. The remaining castes 
whose numbers exceed 2,000 are Sunars, Darzis, Khatiks, Kadheras, 
Bhats, Malis, Tambolis, Luniyas, Kewats and Arakhs. Of 
these Kadheras may be singled out for comment as a com- 
paratively rare caste, who are found here to the number of 3,030, 
nearly all in Shikohabad. They appear to be a sub-caste of 
Mallahs, who have abandoned their ancestral occupation as 
boatmen for the cultivation of riverain land and now congregate 
in the Jamna villages tilling the kachhar soils of the ravines. 
Tambolis, again, who grow, and Baris, who soil the pan or 
aromatic leaf of the ph^r held, are found here in somewhat 
unusual numbers. Of the less numerous castes the Kbattris 
deserve mention as, though they muster only 146 members all told, 
they yet own 31,925 acres, or 2-98 per cent, of the cultivated 
area of the district. 

Maiiipuri contains representatives of most of the criminal 
and w'andering tribes, though they have as a rule settled down 
into more peaceful and law-abiding ways of life. It is true that 
neither the Haburah nor the Sansiya figures in the census list, 
though the former certainly frequents the district. But this can 
bo readily accounted for by the well-known aversion of these 
tribes to reveal their identity when questioned — a reticence born of 
much police supervision. Most numerous were the Nats, of 
whom there were 1,664, the principal gipsy tribe of the provinces, 
whose men are often acrobats and rope-dancers, and the women 
prostitutes. They practise surgery and physic in a small way 
and are adept thieves. The Khangars, of whom only 69 were 
enumerated at the previous census, had increased by 1901 to 
1 640, a figure which implies either large immigration or some 
remarkable change of classification. These, though not exactly a 
criminal tribe, are prone to commit theft and burglaries. Some 
way behind these were the Basors, who totalled 767, a much 
less offensive race than either of the two already mentioned. They 
are now settled in villages, mostly in the Bhongaon tahsil, which 
contains 622 of them, and earn their living for the most part as 
day labourers, keeping pigs and doing a little cultivation as well. 
They are a backward tribe of a degraded type, but considerably 


The People. 


101 





reformed in their habits in regard to crime. Next in numbers 
and very similar in character to the last come the Pasis, of whom 
357 were enumerated, mostly in Shikohabad and Mainpuri, and 
after thorn the Berias to the number of 308. This is one of the 
worst of all the criminal tribes ; irreclaimable vagrants and 
criminals, they wander gipsy-like over the country with no 
ostensible means of subsistence, but actually supported by theft, 
robbery and the prostitution of their women. The Kan jars have 
very greatly diminished in numbers since the 1891 census, when 
there were 459 of them. There are now only 97, nearly all in the 
^[ainpuri tahsil. They are gipsies and hunters, making a living 
by the manufacture of mats, baskets, ropes, and drums, and 
the collection and sale of the roots of the kluis grass. They 
are now tending to abandon their old vagrant mode of life 
and settle down in villages. Probably this tendency and the 
accompanying desire to conceal their disreputable origin by self- 
enrolmerit in some other caste may account for a good deal of 
their apparent diminution at this census. 

As is to be expected in a district so devoid of large towns 
and industries the vast majority of the population is employed 
in and supported by agriculture. The census returns show 70'4 
per cent, of the people as dependent on this means of livelihood, 
a figure distinctly above the provincial average of 65*4. This 
includes zamindo/rs, tenants and sub-tenants as well as farm 
serv^anta and field labourers. The allied occupation of the 
pasture and care of animals only employed about *8 per cent, 
of the population, while just over G per cent, relied on unskilled 
labour other than agricultural for their living. The industrial 
population formed 1 2*7 per cent, of the whole, composed for the most 
part of those engaged in the preparation and supply of material 
substancas, principally food and drink, though weavers and 
metal-workers, potters and carpenters, and similar traders all 
come under this head. Commerce was represented by only *3 per 
cent, of the population, an extraordinarily low proportion, well 
below the provincial percentage of *7. For census purposes 
money-lending, banking, agen^ and brokerage, as well as 
general trading and shop-keeping, are reckoned as commercial 
pursuits, but not the transport and storage of goods, businesses 


Occupa- 

tions. 




McUi/tpuTi DistTict* 


I 

* li 


1 ^ 


Lan^ge 
and litera- 
tura. 


which claimed -4 per cent, of the population. The learned and 
artistic professions engaged *8 per cent, of the people, though it 
may be noted in passing that literature was unrepresented in the 
district. Rather more than 1 per cent, of the total population 
was taken up by the administration of the district in all its 
various branches, while nearly 1-5 per cent, wore of independent 
means, an elastic term covering gentlemen of property , pen- 
sioners, beggars, and those entertained at the State’s charges iii 
prisons and reformatories. 

The prevailing language in common use is that known as 
the Braj dialect of western Hindi, the tongue generally employed 
in Aligarh, Muttra, Agra, litah and Bareilly ; but lying as 
Mainpuri does next door to Farrukhabacl, the home of the 
Kanaujia dialect, there is. a strong tendency along its eastern 
border to Idend the two speeches. The main peculiarities in 
pronunciation differentiating the local speech from ordinary 
Hindi are the habits of substituting a final “ o ” for all other 
vowel terminations ; the alteration of initial “ w and y 
to j, as in juh, jih for wuh, yih, and tlie use of a short 
“i” for “ a” jkigra tov jkcigra. The census returns reveal 
an extraordinary homogeneity in language through the dis- 
trict, no less than 9,999 persons out of every 10,000 being 
returned as speaking western Hindi, a higher proportion 
than in any other district of the provinces. The tongue of 
the ten-thousandth individual was Bengali. literature is not 
much esteemed in Mainpuri, no one confessing to its practice at 


the census. 

■ p. .. There are two job-printing presses in Mainpuri town, and 

, ^ the sole periodical is the Vaish Hitaishi of Bewar, a journal 

, a very limited circulation and of anti-Government tone. 

' c' f’roMiet. All kinds of proprietary tenures exist, including zamindwi, 

: ^ * both single and joint, perfect pattidari, imperfect pattidari, 

i i ‘*““**‘ bhmy«chara and a peculiar form known as the tor or tauzi 

1 tenure found in two viUages of pargana Ghiror. Inferior and 

' i , * superior proprietary rights also prevail largely in tahsils Mainpuri 

' b » ‘ and Bhongaon, and to some extent in Mustafabad. But the 

■ jl ' feature of Sie landholding tenur« of the district is stUl the large 

Area held by large communities, which may be further described as 


Administration and Revenue. 


141 


rule but the Collector would seem to have had a free hand. 
Later on it was- administered under Act XX of 185G, and it was 

not tilt the 16 th March ISGG that it was raised to the dignity ot 

a municipality under Act XXVI of 1850. A committee was 
then appointed consisting of four European officers, one native 
official and four non-official members, the first meeting being 
held on the 25th April 1866. The members were appointed by 
Government on nomination. Act VI of 1868, the^ Xumcipa 
Improvements (N.-W. P.) Act, introduced the principle of elec- 
tion alon" with nomination at present in force, and in that year 
five memters were thus appointed by election. Two other muni- 
cipal Acts (XV of 1873 and XV of 1883) were passed before 
the Municipalities Act, I of 1900, came into operation. The 
number of elected members is now eight and of appointed mem- 
hers three. The District Magistrate has always been chairman, 
except for ton days in 1882, when a non-official member held the 
post. Since 1902 a paid secretary has been employod. The mam 
source of income is octroi duty levied at various barriers command- 
ing all the most important points of entrance into the city ilio 
average gross income under this head for the five years ending in 
1909 was Rs. 19,975, or deducting refunds Rs. 17,706, of which rather 
more than half was derived from articles of food. The other chie 
items of income are from piece-goods and textile fabrics, chemi- 
cals, drugs and spices, and building materials. Octroi is re- 
sponsible for more than four-fifths of the total income, the rest 

being contributed by a tax on weighmen, license fees, rents, fines 
and miscellaneous items, including slaughter-house income, pro- 
ceeds of sweepings, &c. The main items of expenditure are 
conservancy, lighting, public works, education and 

There are two notified areas in the district : at Shikohabad 
and in the civil station of Mainpuri. Five towns are administered 
under Act XX of 1856 -Sirsaganj, Karhal, Bhongaon, Pharha 
and Kuraoli. The civil station notified area, which includes 
the Gola Bazar, was up till 1909 an Act XX towm It has a 
population of about 1,000 and was once the Gora Bazar of the 
old cantonment area. The income in these towns and notifi^ 
areas is derived from a tax on property, tuizuI income and he sale 
of refuse. The Village Sanitation Act has been appued in 




District 

board. 


^ Eduoa? 
tion. 


142 Mainpu7*i Distriot* 


Ghiror, ]3cwar and Jasraiia, and in these the only income is 
drawn from tlie proceeds of petty fines under the Act. 

Prior to the year i8S2 .there existed in the district a local 
funds committee with a corresponding education and ^lispens- 
ary committee under tli i Local Ratos Acts XIV and XV HI 
of 1871^ and the corresponding Ads II I ancl IV of 1878. Ihcse 
were suporsedc.'d under Government resolution no. d/Jo of dtli 
March 1882, and a new district committee was re quired to be 
formed with effect from the Ist April 1882. This committee 
was actually formed with effect from the IDth June 1882, and 
its constitution was legalized under Act XIV of l88o. The 
district board now consists of 16 members, of whom 4 hold seats 
by virtue of their offices and 12 are elected. Iho Distiict 
Magistrate is Chairman of the board, and the otlier official 
members are the subdivisional magistrates, one of whom is 
usually elected secretary. The scope of the work of the district 
board is very large, the departments dealt with including educa- 
tion, medical arrangements, vaccination, sanitation, local public 
works, the care of sarais and encamping grounds, the testing of 
vital statistics, the local work of the Civil Veterinary depart- 
ment and cattle pounds and ferries. I he tables giyen in the 
appendix show the income and expenditure of the board since 
the year 1891. 

A report drawn up by Mr. Raikes in 1848 on the condition 
of indigenous schools resulted in the establishment of tahsili 
and indigenous schools in 1850. The returns of 1848 show 
that there were then in the district (including tlie parganas since 
transferred to Etah) 152 schools attended by 1,149 pupils, of 
whom 956 were Hindus. There were 79 towns and villages 
provided with schools and 1,880 without them. I he general 
feeling was described as being ^‘unfavourable to literary pui- 
suits even of the most humlde and practicable character. The 

or district school was opened in 1867, the only Anglo-ver- 
nacular school previously in existence being one belonging to 
the American Presbyterian Mission. In 1875 there were alto- 
gether 328 schools in the district attended by 6,872 pupils. Of 
these 145 were indigenous schools with 1,443 pupils. In 1909 
the number of Government and aided schools was 167 with 


Admimstration and Revenue. 


14S 


G 937 male and G21 female seholarn. Of those six were second- 
ary schools with 1,08<^ lioysandone j-lrl and the rest pnimyy 
schools with r.,S57 inalo and 020 f.nnalo sdiolars. A detailed 
list of all schools, except indigenous schools, is given m the 
anpeudix. All arc managed or ai<hd hy tlio dislrict loan, 
with the exception of the model girls’ school at, Mainpuri. 

The supervision of the distri(d lioard sclio.ds ,s carrie.l out l.y 
a deputy inspector and two sub-deputy inspectors. z da 

school, now a high school, is under the direct supewvision 
of the inspector of schools and his assistant Ihe Mission 
School is also a High School and is a llourislung institution. 
Mainpuri is one of tho baidcward districts in respect o 

tion ^ Tho bulk of the population in tlio rural trac s consists 
of Kajputs and Ahirs, who liavo never as a 

to .cud U,cic cMKlrcu t„ “ ^ 

dWriot 1«. l,»ua kind of l.ackw.Uf.-. u, Heeled k, H 
of Western civilizolioii, wliieh hn. .ivei* over o lei i>»i ■ 
countrv. The ne» railway whi.l. ka. opened np he e nl.o of 
Ihed Jriet may ke expected to do something toward, .nfnstng « 

"" ?;!flM«Tf‘ttLcy comp, led at ““ “f'; 

period. ,how that the advance of tho a.cr.ge .nhaWant of the 

Mainpuri dislrict in this direction ha, keen slow , In 

^ \ r, 1 4.1 f ^7 rnqlos ill 1 000 woio lileuato, and o 

1881 It was found that o7 males , 

females out of the same uumher. f„,.thur rise 

increased to 33 a.rd 14 respectively, wh.l. ... ; 

to 42 in the ca.e of male, a.rd 18 rn that of ‘““f' , 

Itistohoro„.omk.,.dthatfo,ecn.n.pmr^e.‘^ 

only “ able to read and write,” and that the can . , 

roquisilo is not tkeroforo a kigh olio ; Init oven a 

■ oiJy six distrlem in tho province, rank lower m « •'*»* , 

male literacy, though no less than 22 have a m dPatinetly 
of literate female,. The .mall Musalman I'nP;'"'”" ‘ J 

better cdrtcalcd than the Hindu major, y, 3;5 per cent, ej the 
former posaesslng the art of reading an 'y' *ng i. 

latter, the figure, for male, being 6-43 and 3-60 
tor tom.le, 26and.l4. “ ^Sanf arf 

the larger number of towmeidenU among the Musa 




Dlspens- 

sario. 


i 

i 


Cattle 

pounds. 


J 44 Mainpuri District. 

to the fact that their ordinary avocations are of a more humanizing 
tendency than agriculture. In the matter of English education ^ 
both are remarkably deficient, though not more so^ than their ^ 
neighbours, only -16 per cent, of the Hindu population and -33 
of the Musulmans having any tincture of this, while neither class 
seems as yet to have allowed its womenfolk to experiment with 
foreign learning. 

In addition to the dispensary and hospital at headquarters, 
which are directly in charge of the Civil Surgeon with a civil 
assistant surgeon, there are also outlying dispensaries, each m 
charo'c of a hospital assistant, at Bhongaon, Kavlial, Shikoh- 
abad“ and Jasrana. iThese all Delong to the District Board 

and are under the control of the Civil Surgeon, who also looks 

after the police hospital and the jail dispensary. At Gopalpur 
there is a dispensary in charge of a hospital assistant, maiii^ 
tained by the Irrigation department. The Dufferin hospital 
for female patients at Mainpuri was built by public subscription 
in 1894, Bs. 7,087 being collected. It is not at present in an 
altogether satisfactory condition, as considerable additions and 
improvements are needed in the accommodation. The average 
daily attendance at all the hospitals and dispensaries m the 
district during 1908-9 was 401 out-patients and 29 in-patients. 
The latter were almost entirely confined to the general an 
Dufferin hospitals at Mainpuri, the former accounting for 22 
of the total. The average number of the out-patients attending 
each of the four outlying dispensaries every day was between 40 • 


and 70. . , i i. 

There are 26 cattle pounds under district board ma,nagement, 

jesides one under the control of the municipality at Mainpuri and 

iwo within the Shikohabad and Mainpuri civil station notified 

areas respectively. The income derived from them is an import- 

ant item in the receipts of the district board, amounting in 1908-9 

to Rs 12 195. The pounds are situated at Bewar, Kusmara, 

Bhongaon, Eka, Pharha, Jasrana, Sirsaganj, Kurra Barnahal, ^ 
Karhal, Dannahar, Bhanwat, Kuraoli, Ghiror, Auncha, Kothia, 
Kosma, Kaurari, Khairgarh, Nitaoli, Nabiganj, Sultanganj 
Nagla Madari, Bhadan and Kishni. The last seven are of recent 
origin, having been established within the last nine years. 


Administration and Revenue. 


146 



Razut now includes alb iinmo\taljlo property belonging to 
Government managed by the Collector or by any provincial 
department, or of whi jh the management has been made over to 
a local body. In this district the income is chiefly derived from 
leasing a few odd plots for cultivation, from leases of grazing 
rights and from sales of fruits, timber and so forth from the 
nazvl garden and other lands managed by the district and 
municipal boards, and the Mainpuri civil station notified area. 
The total income for 1908-00 was Rs. 017, of which Rs. 440 
wore derived from nazvl under the management of the district 
board, Rs. 300 from municipal nazvl plots and Rs. 177 from 
lands under the Collector’s management. Of this sum of 
Rs, 177, Rs, 122 have been since transferred to the notified area, 
and Rs. 967 also accrue to the same from agricultural lands, 
not nazvl, in mauza Arazi Ifino, formerly under the control of 
the Board of Revenue, but one-quarter of tlieso two heads of 
receipt is credited to Government. 


Naz^l, 




CHAWER V. 


Histokv. 


Early his- 
tory. 


1 

1 

Musftli&Mi 

invasion. 


: i 


'i 


The materials for a history ofMainpuri a. o exoeedingly scanty, 
and can, indeed, scarcely bo said to exist till after the Musalraaii 
invasion, when references to places within its borders are occa- 
sionally to be met with in the pages of historians. Cut the 
kheraa or mounds, on which stand so many modern villages and 
towiis, afford abundant evidence, in the coins and fragments of 
masonry and broken pottery which they contain, that these sites 
have boon continuously inhabited by civilised communities from 

a very remote antiquity. At Parham General Cunningham 
found coins of various periods from that of the satraps Kajubul 
and his son Sandasa, while Buddhist remains dating from the 
early centuries of the Christian era are common. But the only 
historical facts to ho gleaned from the testimony of these mute 
memorials arc the continuity of civilization in the region now 
comprised in the Mainpuri district and a knowledge of the king- 
doms to which it at different times belonged. After forming 
part of the Gupta empire Mainpuri was included in Harsha’s 
kingdom of Kanauj, and continued for several centuries to bo 

attached to that capital. , „ , , 

In 1018 A. D. Mahmud of Ghazni, after sacking undefended 
Muttra, marched across Mainpuri on his way to the capture of 

Kauaui, but no opposition seems to have been offered to his ad- 
vance,andthe district then contained no town of sufficient wealth 
or sanctity to attract either the conqueror’s greed or his fanati- 
cism. The alliauco made by Rajyapala of Kanauj with the in- 
fidel so disgusted his Hindu co-religionists that in the following 
year the Rajput chiefs of Kalanjar and Gwalior invaded Kanauj 
and killed its king, leaving to his descendants a considerably 
diminished: dominion. In 1090 this was wrested from them by 
the Gaharwar Raja Chandradeva, whose line continued on the 
throne until they, like the rest of Northern India, were over- 
whelmed in the torrent of a fresh Musalman invasion. In 1194 
ghahab-ud-din Ghori, who had in the previous year defeated and 
slain Prithiraj, the Chauhan prince of Dehli, marched against 




history. 



Jai ChiUid of Kaiiauj. 'ihe m'luies met at ( humlwara on the 
Jamna, just outside the Maininiri border, and t ho Hindu ehiof 
was routed and killed. 

From this timo onwards Hainpuri continued to ho a Musal- 
inan- dependeTicy, though parts of it wore held by Hindu chiefs 
who from time to timo rebelled against tho central government; 

The Musalman conquest crushed a multitude of petty Hindu 
principalities and turned ad. ift numbers of clans to seek new 
homes remote from tho intolorablo shadow of tho new r6gimo. It 
was at this period, according to the legends of the house, that the 
Chauhans migrated from Delhi southwards, establishing them- 
selves in Mainpuri and spreading over the adjoining districts. 

With them came tho Mathuriya (thaubes, tho Kachwahas, the 
^-'••l^hakaras, and others, while the wild and inaccessible ravines 
along the Jamim afforded a fitting refuge to tho turbulent and 
unimly Ahirs wlio swarmed in vast numbers into the western 
pargauas. Here, in a region covered with jungles and almost 
impmietralilo, they wen; always a serious nuisance to the imperial 
government, and even as late as the reign of Shahjahan tho 
country round Shikohabad was notorious for the dacoits who 
sheltered in the dense forests of scrub and dhak 

But tho two important local divisions of tho territory which BaP''- 

now makes up tho Mainpuri district wore the fiefs of Rapn and 

Bhorigaon, or Bhuinganw as it was then called, which divided 
between them tho entire political and fiscal administration of 
the district until the reign of Akbar. Ilapri, now a little village on 
tho left bank of the Jamna in pargana Shikohabad, is said to 
have been founded by Rao Zorawar Singh, locally known as 
Rapar Sen, who made it the head of a petty kingdom comprising 
the ravines of the. Jamna and the country now included in the 
neighbouring pargauas of Shikohabad, Mustafabad, Ghiror and 
Barnahal. After the defeat of Jai Cl.and in 1194 the victonous 
army marched southwards against the Raja of Rapn and defeat- 
ed him at a spot about 3 miles to the* north-cast of his capital. • 
In commemoration of the victory the name of the small village 
where the battle was fought was changed from Karkha to Fateh- 
- pur, a title which it preserves to the present day. Rapn became . 

thenceforward the "headquarters of an iUa or fief and continued 

% 





148 


Mainpiiiri District, 


Bhongaon. 


to be the seat of government for several centuries under success, 
ivo Musalman rulers. 

Bhongaon, on the other hand, seems to have retained its 
Hindu rulers without interruption, though they were probably in V 
at least nominal subjection to the holders of some Musalman 
fief, perhaps that of Kanauj. The first distinct mention of the 
raj in the first half of the I5t!i century describes the Eaja as hold, 
ing also Patiali in what is now the Etah district and Kampilin 
Farrukhahad and apparently subordinate only to the emperor at 
Dchli. The most likely supposition is that the boundaries of the 
various fiefs depended largely on the vigour and ambition of i 
their possessors and that so long as the imperial authority was 
not openly flouted these were allowed a considerable latitude in 
extending their spheres of influence. Mainpuri was in all pro- - ""i 
bability included in the grant* of “ all the territories of Bhongaon, I 
Koil, Jalesar and Gwalior ” made in 1259 to Sher Khan, the 
nephew of Ulugh Khan, the noble who afterwards became em- 
peror under the title Ghiyas-ud-din. In 1312 Malik Kafur, the 
favourite of Ala-ud-din Khilji, halted at Kapri on his way 
back to Dchli with the booty of plundered Malabar and Dhur 
Samundar, and founded there the mosque which still stands with 
its dedicatory inscription. This runs as follows : “The build- 
ing of this noble work took place by the grace of God and the 
assistance of the Almighty and the favour of the Lord, during 
the time of the reign of the second Alexander, Ala-ud-dunya 
waddin, who is distinguished by the kindness of the Lord of 
worlds, Abul Muzafar Muhammad Shah, the king, the helper of 
the commander of the faithful, and during the Governorship of 
the mean slave of His Majesty, Kafur, the Royal, May God 
accept it from them and may God give them an excellent reward ! 

In the middle of the blessed month of Ramzan (may God in- 
crease its honour !) of the year 711 ’hf ^'rom this it would 
appear that Malik Kafur, in addition to his many other dignities 
and possessions, had received also the flef of Rapri, and that he 
considered it of suflScient importance to be worthy of selection as 

■ ~ • E. H. I., Ill, p. 380. ^ ^ 

t Proc. A* S. B., p. 150. The tablet measures 5 feet by 2 and the lettereuMe 
* ‘ thick and clumsy, Of, also E. H. I., III. p. 204. 


Ensmara- 


227 


V 


KURRA OE KUKRA-JARAWAN, Fargana aud Tahail 

Kaeiial. 

This village, in 27° F N. anti 79° S' It/., ia sitviatecl on the 
Kishnl-Karhal road at a distance of 10 miles from Mainpurl and 
10 miles from Karhal, and had in 1901 a population of 2,850 persons. 
It covers an area of 4,107 acres and comprises two vuiJiuls and 
23 hamlets, witli an assessment of Rs. 3, 090. Half t!ie mauzd is 
owned hy Tej Partab Singh, rain of Partabnair in the Etawah 
district, and the other half by ]\[athnra Parshad, hlahajan of 
Rampura, and Musammat Dauji Ivunwar of llardoi in Etawah. 
The inhabitants are chiefly Ahirs, Rrahmans and Thakurs, and 
the majority of the cultivators are occupancy tenants. A market 
is held twice a week, on 4'hur.sday and Saturday, at wdiich cattle 
are sold as well as grain and other commodities. A police station 
and a cattle-pound are situated in the village, through which 
passes a minor from the Etaw'ah branch canal. 

KUSIART, Fargana and Tn/isii Mustapabad. 

This village, in 27° 14' N. and 78° 47' E., lies on the left 
bank of the Etawah branch of the Imwer Ganges Canal, 20 miles 
west of Mainpnri and about si.v miles east of Jasrana. It 
contains 15 hamlets and IG mahals and covers a total area 
of 4,643 acres, of w'hich 1,672 acres are under cultivation, nearly 
two-thirds of the cultivated area being irrigated from the canal. 
The zamindara are Thakurs, Brahmans and Sunars, who pay 
Rs. 5,805 annually as land revenue. There is a vernacular school 
in the village and the population in 1901 was 2,932, of whom 1,602 
were males and 1,310 females. Classifying the inhabitants 
according to religion, there were 2,851 Hindus, 77 Musalmans, 
and four others ; or by occupations, 94 zamindara, 1,600 cultiva- 
tors and 479 labourers. 

KUSMARA, Fargma and Tahail Biiongaon. 

This village, in 27° 7' N. and 79° 20' E., lies on the 
Farrukhabad-Etawah road, 25 miles to the south-east of Main- 
puri, and had in 1901 a population of 2,203. There are two 
outlying hamlets. The village covers an area of 1,317 acres 
pajrs land revenue to the of Rs. 1,800. KEsmar^ 



4 




I 

I 


Mdi'ifipuvi DistTict* 


BitU’ school, a cattlo-pound, a cart jx<mo and a bi^r whore a coa- 

fidorahlo local trade!, carried on. ’ The are Bachha \ 

Th.kur.and Brahman., There 

rite of a fort once owned hy Ihe Kaja of Marnpnn. At the 1840 

settlement the Kuemara of "'•’“I' ’’ I ’ 

was taken from the Raja and settled with w o 

have .ince paid him a moJitow only. A market is held in t 

village every Monday and Thursday. 




MADHAN, Parqana and Tahsil Mainpuri. 

This village, in 27°'l6' N. and 78° 56' E., lies 12 miles to 
the west of Mainpuri.in tlie very corner of the pargana. e 
Isan which flows to the south of the village, rs bridged here and 
the metalled road from Kuraoli to Ghiror passes through the village 
Madhau contains 12 hamlets and nine mahala covering an area of 
3 582 acres, of which 1,059 acres are under cultivation, a portion 
of the cultivated area being irrigated from the Magana distri- 
butary of the Cawnpore Canal. The zamindars are Chauhans and 
Marwaris, who pay Rs. 3,660 a year as Government revenue 
The population of the village in 1901 was 2,434, of whom 
were .am-mdiirs, 1,289 cultivators, and 032 labourers. There is 
an old fort on the Jehera, which is occupied by the Chauhan 
Raiputs of the place. The village contains a vernacular school 
aiiL small bazar, and a market is held in it twice a week. 


MAHULI SHAMSHERGANJ, Pargana and Tahsil Kishni. 

^ . t -11 evrt 97° N and 79° 22' E., lies m the 

This Targe village, in li jn. ana lo ’ . . . j 

furthest south-eastern, corner of the district near Kishni and 

is named after the two principal inhabited sites. It contains 1 

hamlets, with a population, according to the census of 1901, ot 

2,589 persons, and an area of 3,363 acres,5and is f 

Rs 4 460. The village is held in paUidart tenure, the form 
'Thakur zamindars having been replaced by Brahmans an 
Kayasths. The cultivators are for the 

teuLs. A weekl; market is held here on Sundays and Thurs 

days. Near the site of Mahuli proper there is an old and 
high hhera. 


Mainjiuri. 


220 


MAINPURI, Pargana and Tahsil MainpuM. 

Mainpuri, the chief town of the district of the same name, 
lies in lat. 27° 14' 15" N. and long. 79° 3' 5" E., on the Agra 
branch of the Grand Trunk Hoad, 68 miles oast of Agra, and 
on the Shikohabad-Farrnkhabad branch of the East Indian 
Railway. According to the census of 1901 there wore within 
municipal limits 19,000 inhabitants, of whom 13,955 wore Hindus 
(6 365 females), 4,436 were Musalmans (2,019 females) and 609 
were Christians and others. Since the census the municipal 
limits have been enlarged to include the railway station buildings, ^ 
and the total population is estimated at 19,407. The town^ is 
divided into two distinct portions, Mainpuri proper and old Mam- 
puri a sort of old fashioned village clustering at the foot of the 
Raia of Mainpuri’s palace or garh i and composed of narrow lanes 
with one narrow street leading to the garhi. The other and 

business quarter of the town lies along the Grand Trunk Road 

to the south of Mainpuri Khas, and is called Ganj or Muhkam- 
gani. Each portion of the town is divided into wards for 
municipal purposes, two wards to each portion. In Mainpuri 
Khas the Misrana ward contains three muhallas, Katra, Mis- 
rana, and Chautiana, named after the clans that inhabit them ; 
the Purohitana ward is subdivided into the Purohitana, botiana, 
Baghban and Bharatwal, the second and third deriving their 
names from the clans resident therein, and the first the 1 urohi- 
tana, from the Raja’s pwohits or priests, while the Bharatwal 
mu» is inhabited by Mathuria Brahmans. Ihe two wards 
of Muhkamganj, Chhapaiti and Gariwan contain the Agarwala, 
Lohai and Chhapaiti muhaUas, and the Gariwan, baraogian 
and Dariba muhaUaa respectively, the first five being called 
after the clans resident in them. There were formerly walls 
round the city, and six gates, the Debi, Tal, M^ar, Deorya, 
and Ganesh Darwazas, the name of the sixth not being recorded. 
The river Isan bounds old Mainpuri on the east side, at some 
. distance, separating it from the bulk of the civil starion, and 
the railway line is the municipal boundary on the south. Th 
Agra road runs through the town from eas^ to west and foriM a 
good wide street, lined on either side by - Shops, t e 
baza^ of the place. At the eastern entrance of the town to the 


Main^ri Distr'kt 




south of the road, lie the Mission buildings, just within municipal 
limits, and further on at the commencement of the town proper 
are various public buildings on the north side of the road, the 
general dispensary and DuflFerin hospitals, the police station 
and the tahsil. Near the dispensary the Bhanwat road branches 
off, forming one of the two approach roads to the railway station, 
and beyond it on the south of the Agra road are the Mission 
school, also used as a church, the Arya Samaj meeting house, 
the Raikesmandi and the Raikesganj sarai. Both the two latter 
were built by Mr. Raikes, Collector of Mainpuri, between 1848 
and 1850. Raikesmandi was at first occupied by grain-dealers 
and used as a grain-market until it was replaced as such by Lane- 
ganj 20 years later. It is now occupied by Native Christians 
who were originally settled by the American Mission, and now 
number about 200 persons. The Raikesganj, too, is not much 
used by shop-keepers, and is now a savciiy let out to hhatidvds 
by the municipality. It has an imposing gateway over which 
is a la^ge room used as a municipal office and committee room. 
Opposite this sdvdi is the starting point of Laneganj, leading up 
to the Katra road, that forms the southern boundary of Old 
Mainpuri. Laneganj extends as far as the junction of the Kuraoli 
and Katra roads, and is now the principal grain market of the 
town. It is lined with shops and has a fine market attached, and 
a bathing tank covering half an acre and kept filled in the 
hot months from the canal channel running up to the south of 
the town from the Nagaria distributary. The tank is flanked at 
each corner by stone cupolas erected by prominent individuals 
at Mr. Lane's instance. The Aikman Union Club, the members 
of which are individuals of the better classes in the town, 
faces the tank and serves on occasions as a public hall. It was 
founded by the Hon'ble Mr. Justice Aikman when Judge of Main- 
puri in 1886-90. Further westwards on the Grand Trunk Road 
branches off the Kuraoli road, joined as above mentioned by the 
Laneganj, and beyond it is the Etawah road. Both are much 
frequented and are lined throughout by shops. South of the 
main road runs the Chamraudba drain, which crosses the road 
near the police station and flows into the lean after being joined- 
by other drainage line's. Further south between the town and 


Hftinpiirl. 


the railway is open ground, the railway station havin«, for 
tuv,. of »onomy, booo placed in th. 

Here are the brick-fields and a mumeipal ^ 

which aims at converting the mar into culturable la . P 

Wtie o,p.«Bion of ‘ke-v' itaT otp^ 
as soon ae arrangements for making a loai s 
Resides the Bhanwat road another road appro i 

lt?n tom the woel, beonching off from the . J" 

ripuri «« the 

palace, which stands on an emi uorthern entrance 

brickwork, arc tim toe are situated on 

toL»neg»nj,andthc to v„ s 

the Kuraoli road. To the ea , , t trees and fenced 

of Mainpnri’s park, an open space planted tr ^ 

in, where road is the temple 

t .rival of to Chauhu- 

ever, is that to Nagaria. a kind of 

‘Tb’ofto^trMai. is there represented with a hn^ 
suburb of the city. ^ 

urTv ^d found his motor cooking and «.tiog somati^ 
7tg;« h»te. On being nnestioned by hri to 

wa.prob.blyh«l»t ehancerf^^^oo^ma^ tkathslay 

Znr^lied** Ih, story UcUriy ‘"oZ^t 

name and the image, whic is pr importance 

of the place. Mainpnri seems have b^^n of n^^ 

until the arrival of the Chauhans 

aronnd it the old town W Asanli, nnder Baja Partab 

Chirars the Chauhans came ®v ..qoi 1391 A. D.), and with 

Bndr. about “"^:Z of 

XrvTZtot Aayb'vo fkmt totofo^otul wnysol «d., 


232 


MainpuH District. 


preserve much of their character for turbulence. Muhkamganj 
was founded by Raja Jaswant Singh in 1803 sambat (1746 
A. D.), and named after his illegitimate son or, as some say, child- 
less brother, Muhkam Singh. By his influence, aided, it is 
said, by Xhan Bahadur Khan, people flocked in large numbers 
to the new town, and especially from Karimganj, which dates 
its decadence from the rise of Mainpuri. In 1802 the civil 
station forming the headquarters of the Etawah district was 
founded by Mr. R. Gunynghame, and the Sadr Bazar was built, 
near which all the district public offices were erected. Thorn, 
who saw the place in 1804, describes it as then ^^a walled town 
of considerable size and very populous A few days previously 
it had been attacked by the Marathas under Holkar, who plun- 
dered and burned part of it, but were repulsed from the jail and 
cantonments by the provincial militia, and fled precipitately on 
the approach of a relieving force. Owing to its position as the 
headquarters of a large district, population rapidly increased. 
Much was done to improve it by Mr. Raikes in 1848—1860, 
who built Raikesganj and a school, and by Mr. Lane in 
1870, who built Laneganj, the masonry tank, tahsil, a market 
for ghi and cotton, a market for vegetable produce, a post-office, 
and schools, besides providing for the efficient surface-drainage 
of the city. 

The municipality is managed by a board of eight elected 
and two nominated members, excluding the collector, who is usually 
elected as chairman. The income of the municipality averaged, 
in the five years up to 31st March 1909, Rs. 19,976, and is derived 
mostly from octroi, of which more than half is levied on articles 
of food, chiefly grain, ghi and sugar. The expenditure after 
paying for the octroi staflT is devoted principally to conservancy, 
and to a less degree to lighting, education and public works. 
Most of the road# are paved or metalled, and the main roads are 
provided with brick drains, terminating in the surface-water main 
drains mentioned above. The board have in hand a proper 
drainage scheme estimated to cost Rs. 1,60,000. 

The police force of the town consists of 32 constables, and 
three head-constables distributed over three outposts at Ganeshganj, 
Karhal Darwaza and Agra Darwaza. 



AgricvUure arid Comnxerce, 


68 


third of the usual hharif area was sown, and over a groat part 
of that the seed failed to germinate. Distress began to appear 
early in August, when wheat was selling at 14 mem and jivar at 
^ 16J sers to the rupee, and the streets wore soon filled with 
beggars. The first class to be seriously affected was that of the 
weavers, but it was not long before tho agricultural labourer and 
the small cultivator felt the pinch, particularly in the south-west 
of tho district near the Jamiia, where tho drought was most 
severe. A coiiforcnce was hold at Agra, and it was decided to 
open relief works. This was done on several roads, and a poor- 
house was started in Maiiipuri. A fall of rain in October afford- 
ed some benefit, but both relief works and poor-houses had to 
be kept open continuously till October 1878, when a good hharif 
saved tho situation. Tho numbers on relief in October 1877 
* amounted to 61,629 units, l)ut sank to about 20,000 during each 
of tho next three months, rising again to /)5,000 in February 1878 
and 67,000 in March. In April, May and Juno the numbers 
fell off, but in July they onco more increased till in August 
11,834 units wore relieved in the poor-house and 95,311 on the 
various works. Tho latter wore discontinued in October, but 
the poor-house had to bo kept open till December. The balance 
of revenue outstanding for the hharif w'as Rs. 2,16,318 and for 
the rahi Rs. 47,221. Of this Rs. 18,601 were remitted. The 
death rate was 34*65, or 14*65 in excess of tho normal. It is not 
Jikcly that any of this abnormally large mortality was directly 
due to starvation, though no doubt it was aggravated by tho use 
of unsuitable and unaccustomed foods. A famine year implies 
a year in which tho heat is unnaturally great and the climatic 
conditions abnormal, and in such circumstances the death roll 
among small children and old and infirm people is bound to be 
heavy. 

In 1896 the rainfall w*as deficient, but by this time the 1896 - 7 . 
district was no longer dependent on rainfall alone. Four main 
branches of the Lower Ganges Canal now protected it, with tho 
^sult that, in spite of the short rainfall, an eight anna hharif was 
reaped, and though there was some distress in parts, the district 
as a whole benefited by the compensatory high prices. Barnahal 
and Sbikphabad were the only pargauas in which the scarcity 



64 


Mainpun Dittrid, 


Famine o! 

1906- 7 and 

1907- 8. 


was at all severely felt^ and to them assistance was given in 
various ways. Two thousand temporary wells were made with 
advances of money from Government^ and twelve thousand more 
from private capital. Two poor-houses were opened; one at 
Mainpuri and the other at Shikohabad, and the raising and metal- 
ling of the Shikohabad-Batcsar road was undertaken as a relief 
work. The latter was opened in December 1896, but had to be 
closed in March 1897 with only half the work completed. From 
the start the numbers steadily decreased; the maximum daily 
attendance never exceeded 1,091, the total number of units relieved 
was 13,983 and the expenditure was Rs. 2,840 only. The 
number of persons on gratuitous relief in their villages or in 
poor-houses only reached a maximum of a little over 2,000 for 
a short time. Up to that yedr, 1304 fasli, the balance sheet of 
revenue collections was absolutely clear of arrears. For that 
year Rs. 62,404, revenue of the hharif kist, were suspended, and i 
Rs. 4,000 of the rdbi hist, but of these sums only Rs. 10,000 ' 
in all had to be ultimately remitted. The death rate during the 
period of scarcity was only *15 above the decennial average of 
1886 to 1896. The provincial famine report shows in fact that 
Mainpuri w^as the least affected district in the Agra division, and 
very nearly in the whole provinces, practically the whole distress 
being confined to a block of country 111 square miles in area 
in Shikohabad. 

The famine of 1906-7 scarcely affected the district at all, ,< 
and no relief measures were necessary. In 1907-8 it was nearly^ 
as fortunate. There was no serious distress, and the very 
moderate amount of relief required was due solely to the pressure 
of high prices upon the poorer classes not dependent on agricul- 
ture, and ended with the harvesting of the spring crops. Gratuitous 
relief on a small scale was started early in January 1908, but 
discontinued during April, the greatest number relieved in this 
way at any one time having only been 2,160. In Mainpuri 
itself and some of the smaller towns relief was given until July 
by the committee of the Charitable Fund to some of those pre-^ 
viously in receipt of gratuitous relief from Government. Ttere ^ 
was no need for poor-house relief. The poor-house erected as Sk 
pr^autionary measure in Shikohabad was never occupied. 



JLgriouuvire ana Otmmerde, 


^66 


B 0 . 6^043 of the revenue demand had to be remitted and Rs. 5^089 
suspended. 

The baisuri weed has seriously interfered with cultivation ^(»*9uri 
in 58 villages in the district^ of which 49 lie in the Mustafabad 
pargaua and 7 on its borders within the Shikohabad pargana, 
these 56 forming one practically continuous group lying south 
of the Sengar river. One more village, Fakhrpur, on the bor- 
ders of pargaua Barnahal within the Shikohabad tahsil, and 
another, Qutabpur Buzurg, on the Karhal road north of Karhal, 
are also somewhat seriously affected. The weed is a light green, 
bushy plant, one to two feet high, with woody stalks and excess- 
ively long roots, and comes to maturity in May and June. 

During the rains it dies off temporarily, but in dry weather, and 
particularly in years of scanty rainfall, overruns fallow land. 

The kha/rif harvest is unaffected, but in the rahi the extra labour 
of weeding it causes badly-infected land to be. let at rents 25 
per cent, below the normal. Canal water is the only satisfactory 
remedy as the plant cannot withstand copious irrigation, and on 
this account it is not complained of in canal-irrigated tracts. 

The infected portions of parganas Shikohabad and Mustafabad 
are uncommauded by canals, the Pilakhtar distributary excepted. 

The weed is found on dumat soils only, never on hhur, and on 
light dumat it never seems to get a hold. It grows in very 
many more villages and in other parganas besides those men- 
tioned without causing, appreciable injury or even attracting 
notice. In pargana Mustafabad it is associated in many 
villages with brackish or alkaline well water, which can be used 
only sparingly, if at all, for irrigation, and on this account, no 
^oubt, the spread of the weed is connected with the brackish 
water in the bitter water tract,” which appears to be a continu- 
ation of that in Etah and Muttra. Neither the weed nor the 
alkalinity have been proved to be the one the cause of the other, 
nor has any scientific local enquiry ever been conducted into 
tho^ extent or the causation of the spread of either. It would 
appear, however, both from the traditions of the villagers and 
from records of well water, that they are actually spreading. 

The history of prices in the district is an interestiiy one. him 
Figures are available for nearly a century past in the can of 


Mainpuri Distfiet, 


bazar prices, and from 1840 onwards for harvest prices, though 
they are not quite complete except in the case of wheat. One 
fact which they bring into strong prominence is the great 
influence of improved communications, and of the railway in 
particular, in raising the prices of food staples. Between 1816 
and 1856 the bazar price of wheat, if wo exclude both the famine 
years and those of exceptional harvests, remained almost 
stationary, as did tliat of the other grains, so far as can be as- 
certained from the more imperfect records. Betwocii 1859 and 
1871, however, a remarkable change took place. The average 
price of wheat rose 53 per cent., that of barley 49 per cent., of 
juar 39 per cent, and of haji*a 47 per cent., an all-round 
increase of 47 per cent. This advance was part of a general 
price movement throughout’ the country, and due to the new 
markets opened np by better communications and more rapid 
means of transit. But while the trader and the grain merchant 
were finding new and more profitable markets for their produce, 
the cultivator was not getting his fair share of the increased 
returns. Harvest prices, though they rose during the post- 
Mutiny period, did not rise proportionately to bazar prices, and 
while wheat showed an incrcaso of 53 per cent, in the rate at 
which the bania sold it, the price he paid to the ryot was only 
42 per cent, in excess of the pre-Mutiny rates. This considerable 
difference between bazar prices and harvest prices is of interest 
as it may be taken as a measure of tho^degree to which the cul- 
tivator is in the grip of the money-lending grain merchant. For 
while bazar prices are governed by the ordinary laws of supply 
and demand in an open market with competition, harvest prices 
represent a bargain between two parties only into which 
competition does not enter, and where one party has the other at 
a manifest disadvantage. For the tenant is, by long established 
usage and his own improvidence, generally dependent to a great 
extent on the bania for his seed and often for his food and the 
necessaries of life, and has frequently pledged part, if not the 
whole, of his crop to his creditor beforehand. In such a bargain 
the purchaser has the seller in a very tight grip, and is not 
likely to give him more than he can help x>f the enhanced 
market prices. The last thirty years show a remarkable change 



Agri^Uui^e and Commerce, 


61 


for thcf better in this respect. Both bam and harvest prices 
have again risen, but the latter no longer lag behind the former 
as before. In the bazar wheat has increased 18 per cent., barley 
30 per cent., juar 22 per cent, and Ixijra 32 per cent, in price : 
but the rise in harvest prices has been still more rapid, wheat 
advancing 32 per cent., barley 40 per cent., jiuir 55 per cent, 
and hajra 52 per cent., until now the Ijazar rate stands at only 2 
sere in the rupee above the harvest prices. The pace at which the 
harvest price has been overtaking the bazar price may bo taken 
as strong evidence of a change for the better in the cultivator's 
circumstances ; at any rate it shows that ho has been able to 
wrest for himself a relatively much larger proportion of the 
profits ultimately secured by his produce from the consumer than 
ho used to do. 

The all-round rise in the price of agricultural produce has Wages, 
had, as might have been expected, an influence on the rates of 
pay for agricultural labour, and if high wages are a sign of 
prosperity, then the field worker in Mainpuri is exceedingly 
well off. The day labourer has now found that independent 
farming pays better than day labour, and, entering into the 
arena of competition, has taken fields of his own. There is a 
general complaint now among zaraiiidars and others who have 
to employ day labourers on their fields that labour is both dear 
and scarce. Even in the last five years there has been a 
general increase, but in the course of the last half cenlury the 
wages of all the labouring classes have doubled or more than 
doubled. Forty years ago a coolie's daily hire in the country 
was, when paid in cash, one anna and six pies. lie cannot now 
bo had under 2^ to 3 annas a day, and even then is retained 
with difficulty. But, as a rule, the agricultural labourer is still 
paid in kind, and the usual wage is, in the hharif season, 3} sera 
of maize or juar, and in the rahi 5 sera of wheat or 6 aera of 
bejhctr, peas or arhar. Carpenters and masons are now paid 6 
annas and 3 pies a day. In 1866 they earned 3 annas. Tailors, 
who at the same period were content with the same sum, must 
now be paid 8 annas. The town coolie and the betdoTf who in . 

1868 got 2 annas for a day’s work, now receive double that 
amount, and there is an increasing difficulty in obtaining men 




68 


MainpVfVi DistricU 


Weights 

wd 

measures. 


at these rates. It is a significant fact that the new railway line 
from Shikohabad to Fatehgarh had to be built largely with 
imported labour. 

The standards of weights and measures in common use differ 
little from those of the rest of the Duab. Everywhere inter- 
communication between district and district and the growing 
habit of outside trade have tended to do away with local 
eccentricities of standard, whose inconveniences are acutely felt 
in dealings with strangers. And the milestones on the Govern- 
ment roads, the hours fixed for the hearing of cases in the 
Government courts, together with the removal from circulation 
of the old copper currency, on which the old-fashioned measures 
of weight and capacity were based, have all acted in the same 
direction towards uniformity. But in tho villages the old 
customary terms die hard, and tho ryot still clings to the ancient 
standards. The English mile is now the usual measure of 
distance, though the hoe of two miles is also commonly employed. 
For shorter distances the vague terms goli ha tappa or musket 
shot, and khetj a field, are used, tho one to denote an interval 
of about 150 yards, and the other the side of a pakka higha or 
from 56 to 60 yards. Tho pakka higha is 2,776*25 square yards, 
or *5736 of an acre, and 1*743 hlghaa make one acre. It is sub- 
divided, as elsewhere, into 20 hiswasj each of 20 hiswansis. 
Twenty kachwansis make one biswansl, 20 namvanais one 
kaohwanai^ and 20 anwanaia one 'oanwanai, Tho higha used in 
poppy measurements is jths of an acre. The kachcha higha^ 
about one-fifth of an acre, varies in size often in the same village ; 
as a rule, however, to 3 kachcha highaa will make one pakka 
higha and about 2J will form tho average. The English yard 
measure (gaz) is commonly employed, but besides it there are local 
variations of the gaz used in particular marts and for certain 
classes of goods, the one short, from 32} to 35 inches, and the 
other long, from 40} to 45 inches. Tho latter is commonly used 
for country cloth and the former for silk. Solids and liquids are 
sold by weight ; for spirits tho British reputed quart (bottle) is 
the standard, and small brass vessels called ghantia, which are 
supposed to hold a quarter of a aer, for milk. Two kachcha 
maonds make one pakka maund, and one pakka maund is 



Agfiric\Mw*6 and Commme. 


equivalent to 1*26 Government maund, or 50 standard sera* The 
•pahka aer is supposed to contain 32 taha or double pico of the old 
currency, and the Government aar only 26, and is thus, strictly, 
of 101 tolas to the othor^s 80 tolas. But it generally weighs 
100 tolas. This is not, however, the only aar used. In the east 
of the district, in Bewar, Kusmara, Ilahabas, Nabiganj and 
Saman, the aer weighs 112 tolas. In the town of Bhongaon the 
standard is 102 tolas, in Sultanganj 105 tolas, and in the re- 
mainder of the district 100 tolas (or in some places 101y*j). This 
weight is used at every local market except Sirsaganj and 
Mainpuri, for wholesale transactions and especially for cotton, 
but in retail transactions the Government aer of 80 tolas is 
generally employed. A kaehcha panaeri of 5 aera is in com- 
mon use and weiglis 250 tolas, or SJ Government aera, or 2} 
sera pakka. The word dlMri is chiefly used for 5 pakka aera, 
or 6^ Government aera. Eight dharia make one pakka maund 
and 4 dho^ria one kachcha maund. 

The current rates of interest vary with the security offered, Intemt. 
the status and credit of the borrower and the nature of tlie 
transaction. The common loan of seed corn carries interest at 
25 per cent, for one harvest or 50 per cent for two, 1} maunds 
being exacted in the former case and 1} maunds in the latter, on 
each maund advanced. In addition the borrow^er has to return the 
"’^ue of the seed grain advanced at the rate prevailing at the time of 
sowing, which is of course much above the harvest rate. For petty 
agricultural advances on personal security one anna per rupee 
for each month of the season, kharif or rabi, is charged, and two 
annas if the amount bo not paid up at the end of the harvest for 
which the sum was borrowed. Very often the arrangement is made 
for a season at four annas for every rupee borrowed, and in the 
case of sugarcane, which occupies tho ground for double the 
time of an ordinary crop, eight annas in the rupee. For other 
small loans on personal security an advance of, say, Es. 10 is 
made, and in return Es. 12 are realized in monthly instalments 
of one rupee for 12 months. These advances are called ^‘qiata*'* 

Where articles of silver are given in pledge the rate varies from 
1 pie to 3 pies per rupee per mensem, or from about 6 to 18 
per cent, per annum. Where the security is real property there 



70 


Uainpmi District, 


is also a good deal of variation^ as low a rate as 4| per cent, 
being sometimes charged on unencumbered and well situated 
estates. The maximum rate for this class of security is 24 per 
cent. Besides the ubiquitous hania or grain merchant, who is 
the village monoy-leiidor, there are a number of banking establish- 
ments scattered about the district, and at all the important marts, 
particularly at Mainpuri, Shikohabad, Sirsaganj and Khairgarh. 
The principal money-lending classes, here as elsewhere, are the 
Marwari Brahmans (Bohras), Banias, Mahajans and Khattris. 

The system of co-operative credit societies originated in 
1901 in Mainpuri as in the rest of the provinces, and was relative- 
ly extremely successful. There are now IG village banks regis- 
tered under Act X of 1904, financed in the main by the central 
bank of Mainpuri established for this purpose in pursuance of 
the present policy in these provinces. The rural societies are 
scattered throughout the district and are supervised by the central 
bank through its inspector. Seven are very fairly successful, 6 are 
moderately so and two are not satisfactorily managed in the true 
co-operative spirit. The JlafTeisen system is the one adhered to 
generally, but loans are occasionally given to members for non- 
productive purposes unconnected with agriculture. The banks, 
though fairly successful in view of the backwardness of tho 
district, show defects which are being gradually removed under 
the guidance of the Registrar, the central bank and the district 
officials, Tho main defects are a lack of capital, remissness in 
repaying loans, an unwieldy number of memiiers, members who 
do not take any interest in the management of the bank except 
to draw loans therefrom, and a disinclination to deposit savings. ‘ 
The present policy is to improve these existing societies before 
starting new ones. Comparatively successful though they are, 
these banks cannot be said to have attained to the true Raffeisen 
level of co-operation. The central bank has a capital of 
Ks. 20,000, which it lends to the rural societies at from 0 to 9 
per cent., which in turn lend to their members at from 12 to 18 
per cent. Tho assets of the rural societies amounted on June 
30th, 1908, to Rs. 24,845, with liabilities of Rs. 23,573, giving 
a net profit of Rs. 1,272. Those figures were tho fourth highest 
in the provinces. 



4g^^icuUw6 and Ommm, 71 


The industries of the district being mainly agricultural, its 
exports are mostly of agricultural produce. The two important 
^ markets of the district are Sirsaganj and Shikohabad lying 
on the main lino of the East Indian Railway, which was until 
quite recently the only railway in the district, and it is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that the export and import trade has centred in 
these two towns. The trade of Sirsaganj is roughly estimated 
at over six lakhs of rupees per annum, and that of Shikohabad 
at about double that figure. It is too early to expect the new 
Shikohabad-Farrukhabad Railway to have had any effect in 
changing the course of trade. The main items of export are 
cotton, corn and ghl, together with a certain quantity of glass. 
Old in particular is exported in large quantities and finds its 
way to Calcutta and other remote places where there is a large 
demand. The ghi is largely produced in the pastoral villages 
along the Jarana ravines. After these two places Mainpuri 
ranks third, with similar exports, its trade being about 6 lakhs 
of rupees per annum. The trade here does not seem to have been 
much influenced by the now railway so far. In the Karhal 
tahsil the chief trade centres are Karhal town, Dalelnagar, 
Barnahal and Torhagaon. The railway stations by which goods 
are exported are Etawah, Bhadan and Kosma. The Bhougaon 
and Mustafabad tahsils do not have much trade. In Bhongaon, 
Bowar and Bhongaon are small market-places, and Bowar does 
some trade on the Grand Trunk road, receiving, like KuraoH, 
grain from as far as Ilathras by cart, a proof of the inelastic 
goods rates on the East Indian Railway. In pargana Mustaf- 
abad, Phariha, Jasrana and Khairgarh do a little trade through 
the railway stations of Firozabad and Makhanpur on the East 
Indian Railway. The main imports of the district are cloth, 
gur and grain. 

A considerable amount of h%7ich or crude native glass is 
manufactured in Mainpuri and exported in blocks, sometimes 
* ready coloured and sometimes plain, all over India. A certain 
amount of the glass is also worked up locally, at Jasrana and 
Urmara Kirar near Shikohabad in particular, into churis or 
bangles. The glass is made from the reh, or saline efflor^oence, 
found so plentifully on the usar plains, especially in the 


Trade. 


MantifM* 
tttree. 
Crude 
glsMor 
kaiteh, ■ : 


■ 



72 


itainfMkvi Distrid* 


neighbourhood of canals, and is prepared in the following way. 
A plot of barren, unculturable land near a canal is rented at the 
beginning of the hofc weather, about.50 rupees being paid for an 
area capable of producing 2,000 maunds of reh in one season. 
This plot is divided up into little square bods or shallow tanks by 
ledges of mud about 3 inches high and an inch or so of canal water 
is run over them and left to stand, the surface of each bed being 
covered by a heavy board. After five or six days the alkaline 
deposit beneath the soil rises up and dries into little flakes called 
paprij which are scraped off and stored under a thatch. At the 
end of May, when three or four thousand maunds have been 
collected, the reh is thrown into a kiln in lots of about 400 maunds 
at a time and heated for twenty-four hours till all moisture has 
evaporated. It is then taken out and mixed with the other 
ingredients necessary to produce the crude glass, which is always 
either greenish-white or black, unless the glassraaker manufac- 
tures bangles as well, when he will at the same time add the 
requisite colouring materials. To make the black glass either a 
small quantity (I to 4 per cent.) of black iron oxide and a very 
little saltpetre is added to the scorched rcA, or, to produce an 
inferior quality of glass, about 20 per cent, of sheep or goats^ 
dung is mixed with it. For the greenish-white glass 'there 
is added to the reh about 4 per cent, of saltpetre and i to 
2 per cent, of senda^ a red ferrous stone. The mixture 
is thrown back into the kiln and melted up continuously for 
about 18 days and nights, after which io is run out into a 
pit and allowed to cool for another 10 days before being 
broken up into big blocks ready for exportation. About 300 
maunds of glass are produced from the 400 maunds of reh 
employed. 

The cost of each fusing is about 270 rupees, and the two 
biggest items in the bill are labour and fuel, the former averag- 
ing about 65 rupees and the latter 1 00 rupees. As the average 
selling price of 400 maunds of crude glass is 320 rupees, the 
profits of each fusing are 50 rupees. As a rule, five fusings take 
place in the year. Glass-making is not confined to any particular 
caste, but is chiefly practised by Musalmans, and the manufacturer 
is always an independent man, emplovins: hired labour. 



AgricuUwre and Commerce. 


78 


In making glass bangles the hunch is once more melted and 
mixed with the requisite colouring matter. Into the fused mass 
the workman dips an iron hook (ankuri) and taking out a ball 
of glass sufficient for one bangle, winds it off to the end of an 
iron spit {aallahh) in a thick, irregular ring. With an instru- 
ment resembling a heavy blunt dagger {mala) ho taps and 
squeezes this ring till it is half cooled, when it is worked off the 
spit by a piece of iron wire and transferred to a clay cone (halbut), 
which is spun rapidly round and round before the furnace. The 
heat and motion cause the ring gradually to enlarge and rfip 
down the cono until it has attained the desired size, when it is 
slipped off and left to cool. A skilled workman can turn 
out as many as 1,000 in a day, though the average outturn is 
much less. The wholesale price of the plain, coarse bangles 
is extraordinarily low, the average selling price in Etawah and 
Mainpuri being one rupee per 3,000, and Rs. 25 per lakh. The 
bangle-makers, or Ohi(,viJm% are almost invariably Muham- 
madans, and the furnaces generally belong to one joint family, 
who sliaro expenses and profits equally. Boys are employed at 
the furnaces, and actually outnumber the men, while the women 
and girls are employed to tie up and pack tho bungles. The 
average daily earnings are less than two annas per head, and it 
is only by making use of tho small children, who are not l)ig 
enough for other work, that tho manufacture can bo made to 
pay. 

Mainpuri has long been noted for its beautiful wood work 
inlaid with brass wire, known as tarkaslii (lit,, wire-drawing). Tho 
best dark ahisham is the only wood employed and is purchased 
locally by the artisans. The articles chiefly turned out arc 
kharaona (clogs or sandals), pen holders, small boxes of various 
shapes, trays, plates and photograph frames of different kinds. 
There are about twenty artisans in the town engaged in the trade. 
They are all Barhaia, who are identical in this district with Lohara, 
The artisan buys chips or scraps of sheet brass and cuts out a thin 
ribbon-like strip to form the wire. Stars are made of loops of 
this ribbon. The carpenter does all the work himself with a few 
simple tools. Where the inlaying is of a new or intrivate design 
the pattern is copied by a stencil from the original design, the 


Glass 
bangles or 
ehurii. 


Tarliathi, 




74 


Mainfuri District, 


Ginninst 

ootton. 


Saltpetre. 


tool following the pencil marks, The tool used for the incision 
is a narrow, sharp chisel, after which the strip is gently tapped 
into place, its narrow edge appearing as the pattern. Curves are 
rendered very well, and if the work is carefully done, the result 
is as a rule excellent. The chief drawback is that the work is 
necessarily very slow and the articles are costly : a plate twelve 
inches in diameter, for instance, will occupy one workman for 20 
days. Moreover, the brass tarnishes after a time, and owing to its 
being inlaid in wood it cannot be polished in the same manner as 
ordinary brass articles. Some easy methods of preventing the 
tarnishing of the brass would eonf?idcrably increase the sale. To 
maintain a high standard in the industry, a good workman is 
employed under tlio supervision of the district officer and is allowed 
to manufacture articles of real merit. The ordinary workmen in 
the town sell their wares to two or three dealers who have shops 
in the bazar. 

There are six power-ginning mills in the district,— one in 
Mainpuri, throe at Shikohabad and two at Sirsaganj. At each 
of the latter towns one of the mills also presses and bales cotton 5 
they are not, on tho whole, successful, suffering from over-pro- 
duction. 

Nitre earth is common all over this district, and in 1909 
there were 295 factories working under an annual license from 
tho Salt Revenue department in tho manufacture of crude 
saltpetre (sJtora kham or jctriyn shora). These factories are 
kept running from tho month of November untilJuno, and produce 
from 50 to 100 maunds each of crude saltpetre worth from Rs. 2-8 
to Rs. 3 a raaund. Almost, if not quite, the whole of the crude 
nitre produced in the district is exported to the saltpetre 
refineries at Farrukhabad, the largest refining centre in Upper 
India, where by recrystallization the crude material is refined 
to 5 per cent, refraction for export oversea from Calcutta. The 
plant of a crude saltpetre factory consists of an iron boiler 
(kxrahi)j one or two earthen filtering troughs about 

10 feet long by 3 feet wide by 1 foot deep, several baked earthen 
vessels (g^mras and nands), some baskets, a few curved iron 
earth-scrapers ( khurpi ), a spade or two and a kaehoha well. Three 
or four hands only are required to work a factory, and the 



o/fd Oommem. 


75 


process of manufacture is simple. Fifteen or twenty basketfuls 
of nitre earth collected from the village site are packed into a 
, kuria in which some rows of broken bricks have been arranged 
with arJuir stalks placed over them to act as a rough filter. On 
the packed nitre earth 20 or 25 gJiaras of water are poured. 
This as it percolates through the nitre earth washes out the 
salts ill it which flow out into a reservoir as brownish brine. 
This brine, after concentration by boiling for six or seven hours, 
is set out to crystallize in the nands. Next morning the crystals 
of nitre, mixed with the eartliy and other impurities of the brine 
which have also been deposited, are extracted, placed in a basket to 
drain, and, when dry, stored in a pit for sale. After extraction 
of the crystals the surplus liquor in the minds is mixed with the 
next boiling of fresh brine. This residual liquor, or tor, is a 
saturated solution of common salt and nitre, from which common 
salt of edible quality can be produced by simple evaporation. 
A few cases of such illicit production of salt in the factories 
are detected every year by the Salt department and punished, 
the license, which costs Rs, 2, prohibiting the manu- 
facture of common salt. Thirty years ago the manufacturer of 
crude saltpetre paid on an average from Rs. IG to Rs. 18 for 
the right to collect nitre soil. Such rights now cost from 
Rs. 20 to Rs. 100 for each factory. Saltpetre used also to be 
manufactured by a solar evaporation process, but this is now 
obsolete. Factories for the refinement of crude saltpetre for- 
merly existed at Mainpuri, Be war, Bhongaon and Dihuli. These 
may perhaps reopen now that the Farrukhabad-Shikohabad 
Railway has provided cheaper carriage. Until a few years ago 
impure sulphate of soda was manufactured by solar 

evaporation at Nasirpur, some 20 factories being worked and 
about 3,000 maunds of the crude sulphate produced a year for 
export to Cawnpore, where it was employed in the leather 
factories. At present, owing to disagreements of the zamindars 
among one another and with the operatives, the factories are 
closed. Eassi (crude carbonate of soda) was formerly made in 
this district, but is no longer produced here, probably because 
the industry has moved into the Cawnpore district, where there are, 
it is believed, larsfer. and richer tracts of this soda efflorescenoe* 


Mainpwi DUtrid. 


Fairs. 


Gommuni- 

options. 


Railways. 


n 


At Parasrampar in pargana Bhongaon there is a large tract of salt 
soil where in old times common salt was made. This tract is still 
rich in saline material and has thsrefore to be watched in the 
interests of the salt revenue. 

A list of fairs is given in the appendix^ andj as will be 
seen, they are numerous. Few, however, are of more than local 
importance, and almost all are religious in origin. The 
Jakhaiya fair, held at Paindhat in Magli and Asarh, is famous 
enough to attract large crowds of visitors from other districts 
as well as from Mainpuri. Its history and significance will be 
found described in the directory. There are several Jain 'nid(t8 
at Karhal and elsewhere, to which Jains resort in large numbers 
and from great distances. On the festivals of the Ramlila and 
Kanslila fairs are held at various places and arc largely attended 
by people from the surrounding villages, while the^ Debi fairs, 
especially that at Mainpuri, enjoy a very considerable local 
celebrity and aro frequented by crowds. 

Mainpuri is well provided with the means of communication, 
The recent construction of the Farrukhabad-Shikohabad branch 
line has brought the district headquarters on to the railway, and 
the main line of the East Indian Railway traverses the 
southern corner of the district. Metalled roads are unusually 
numerous and connect the district wdth its neighbours. 

> The main line of the East Indian Railway runs for 23 miles 
through the south-west of the district with stations at Makhanpur^ 
Shikohabad (which is the junction for the branch line), Kaufasa 
(for Sirsaganj) and Bhadan. The station of Makhanpuir 
in mauza Jijauli, Shikohabad in mauzas Mihrabad Ubtiaiid 
NizampurGarhuma, Kaurara in mauzaa TilianiandKaurara,aud 
Bhadan inmauza Bhadan. The Shikohabad-Farrakbabad broad- 
gauge branch line was opened for passenger traffic betw^n ' 
Shikohabad and Mainpuri on the 20th May 1905, and fbr goods . 
traffic a little earlier. The whole line was opened by the Ist 
of January 1906. It runs through the centre of the district, 
with stations at Shikohabad, where it joins the mainline, Araon, 
Kosma; Mainpuri, Bhongaon and Mota, after which it crosses 
the Kali I^^adi into the Farrukhabad district, connecting at 
Farrukhabad with the Cawnpore-Achuera -metre gauge line* 



AgrioukUre and Commerce. 


If 

Araon Btation lies in mauza Hajipur Baijuai Kosma station in 
imuza Fazilpur, Mainpuri station in mamas Auren Panraria 
and Kharparij Mota station in Tikuri and Husainpur Malhamai^ 
Bhongaon station in mama Mahabatpur. All the railway stations 
in the district^ except Mota^ are open to goods traffic. A flag 
station will shortly be opened near the civil courts in the civil 
station^ and another station is proposed between Kosma and 
Mainpuri at Tinrauli. The following are the principal bridges on 
the line : KaU Nadi bridge, 10 spans of 70 feet ; lean Nadi l)ridgc, 
three spans of 60 feet; Sengar,7spans of SOJ- feet; Arind, three 
spans of 39J feet ; Sirsa Nadi, one span of 40 feet ; Ghiror canal 
escape, three spans of 19} feet ; over the Satini drainage cut one 
span of 39} feet and two of 20 feet; Bewar canal, one span of 86 
feet ; Cawupore canal, two spans of 53} and two of 57 feet ; Etawah 
canal, three spans of 30} feet ; Bhognipur canal, three spans of 
36} feet. 

A list of the roads in the district will be found in the Boade. 
appendix. They fall into two classes : provincial roads, managed 
by the Public Works department, and local roads, under the 
control of the district board. Those of the first class are all 
raised, metalled and bridged and have in the case of the Grand 
Trunk Road bungalows and encamping grounds at regular 
intervals along them. The most important provincial road is 
the section of the Grand Trunk Road which runs through the 
district, dividing at Bhongaon into two branches, one of which 
goes off north-west towards Delhi and the other south-west, 
towards Agra. The former branch passes through Kuraoli and 
the latter through Mainpuri and Shikohabad. The total length 
of the Gfg^ Trunk Road in the district is 89 miles. The only 
other. provi^Sial road is thoFarrukhabad and Etawah road, which 
crosses the Ghiand Trunk Road at Bewar, and runs south to Eishni, 
forming the principal line of traffic in the eastern portion of 
the district. The length of provincial roads in the district is 
103 miles, costing Rs. 280 per mile per annum to maintain. The 
^ local roads are divided into four classes, the first of which 
are raised, metalled and bridged. Of these a metalled road, 
branching off from the Grand Trunk road at Kuraoli, 
passes* through Mainpuri, connecting this town and Etab 




78 


Maiiip^ri District, 


directly with Etawoli, while another metalled road passing 
through Jasrana connects Etah with Shikohabad. The Kosma- 
Mustafabad road, originally the Jasrana-Miistafabad road, was 
metalled before the tahsil headquarters were removed from 
Mustafabad to Jasrana, and is now carried through Ghiror on the 
Agra-Bliongaon road and Kosma railway station. Other metalled 
roads run from Shikohabad to Sirsaganj, and to within four 
miles of Batesar in the Agra district, famous for its horse fair. 
Various other short lengths of metalled road exist, many of 
them feeder roads for the railway, but not of sufficient import- 
ance to deserve detailed description. The unmotalled roads are 
divided, as will be seen from the table in the appendix, into three 
classes. The second class are bridged and drained throughout, and 
of these the most important'is that running from Kishni through 
Karhal to Sirsaganj. This latter grain and cattle market is the 
centre of a whole system of roads radiating out to Agra, Mustaf- 
abad, Jasrana, Ghiror, Araon, Mainpuri, Karhal, Etawah and 
Batesar. The Phariha-Mustafabad and Ghiror-Kuraoli roads are 
also of some importance. The third class roads, which are only 
partially bridged and drained, and the fourth class, little 
better than cart tracks, will be found detailed in the appendix. 

Inspection There arc inspection houses of the Public Works department 

ftnd Knraoli, Sultanganj and Bhongaon on the Grand. Trunk Road 

iarait, (without including the canal inspection house at Bewar) and 
at Mainpuri, Bigrai and Shikohabad on the Agra branch of the 
same road. On the local roads the only inspection house is at 
Jasrana, while at Karhal the upper storey of the tahsil serves 
as a rest-house for inspecting officers. There are also dak 
bungalows at Mainpuri and Shikohabad with a khansamah 
at each, who caters for travellers. There are saraia at Nabiganj 
and Kuraoli on the Grand Trunk Road, and also at Mainpuri 
and Shikohabad. 

Canal There are inspection houses at about every ten miles along 

each of the main branches, and at other places .on the larger 
. distributaries, and each of them is approached by a» unmetalled 
road either running along the bank of the main t^anal or leading 
off it, except where the district roads afford facilities of 
communication. 1j\ the Mainpuri division there are bungalows at 



Affricutiure and Oommerde, 


79 


Gopalpur (excluding the one permanently occupied by the sub- 
divisional officer)^ Muhkampur (Aurangabad), Dannahar, Bhan- 
wat, Dhauraus, Aung (on the Nagaria distributary) on the Cawn- 
pore branch ; Jera (Eka), and Darapur Jlaseni on the Bhognipur 
branch ; at Saraiya (Sara! Latif), Bilon, Barauli, Be war, Simrai 
(Kuraoli distributary) and Jasmai (Binsia distributary) on the 
Bowar branch. The Etawah division has bungalows at Patikra, 
Ghiror, Gangsi, Bujhia (Urthan), Bilanda (llurua), Saman 
(Gangsi distributary) and Kurra (Bansak distributary). In the 
Bhognipur division- there arc bungalows at Shikohabad, Bhadan 
and Dhonai (Ubti distributary). In the Aligarh division there 
is one bungalow at Suraya, and in the Cawnpore division one 
at Tarha. 




CHAPTER III. 


The People. 


Early The first enumeration of the inhabitants of this district 

took place in 1847, but was merely the crudest estimate. Tho 
procedure followed was to count every darwaza or entrance door 
as the basis. Then ten villages were carefully selected in each 
pargana, and in these every individual, old and young, was 
counted. On the* results of these enquiries were founded two 
separate averages for ther agricultural and non-agricultural 
classes, and these averages, applied to all the houses in tho par- 
gaua, gave its total population. The result was naturally very 
imperfect, but, omitting the Patiali parganas, now comprised in 
tho Etah district, may be summarized as follows. The total 
population numbered 479,599 souls, of whom 452,345 were 
Hindus and 27,254 Musalmans : 71 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion was agricultural, and the average density per square mile 
313 only. Three years later, in 1850, a census- was taken by 
Mr. Raikos on a fairly complete enumeration, and gave a total 
population of 666,085 persons. 

In 1853, another official census was held, and as this gives 
the returns of actual enumeration and wr.s carried out with a 
good deal more care, it is of rather more value. According 
to these returns, again excluding the Etah parganas, the total 
population in 1853 was 634,087, an increase of 12 per cent, 
over Mr. Raikes’ enumeration of 1850, and of this number only 
37,107 were Musalmans. The average density per square mile 
was 414, but varied a great deal from pargana to pargana, 
rising to 593 in Mainpuri and sinking to 309 in Sauj. 76 pea., 
oent. of the population relied entirely, upon agriculture for a 
t living. Twelve years later, in 1865, another census was taken, 
aooording to which the total population had increased to 700,220| 
f with an average density' of 420 to the square mile. This oom* ? 

pafatively low ratio of increase may be accounted for hj the 



ThB 


81 


inaccuracy of previous enumerations, hut is not surprising after 
the Mutiny of 1857 and the drought of 1860-1, 

The percentage of the agricultural population, which is 
shown as only 63*7, manifests a remarkable decline from the 
figures of 1853, and can only be explained by different princi- 
ples of classification. It was during the period preceding 
this census that the transfer of territory to the Etah district 
was accomplished. This, however, has been allowed for in giving 
the figures of previous censuses, and during the same period the 
district actually received accretions of territory amounting to 
85,523 acres from Etawah and Farrukhabad. 

The census of 1872 puts the number of inhabitants at 
765,845 souls, or 452 to the square mile. Hindus were 94*6 per 
cent, of the total population, and of them 55*9 per cent, were 
males — a remarkable proportion, which will be dealt with more 
fully elsewhere. In every pargana, except that of Bowar, the 
population exceeded 700 to the square milo of cultivation, or 
4 souls to every 3 acres under the plough. 

At, the next census in 1881 the population of the district 
was 801,216, giving a density of 472 to the square mile. The 
increase in the decade was thus 35,371, which, though incon- 
siderable when, compared with the increases during the same 
period in the eastern districts of the provinces, yet contrasts 
favourably with the decreases in the neighbouring districts of Agra, 
Farrukhabad and Etah, and demonstrates the comparative 
immunity enjoyed by Mainpuri in the famine of 1877, owing 
to its advantages of irrigation. The increase among females 
daring the period was much greater than among males, the 
figures being 20,268 and 15,103 respectively. This phenomenon 
was almost universal throughout the province and is to bo 
explained as rather apparent than real, being due to the greater 
accuracy of this census, and the gradual removal of the pre- 
judice against disclosing information regarding their women 
folk, formerly prevalent among the native population. It can- 
not be attributed to the measures for the suppression of 
female infanticide, as the numbers involved are far too great 
an^ the Increase is common not only to the districts tainted with 
tbaf. nnmA but f/) others where it is unknown. 


Consua ol 
1873. 


Oenans pi 
1881. 



82 


Mwi'ifipuri DistrieL 


Cenaus of 
1891. 


Census of 
L901. 


Density. 


I 


At the next census in 1891 the population of the district’ 
had diminished to 762^63^ a smaller total than that of 1881, and 
showing a loss of 39,053 or 5 per cent, during the decade. The 
decrease was general throughout the district except in the Kar- 
hal tahsil, the population of which had increased by 268. The 
explanation of the figures is to bo found in the series of wet 
seasons and agricultural calamities which befell the district 
during the ten years and have been described elsewhere. The 
decrease was largest in tahsils Mainpuri and Bhongaon, where 
the stress of the bad seasons and fioods and hxna had been most 
severely felt, as also the loss of traffic along the roads. The 
town of Mainpuri was reported to have at the moment no trade 
worthy of the name. 

The lowest decrease (3%305) was exhibited in the Shikoh- 
abad tahsil, which had the advantage of the East Indian Eailway 
passing through it, though oven there population was not able 
to hold its own. Only Karhal, whore the surface drainage was 
excellent and the excessive rainfall, which water-logged the rest 
of the district, merely replenished the well-supply, succeeded in 
retaining its population and even in making a minute addition 
to it. Both the district reports and the census figures indicate 
a great deal of emigration to other and loss afflicted regions, 
and the shrinkage cannot be attributed wholly to increased 
mortality or a diminished birth-rate. 

The figures of the last census point to a great revival of 
prosperity. The total population was 829,357, the maximum 
yet reached, being 28,141, or 8*30 per cent., in excess of the 1872 
total and showing an increase of 67,194 during the decade. 

The density is 488*7 (well above the provincial average of 
427) per square mile of total area and 900 per square mile of 
cultivation. The most thickly populated tracts are parganas 
Mainpuri and Shikohabad with 536 and 534 persons to the square 
mile of total area respectively, and the' least thickly populated 
are parganas Ghiror and Karhal, with their large v^ar plains, 
where the densities are 423 and 432 only. Fargana Mainpuri 
has a density per square mile of cultivation of 1,183, even exclud- 
ing the urban figures of the city of Mainpuri, while pargana 
Kwhal has a similar density of 1,005, Kishni pf 991 an4 Ghiror ' 



of 962. The mean density of population on the cultivated area • 
of the district gives an average of 1*4 acres per head of popula- 
tion, which, combined with an average family of 4*66 persons, 
gives 6’5 as the average number of acres to an agricultural 
farail 3 ^ This, wliilo higher than the average in the crowded 
eastern districts, is considerably below the provincial average. 

The census tables show that the district in 1901 contained Towns 
],o88 inhabited towns and villages. Of these 1,183 had a popu- vSfageB. 
lation of under 1,000, and of tlio remainder, 143 contained 
between one and two thousand, and 53 had more than two thousand 
but less than five thousand. Among the nine towns or villages 
with a population of over five thousand are the municipality of 
Mainpuri with 19,000, th(5 notified area of Shikohabad (10,798), 
the two Act XX towns of Karhal (6,208) and Bhongaon (5,682) 
and the large agricultural villages Parham, Nauner, Eka and 
Saman. The three other towns administered under Act XX of 
1856 are Kuraoli, Sirsaganj and Pharha. The Gola Bazar, with 
a population of 678, though not, properly speaking, a town at all, 
but only an area within the civil lines to which the Act was 
applied ior convenience of administration, is now included in the 
Mainpuri civil station notified area. With the exception of Main- 
puri itself all the towns have cither stagnated or actually decreased 
in population during the last few decades, though there is reason 
to anticipate an upward movement in the immediate future in 
the case of those which are served by the railways, particularly 
Sirsaganj, now an important centre. The urban population, if 
the notified areas, Act XX towns and the ono municipality be 
reckoned as urban areas, is a trifle over 6 per cent, of the whole, 
which is well below the provincial average. But the district is 
essentially a rural tract, devoted to agriculture and its subsidi- 
ary industries. The population in the villages does not as a 
rule congregate all in one site, but is distributed over the whole 
mauza. There are no less than 4,513 recorded inhabited sites in 
the district, a phenomenon explained by the agricultural pur- 
suits of the people, the cultivator preferring to live inclose 
proximity to his fields and save the time aud labour involved in 
daily journeys from a central site to the outlying villa^ 

... 




84 


Mmnp^ri District, 


Motion, At the census of 1891 the decline of population was largely 
attributed to emigration^ and it is probable that the increase in 
1901 was in a great measure due to the return of these emigrants 
after the cessation of the bad seasons. The census tables for 
1891 give the percentage of emigrants to the total population in 
that year as 14*68, of whom 12*52 were emigrants to neighbour- 
ing districts. Of the total population enumerated 83*87 per cent, 
were natives of the district. In 1901 the percentage was 86*46. 
In other words, the percentage of natives of the district to the 
total population was greater in 1900 by 2*59 per cent, than at 
the previous enumeration. 

Se», Excluding the two districts of Dehra Dun and Naini Tal, 

which are quite exceptional owing to the large number of immi- 
grants, the proportion of women to men is lower in Mainpuri 
than anywhere else in the provinces, the census tables showing 
that to every 1,000 men there wore only 837 women. The last 
four enumerations show a steady rise in the proportion. In 
1872 the number of females per 1,000 men was 794, in 1881 it was 
812 and in 1891 it had increased to 829. Partial explanations of 
this disproportion between the sexes are to be found in the tendency, 
already mentioned, to concealment of females at enumeration, and 
in the practice of female infanticide for which Mainpuri formerly 
bore an evil reputation ; while the gradual improvement 
may be explained by the increased accuracy of enumeration 
and the measures taken for the suppression of infanticide. 

But though Mainpuri is the most conspicuous, there are 
too many other distnets where the proportion is low, for the 
second explanation to be tenable, nor, in view of the high pro- 
portion returned in others, can the first any longer be admitted. 
In general the eastern districts show an excess of females and 
the western of males, and it is quite possible that this fact is 
connected with the distribution of castes, the tendency being for 
the lower castes to produce more females and the higher castes 
more males. The figures for some of the larger castes in Main- 
^ puri are instructive in this respect, for we find that to every 1,000 
males the number of females is as follows in the following castes : 
Brahman 718, Rajput 747, Bania 779, Chamar 819, Barhai 827, 
E^chbi 838, Dhobi 838, Abir 910, Gf^ftria 965, Bbarbhiuija 



m 


The People, 


huge, straggling brotherhoods of peasant proprietors, all of them, 
except a few more fortunate individual members, more or less 
permanently indebted or financially embarrassed. These bodies 
still hold 67 per cent, of the whole district, though they 
have lost 7 per cent, of the whole, or 11 per cent, of their 
possessions, since the previous settlement. The imperfect 
pdtMari form of tenure now occupies 43 per cent, as 
against 56 per cent, then, and perfect pattidari 11 per cent, 
as against 5 pur cent. The bhaiyachara tenure has main- 
tained its area at 3 per cent. Single zamindari now holds 
25 per cent, of the total as against 20 per centr then; 
and joint zamindari 18 per cent, as against 16 per cent. 
The number of proprietors is now large, amounting to 37,143, 
which gives an average area per head of 29 acres only, as 
contrasted with 21,925 at last settlement and an average propriet- 
ary holding of 50 acres. No doubt a large portion of this 
increase in the number of proprietors is due merely to the more 
complete recording of the individual proprietary interests ; but 
their growing numbers are certainly pressing on the large com- 
munities. As an illustration of the size of these communities 
may be mentioned the village of Pariyar in the Jamna ravines, 
the recorded co-sharers of which exceed 2,600. Other villages 
have almost as many. 

The tauzi tenure, to which reference has been made, pre- 
vails in two villages of Faizpur and Nasirpur in pargana Ghiror. 
It differs from the ordinary tenures in being based not on the 
bigha and its twenty biswas, but on a unit of its own, which 
depends on the artificial classification of the soils into gmhaUy man- 
jha and bar ha. In Faizpur an allotment of land from each of 
these classes in the proportion of 6 bighas gauhan, 8 bighas 
manjha and 10 bighas barha makes up what is known as ^'one 
bigha tamzi.” There are 819 of these tav,zi bighas in the vil- 
lage : i. s. 819 equal shares, and profits and liabilities are4istri- 
buted accordingly. In Nasirpur the proportion of the three 
classes of land which go to form a tamzi bigha are 26 bighas 
jrauAan, 30 bighas many to and 35 bighas ha/rhatwA there are 
164f sneh bighas or shares iir the village. The interests of 
co-sharers in these two villages are ^erefore recorded in bighas 


fiUUi 

tSBUM. 



Mainp^H ^iririot. 



fhtctions thereof iintead of biswas, as in zamindari 
and pcUtida/ri ^xiTes! ‘The advantages of such a standard. ai:e 
obvious in di vidhig up common.Iand. 

l?roprieU The proprietary distribution of the land has already been 

atyoasteB. describing the various castes, but a summary 

* of it will be convenient here. Thakurs are still by far the most 
important landowning class, still retaining possession of 45 71 
per cent, of the cultivated area of the district, though they have 
lost 78,479 acres since last settlement, when they held 61*87 per 
cent. The bulk of their possessions is still in the hands of 
communities, particularly to the east and in the centre of the 
district; though there are several large estates belonging to the llajas 
of Mainpuri, Awagarh in Ktah, Tirwa in Farrukhabad, Partahnair 
in Ktawah, Bhadawar in Agra, and the head of the Phariha Xotla 
family, as well as the large proprietors of Saman, Pundri, 
Milaoli, Muhammadpur Labhaua, Sujrai and Uresar. Next 
come Brahmans, whose percentage has increased in thirty years 
from 19*22 to 20*37, and after them Ahirs with 1 0*08 per cent., whose 
losses slightly exceed the Brahmans’ gains. There are no large 
individual Ahir zamindars, but their communities, like those of 
the Thakurs, are found in large numbers all over the district, 
except in Alipur Patti. Kayasths take the fourth place with 5*43 
per cent, and Bauias the fifth with 5*21. At the 1873 settlement 
the possessions of the former were more than double those of the 
latter. Khattris come next with 2*98 per cent., having more 
than trebled the area they own since 1873, and close after them 
Musalmans with 2*66 per cent., a less remarkable but still appre-, 
ciable increase on the 2*28 which they held before. The other 
money-lending castes of Marwaris and Mahajans follow with 
1*60 and 1*40 per cent, respectively, both having more than 
doubled their holdings dui-ing the thirty years’ period. Of the 



remaining castes the principal are the Lodhas, Goshains, Sunars 
and Jats, but the area held by them is still very small, though 
increasing in the case of all but the Jats. 

There are, as already observed, fow large proprietors in the 
district. Of the principal family, that of the Raja of Mainpuri, 
an account has been given when dealing with the Chauhan clan 
of Rainuts. of whom that house is the most important branch. 



mt usojHe.' 


Other notables who hold estates in this^district have, been tbuolied 
, upon in the gazetteers of the districts \fith wHc^ they are more 
• nearly connected. Chief among these are the Kaja of Partab-. 
/hair and the Bani of Lakhna^ both of. the Etawah district, who 
, hold some property in tahsil Karhal. Of those whose headquarters 
' are situated in Mainpuri the chief is the Baja of Eka, tho repre- 
sentative of a younger branch of the great Chauhan sept, more 
nearly allied to the Partabnair than to tho Mainpuri wing of the 
family. Nothing certain is known of tho early history of this 
houi^e except that it has long boon established in pargana Mustaf- 
' abad, where the other largo Thakur zamlndam of Uresar and 
Milaoli are offshoots from it. The title is ancestral in the family 
and was from the first recognized by tho British Government, but 
the estate is now greatly diminished both in area and importance, 
many of the villages having passed into the hands of a bania of 
' Hathras under the terms of a mortgage. Only one village and one 
patti assessed at Bs. 12,400 are now left of all the former poss- 
essions of the family in this district. The present holder of the 
title is Baja Narotam Singh, and his heir is Lai Baj Kumar, 

The family of Jadon Thakurs who hold Phariha and other 
villages in Mustafabad and tho Kotia estate in Agra claim the 
title of Baja. This claim has never been allowed by the 
British Government, though the right is recognized by other 
Baj put chiefs and in popular parlance. They are descended 
from Bijai Pal of the Kuraoli family. The fifteenth in direct 
descent from Bijai Pal was Baja Tulsi Das, appointed a com- 
mander of 300 by Akbar, and frequently mentioned in both the 
Akbarnama and Ain4-Akb%ri, where a sketch of his life is 
given. Baja Harkishan Das, the sixth in descent from him, who 
received from the Emperor Aurangzeb the title of Bahadur, 
acquired the villages of Pariha and Kotia as well as a large 
tract of neighbouring country, but most of this was lost again 
in 1784, when Harkishan Das’s son, Puhap Singh, was killed in a 
vain effort to resist the advance of Sindhia. The whole estate 
was included in the jagir granted to DeBoigne by Sindhia. 
On DeBoigne’s departure for Europe Puhap Singh’s son, Ishwari 
Singh, recovered 42 villages in perpetual {istimrari) tenure as a 
reward for services rendered to Lord Lake, but os he consistently^ 


Phariha 

Kotia 

ostatof. 



100 


Ma/impu/H JHttriet. 


flUlUTat* 

iV 


failed to pay his revenue, the Phariha Kotla estate was in 1810 
included in the istimra^i mnad granted to Hira Singh of Awa- 
garh. On the latter's death in 1831 the property was once more 
restored to the former proprietors and permanently settled with 
Ishwari Singh's son, Sumer Singh, His grandson's widow, 
Mahtah Kunwar, displayed consistent loyalty throughout the 
Mutiny. Though dispossessed by a rival, the Thakurani Dhan 
Kunwar of the village of Phariha, she did her utmost to support 
the Government in Mustafabad, aiding the local officers with men 
and money. Her daughter, the Rani Jas Kunwar, had no child, 
so in May 1905 she transferred the estate to the present propriet- 
or, Thaktir Kushal Pal Singh, a collateral descendant from 
Harkishan Das Baliadur. He is a remarkably well educated 
man, holding the degrees of M.A. and LL.B. and the mem- 
bership of a large number of learned societies. An experimental 
farm has been started on his estate at Phariha. The Sujrai 
estate in pargana Kuraoli is now owned by a minor and is 
managed by the Court of Wards. The title of Chaudhri is here- 
ditary in the family, and C'haudhri Lachlpnan Singh, the grand- 
father of the present representative, was in 1868 raised to the 
dignity of Raja of Kuraoli as a reward for his services in the 
Mutiny. His successor, however, forfeited the title by miscon- 
duct. The family Ijolongs to the Rathor class of Rajputs. The 
Qanungo families of Shikohabad have already been mentioned, 
and of the others the only ones worthy of even a passing notice 
are the Kayasth Chaudhris of Bhongaon, the Chauhans of Tiuroli 
and Arjunpur,the Sanadh Brahmans of Alipur patti, the Raghu- 
bansi Rajputs of Kalhor, the Mar war i Brahmans of Khairgarh, 
Rampur and Parham, the Shaikhs of Aswa, the Kirars of 
Labhaua, the Chaudhris of Bharaul, the Bais of Bewar and 
Dihuli and the Thakurs of Saman. None of these have any 
claims to a detailed description either on account of their past or 
present importance. 

The cultivating tenures are the ordinary ones which prevail 
throughout the province.* The only remarkable feature which 
they present in this district is the unusually large area held by 
privileged tenants and the equally unusual tendency of that 
jsiea to expand even at the present time. At the 1878 settlement 



Ths TeopU, 


107 


the amount of land held by occupancy tenants was com- 
mented on as a peculiar feature of the district worthy of 
special notice, showing the singular iiicity of the cultivating 
tenure and the tenacity with which the agriculturist in Maiiipuri 
has clung to his land.” The percentage was then 59’73 ; it is 
now 61 *66, or if the old hit lands held by dispossessed proprietors 
as tenants be included, as they ap])car to have been in the ,1873 
figures, 63*4. The only parganas in which there have been de- 
creases in the occupancy areas are Bhoiigaon, Alipur patti and 
Bewar, all in the northern hlmr tract, and here they were due not 
to oppressive action on the part of landlords, but to voluntary 
surrender of lands deteriorated by the agricultural calamities of 
the eighties. Everywhere elso the increase is well marked, parti- 
cularly in Mustafabad, where the privileged area has expanded 
from 51*66 per cent, to 65*81 per cent., in Barnahal, where the 
advance has been from 56*87 per cent, to 63*43 per cent., and in 
Karhal, where 66*26 per cent, is now hold in occupancy right 
instead of 58*78. The proprietors have not, as a rule, been strong 
enough to interfere with the acquisition of rights of occupancy 
l)y a tenantry consisting for the most part of Thakurs and Ahirs, 
nor, indeed, do they appear to have attempted to do so. The non- 
occupancy area, which was 21*53 per cent, of the whole at the 
last settlement, has now diminished to 18*77 per cent., and it is a 
fact worthy of note as illustrating the strong hold of the occu- 
pancy tenant upon the land that 17*5 per cunt, of this is held by 
occupancy tenants in addition to their occupancy holdings. 

The leading cultivating caste is still that of the Ahirs, with Oultivat* 
28*21 per cent, of the tenants’ cash-rented area, nearly twice as 
much as that held by their nearest competitors, the Thakurs, who 
hold 14*88 per cent. Next come the Brahmans with 12*67, the 
Kachhis with 9*34, Chamars with 8*76, Lodhas with 7*46 and 
Gadariyas with 3*38. Kahars, Musalmans and Eayasths have 
each over 1 per cent., while Mallahs, Jats and Banias have 
each less than that small figure. The remaining castes hold 
between them in minutely fractional shares 10*46 per cent, of the 
whole. Fortunately for the cultivation of the district both Ahirs and 
Thakurs, as well as Brahmans, are frequently either too indolent 
or too proud to cultivate their own holdings, preferring to sub-let 




Ron is. 


108 


Mainjpuri District, 


them to the lower but more skilful and industrious Lodhas, 
Kachhis and Chamars. Nearly one-fourth of the holdings area 
was found to be sub-let at the recent settlement. 

The iijcidenco of rent is in inverse proportion to cultivating 
skill, an anomaly mainly duo to the influence of social position. 
Thakurs are the most privileged, holding the best land at the 
lowest rents with a larger proportion of occupancy rights than any 
other caste. Those advantages they have received by their birth- 
right as members of what has always been the dominant race, by 
their relationship to the proprietors* of the greater part of the 
soil, and by their notorious intractability, -i\.hir8, again, are either 
akin to the proprietary body or else by associating in largo 
communities and in isolated hamlets generally succeed in defying 
the efforts of the zamindxirs to encroach on their possessions or 
enhance their rents. The social pre-eminence of the Brahmans 
has protected them to some extent, but they pay fairly high rents. 
The heaviest burdens are borne l)y the Kachhis, the most diligent 
and successful members of the cultivating body. They, how- 
ever, are feeble folk, unused to resistance, and also able, by the 
very excellence of their husbandry, to make more out of their 
land, and so pay a higher rent for il. The fact, too, that they, 
unlike the higher castes, ea)i utilize the labour of their women 
and children instead of hiring, enables them to work their hold- 
ings much more economically. 

The rental system prevailing almost universally throughout 
the district is one of lump rents paid in cash on holdings of 
mixed soils. There are a few crop rents hero and there, and 
grain rents (apart from mere batai on odd plots of inferior 
variable soils) flourish still in some villages in parganas Bewar 
and Kuraoli. But the whole grain-rented area amounts only to 
4,271 acres or *G8 per cent, of the whole. It has diminished by 
more than one-half since the last settlement, when it formed 1*58 
per cent, of the total area. In 1840, when the district was settled 
by Mr. Edmonstone, the general rent- rate was Rs. 3-9-10 an 
acre, including sir and khudkasht at nominal rents. In 1873 
the average incidence was only Ils. 3*78, excluding the sir 
and khtdkashtj and at the recent settlement the actual cash rates 
averaged Ks. 1*.08 per acre, a rise in thirty years of 23*81 per 



The People. 


109 


cent, or roughly 24 per cent. But an analysis of the figures will 
show that this is not the real index of the rise in rents. To get 
this the occupancy and non-occupancy areas must be taken 
separately, and it will be found that, while the rental incidence of 
the former has only risen from Rs. 3*84 to Ra. 4-52, or by 17*7 
per cent., that of the latter has increased from Rs. 3*61 to 
Rs. 5*29 or by 46*5 per cent. 

In some parts of the district the occupancy rents simply 
stagnated : thus in Alipur Patti they rose only l)y 3-41 per cent., 
in Kuraoli only by 3-99 per cent. an<l in Mainpuri by 5*44 
per cent. The non-occupancy rents, on the other hand, have in 
parts of Barnahal risen by 131 per cent., in Bhongaon by 92 per 
cent., and l)y over SO and 90 per cent., in Mainpuri and Karhal. 
These sharp ris(’s are the natural result of the high prices which have 
ruled during the recent series of years of drought and famine, 
accentuated by the restricted area open to the tonants-at-will. 
Against them must bo set off the very small increase in the Kali 
Nadi tract, in parts of which non-occupancy routs have actually 
fallen by dv*? per cent, even from their level at last settlement. 
But the rise in prices which has sent up the competition rents of 
the tenants-at-will in so marked a way has left the greater part 
of the occupancy rents untouched. In several villages the rents 
were found at the recent settlement to be still the same as they 
were fifty or sixty years ago, and 38 per cent, of the occupancy 
rental consisted of rents unenhanced at the last settlement. 
Nearly 31 per cent, had been enhanced since 1873, but the bulk 
of it was enhanced immediately after the settlement, and so had 
remained stationary for thirty years. In over 9 per cent, 
of the occupancy area occupancy rights had been acquired 
shortly after the previous settlement, but the rents had not 
since been enhanced. In only 21*56 per cent., or a trifle 
over one-fifth of the whole, had the influence of the rise 
in prices and values of the lost thirty years been felt. The 
rent paid for different classes of soil varies very greatly, 
ranging from Rs. 16-9-0 an acre for suburban land round Qasba 
Kuraoli to less than one rupee for the worst quality of 
unirrigated soil. The former figure is, however, exceptionally 
high and due to the fact that the land is all in the hands of 


no 


Mcmpwri Diririot, 


ValuAof 

land. 


Kachhis, who cultivate it for v^etables and market-gardening 
generally. Ordinarily the best quality of gauhan is rented at 
between Rs. 11 and Rs. 12. The rates for the better qualities 
of soil exhibit a marked increase during the last sixty years. 
In 1840 the rate for first quality gauhan was only Rs. 4-2-0, 
and in 1873 it was Rs. 7-9-0. Very little concealment of rents 
was found at the settlement, but though the rental demands were 
in general correctly^ recorded, the rental collections as recorded 
showed an annual shortage of, on the average, 12*5 per cent., the 
records [siyahas) being, as a rule, very imperfectly written up 
and the figures defective and unreliable. The main cause 
of this lay in the large number of villages held by large 
proprietary communitiep, in which the lainharda/i^ is more 
often than not a mere figure-head, the various pattidars 
collecting for themselves, and the process often degenerating 
into a mere scramble for rents. With such numerous collecting 
agencies, mostly illiterate, no correct record of the amount 
collected is kept. Another potent cause is the widely prevailing 
habit of deliberately understating the collections in order to show 
outstanding, though really fictitious, arrears in the village 
papers as a means of keeping the tenants under control. 
Again, many zamMars are also their tenants’ bankers, and the 
amounts collected are credited first against the loan and interest 
accounts. 

The rise in the value of land during the last forty years has 
been very noteworthy. Taking the available figures for private 
sales, which are much more trustworthy as a criterion than those 
for public auctions, it appears that during the eighteen years 
between Mr. l^monstone’s settlement and the Mutiny, the average 
price per acre was Rs. 6-12-4, while between the Mutiny and 1870 
the price had risen to Rs. 13-4-8 or almost double. At the present 
day the average price is from Rs. 81 to Rs. 32. Or, taking the 
number of years’ purchase, it will be found that, while daring tiie 
period 1840 to 1870 the average was 5*26 years, the corresponding 
figure for the years 1870 to 1900 is 17, and the actual figure in- 
creqsed from 3*4 years in 1840 to 19 years in 1900. This steady rise 
in values is not difficult to account for. Between 1840 and 1860 
the district was in a condition of depression and change. The 



ThA People. 


U1 


breakdown of Mr. Edmoustone’s settlement and the effect of 
the preceding bad seasons resulted in wholesale alienations of 
land by compulsory process, no less than one-eighth of the 
% district being so transferred. Some landlords were unable to 
discharge their revenues, others looked upon a sale for arrears 
as a relief from their liabilities and a moans of ultimately re- 
ceiving back their estates unencumbered, as in many cases pur- 
chasers could not be found and (Tovernment was under the 
necessity of reinstating the original proprietors. Between 1860 
and the Mutiny the harvests were abundant, and the revision 
of the settlement had greatly lightened the burden of the revenue 
payer. Forced alienations were comparatively rare and private 
sales and mortgages were not very numerous. After the Mutiny, 
however, a totally new condition of things came into being. 

Hitherto the speculating classes had only looked upon land as 
a form of security and had no ambition to become landed pro- 
prietors themselves. The money-lender who intruded into a 
Thakur or Ahir village to oust the original owners of the land 
would have needed a more than common degree of courage, and 
the adventure was not generally considered to be worth the 
risk. But the reign of law and order which has prevailed since 
1859, together with the great security of landed property and 
the high profits to be derived from it, have l)rought about a new 
era. The banking classes, who before the Mutiny lent out their 
capital grudgingly and showed no desire to drive landlords to 
extremity, now compete with one another to accommodate the 
zamindar and encourage his extravagant habits, and by fore- 
closures and auctions in execution of decrees are steadily and 
persistently increasing their hold upon the land. In addition 
to the above causes it must not be forgotten that the Govern- 
ment share, taken as land revenue, of the assets or gross profits 
of the zamindobre has been steadily diminished from 90 to under 
60 per cent., and if the leniency now adopted in calculating 
t the assets be considered the percentage is even less. The devel- 
opment of means of communication and of irrigation has of 
course also contributed to the steady rise in land values. 

The district is a poor one when compared with the districts 
of the Upper Duab and the people are baokward and jaofli :: 




112 


Mainpuri Dietriot, 


unenterprising. Many of the big zmnindars are absentees, living 
in other districts, and the great mass of the proprietary com- 
munities who own and with their fellow-casteinon cultivate 
the bulk of the land arc impecunious and living cluse upon the 
critical margin of subsistencj. Bad seasons therefore tell upon 
them heavily. And they are not a thrifty class in the most 
prosperous times. The petty Thakiir proprietors, owing to their 
expensive marriages and other caste customs and their large needs 
in general, live more or loss habitually beyond their means, 
a fact which explains the largo transfers of property which have 
taken place. Most of th;^ proprietary communities are heavily 
embarrassed, and their ultimate extinction and deposition to the 
grade of tenants can Itardly be averted and is only postponed 
by their constitution and the dilTicnlty experienced by any 
outsider in making good a footing among them. This unfor- 
tunate position cannot be attributed to the pressure of the State 
demand. If he had no revenue to pay at all, the improvident 
Thakur or Ahir would be little, if at all, less indebted. AVhat he 
has he spends, and he never lays by any provision for adverse 
seasons. Apart from the small proprietors, the condition of the 
people is good, and compares favourably with that of the dis- 
tricts further oast. 

The scarcity of labour and the high wages it commands 
clearly indicate the absence of any real poverty among the 
tenant and labouring classes, and the fact that 77 per cent, of 
the tenantry have rights of occupancy in their holdings should 
guarantee, with ordinary thrift, a reasonably liigh degree of 
well-being. Another indication of prosperity is to bo found 
in the large number of masonry wells which have been built of 
recent years and are estimated to represent a capital outlay of 
at least six lakhs of rupees. But though the people are fairly 
comfortably off, they are content with a low standard, and the 
evidences of comfort are not obviously apparent. Among the 
tenantry houses of pukka brick or masonry are still compara- 
tively rare and the majority are of mud. Very few, however, 
of the people are condemned to live in mere huts of wattle such 
as are so common among the indigent multitudes of the eastern 
districts. 



CHAPTER IV. 


Administration and Revenue. 


A Magistrate and Collector holds charge of the district 
under the Commissioner of the Agra division. To assist him 
there is at headquarters a sanctioned staff consisting of four 
Deputy Collectors— three of them with first class powers and one 
with powers o£ the third class. At the tahsils there arc five 
tahsildars, each exercising criminal powers of the third and 
revenue powers of tlie second class. There are also throe honor- 
ary magistrates, exercising (jriininal powers of the third class — 
Kunwar Bhagwan 8iugh, wlio sits at Samaii, K. Drigpal Singh 
at Uresar, and Lala Phukari Lai at Karhal, with jurisdiction 
within the police circles of Kiahni, Eka and Karhal, respectively. 
Offences against the Canal Act are dealt with by canal magis- 
trates, who are not connected in any way with the district staff 
except as regards appeals, which are referred to the District 
Magistrate. The Sessions Judge also exercises civil jurisdiction 
as District Judge, and is assisted by a Subordinate Judge and 
two munsifs, one at Maiupuri and the other at Shikohabad. 
The Judge visits Etawah to hold sessions every other month, 
and that district is also within his civil jurisdiction. There are 
forty village munsifs’ courts, created since 1903. The rest of the 
district staff consists of the Superintendent of Police, the Civil 
Surgeon and an Assistant Surgeon, a Sub-Deputy Opium Agent 
and one assistant, and a District Surveyor or Engineer. Maiu- 
puri is the headquarters of the Executive Engineer of the 
Mainpuri division of the Lower Ganges Canal, who has an 
assistant at Gopalpur near Eka in the Mustafabad tahsil, whore 
the head works of the Cawnpore canal are situated. 

Mainpuri is at present divided into five tahsils, comprising 
eleven parganas. The latter subdivision is no longer of adminis- 
trative importance, though it is still found in the land registers, 
but is often of historic interest, the names surviving from the 

s ' 


Dial riot 
stai!. 


SnbdiTl. 

Bions. 



Village 

munsifs, 


Opium 

depart- 

ment. 


114 Mainjpwri DiririctK 


days of Akbar and to be found record^ in tbe Ain-irAJcba^ri 
The Shikohabad and Mustafabad tahsils each: consist of osu 
pargana from which they take their name. Mainpuri tahsi 
includes the three parganas of Mainpuri, Ghiror and Kuraoli 
The Bhongaon tahsil has four parganas— Bhongaon,Alipur Patti 
Be war and Kishni-Nabiganj ; and the Karhal tahsil consists 
the Karhal and Barnahal parganas. As at present constituted 
the district is reasonably compact, and there appears to be nc 
reason for further change, except that the Bhongaon tahsil if 
above the average in area and Karhal considerably below it. 

This useful body of gentlemen consists of the more influential 
and well-to-do landed proprietors, who perform their duties 
conscientiously and without remuneration. In 1908 there wen 
forty-six circles, of which six were vacant, consisting each oi 
from one to nine villages in proximity to the munsif^s residence 
The popularity of these courts may be inferred from the fact that 
no less than 1,906 suits were disposed of during 1908, excluding 
suits disposed of without formal entry in the registers. Of the 
registered suits only 5 per cent, wore tried out, the greater portior 
l)eing settled in other ways. Only o4 cases were transferred on 
the applications of defendants to tli(} regular courts. The village 
raunsif is a great success in this district — thanks to the care taken 
in selecting a popular man of the right stamp and standing— and 
it is an immense convenience to tlie rural population to have a 
means of recovering petty debts, so much so that the rate of 
interest on loans so recoverable shows a tendency to decline. The 
village munsif is mainly an arbitrator and not a judge. 

The local head of the Opium department is the Sub-Deputy 
Agent of Mainpuri, with subdivisions at Bhongaon and Mainpuri 
within the district, and also at £tah, under Assistant Opium 
Agents. The decline in poppy cultivation has been commented 
on in Chapter II, and is attributed to the increase in prices 
obtainable for other agricultural produce. The decline is also 
connected with the Government policy of contracting the area to 
meet the diminished exports to China, and in pursuance thereof 
one subdivision at Shikohabad has already been abolished. In 
the four years ending in 1907 nearly 10 lakhs of rupees were 
distributed on an annual average by the department as advanoea 



Jdmim$tration and Revenue, 116 


to cultivators^ but ' in 1907-8 only half that sum was found 
necessary. W^ighaients are no longer made at Shikobabad, the 
greater bulk of. them being made at headquarters. .. 

The existing shape and area of the district were not Pormo- 
reached without a great deal of alteration continued through 
many years. Taken over in 1801, Mainpuri became the head- ^wtriot, 
quarters of the great district of Etawah, pargunas Jlewar and 
Kuraoli coming by cession from the Farrukhabad Nawab and 
the remainder of the district from the Oudh Nawal). A military 
station Was established at Shikohabad and a Joint Magistrate 
was stationed at Etawah. In 1808 the revenue jurisdiction of 
the (jntire district was entrusted to a C/ollector residing at 
Mainpuri, who had ten tahsils under him— Shikohabad or Rapri, 
including pargaiias Shikohabad, Mustafahad and ( ihiror ; Hazur 
tahsil, including Bhougaon,Saiij, Kishni and taluqa Manchhaua; 

Sakit, including Sonhar, Sakit, Sirhpiira, Saliawar-Karsaua and 
Amanpur ; Kasganj, including Boron and Kasganj ; Etawah, 
comprising Bibaraau, Auraiya, Sandaus, Barhpura and Talgram. 

Soon after Sauj was transferred to Farrukhabad, and lesser areas 
^verb gradually divided off and placed under separate sul)-collcc- 
tors. In 1817 Kuraoli was received from Farrukhabad. In 
1824 the old pargana of Rapri was dismombered and divided 
into Kisniat Awwalj subsequently known os pargana Bhikoh- 
abad,andKismat afterwards called parganasMustafabad 

and Ghiror. To the south of Rapri was pargana Havoli Etawah, 
from which a great part of pargana Bibamau, made up of tappan 
Dehli and Jakhan, was formed. Bibamau was again broken up 
and distributed between Barnahal, Etawah and Shikohabad ; and 
Karhal, also a tappa of Etawah, was constituted a separate 
pargana. Mainpuri belonged to Manchhana, which was itself 
formed out of Bhongaon. Kishni-Nabiganj also formed part of 
the same pargana. In 1837 the Mainpuri jurisdiction was 
restricted to Sahawar-Karsana, Etah-Bakit, Birhpura, Kuraoli, 
Shikohabad, Mustafabad, Ghiror, Sauj, Karhal, Kishni-Nabiganj, 
Bhongaon, Alipur Patti and Manchhana. Bewar was received 
from Farrukhabad in 1840. On the formation of the Etah 
district in 1845, the parganas of Sahawar-Karsana, Etah-Sakit 
and Birhpora were handed over to it, and since that period the 



116 


Mainpvi^i District, 


Fisoil 

history. 


district has altered little. In 1860-61 pargana BhongaonandtaZtt^ 
Manchhana were united under the name Bhongaon-Manchhaua, 
and in 1861 pargana 8auj was broken up and divided between 
Karhal and Mainpuri. Later changes have for the most part 
been trifling, between pargana and pargana within the district. 

On the first cession of the tract which now constitutes the 
Mainpuri district temporary ariangcments, based on the accounts 
of the Subahdar, Almas Ali Khan, wore made for the collection 
of the current revenue. In the following year, 1210 Fadi (1802-3 
A.D.), the first triennial settlement under Regulation XXV 
of 1803 was effected. The second triennial settlement was made 
in 1806-6, expired in 1807-8, and was followed by the quadren- 
nial settlement, which terminated in 1811-12. These three 
settlements comprise what is commonly known as the decennial 
period. It had been the intention of the Government, declared 
in the original proclamation to the zamindars of the ceded pro- 
vinces, to conclude a settlement in perpetuity, at the end of the 
decennial period, of those lauds which should then be in a suffi- 
ciently advanced stage of development. However, before the 
expiry of the second triennial settlement it was resolved to 
anticipate the period originally fixed upon for a permanent 
settlement, and it was determined that the assessments current in 
the last year of the period should remain fixed forever, contingent 
upon the sanction of the Board of Directors. The settlement 
for the quadrennial period was thus made with a view to perma- 
nency, and a special commission, consisting of Messrs. Colebrooke 
and Deane, was appointed to superintend it. About the middle 
of the last year of the perioJ, however, orders arrived from the 
Court of Directors negativing the proposal to make the assessment 
of 1811-12 permanent, and requiring the making of afresh 
settlement for a term not exceeding five y^rs. But the Govern- 
ment, whose ambition ever since the cession had been to confer 
on the ceded provinces the benefits which Lord Cornwallis* per- 
manent settlement was supposed to have conferred on Bengal, 
instead of carrying out the instructions of the Board in 
their integrity, reverted to the terms laid down in 1803. 
The indispensable condition precedent to a settlement in per- 
petuity was a sufficiently advanced state of cultivation in the 



Administration and Revenue, 


117 


land to be settled. The Board of Commissioners pi'ooeeded 
accordingly, while making a general settlement of the ceded 
provinces for the five years 1220 to 1224 Faslif to make such 
enquiries regarding the agricultural development of estates as 
should enable the Government to determine where a settlement 
in perpetuity should be granted. These enquiries yielded a two- 
fold result. They showed first that the country was, where 
statistics w^orc available at all, in a backward state ; and secondly, 
that our knowledge of its resources was far too slender to be 
relied upon. The Court of Directors decided, on receipt of the 
district reports, that, for the present at any rate, the project of a 
peimanent settlement could no longer !)0 entertained. In 1816 
a regulation was enacted continuing the jamas current in 1224 
Fasli (1816-17) for five years longer with a view to the collection 
of agricultural statistics to serve as a basis for future action. 

In the meantime there arose a discussion regarding the objects 
to bp attained in making a settlement of the land revenue, and 
the rules by which the Government demand should be regulated. 

The first result of this discussion was the enactment of the famous 
Regulation VII of 1822, by which the existing assessments 
were maintained until a new settlement could be made on the 
principles embodied in the regulation itself. Only a few scat- 
tered villages in Maiupuri were settled under Regulation VII of 
1822. It was found that the procedure involved was far too 
cumbersome, and that the completion of such a settlement would 
be the work of a* generation, if not more. To remedy this, 
Regulation IX of 1833 was passed, having as its object the 
abridgment of this cumbrous procedure, and it ivas under this 
regulation that in 1839-40 the settlement of Mainpuri was com- 
pleted by Mr. (afterwards Sir George) Edmonstone. There were 
thus only three general assessments of the district prior to the 
regular settlement made by Mr. Edmonstone. These were (1) the 
first triennial, 1210 to 1212 Faeli ; (2) the first quadrennial, 1216 
to 1219 Fadi} (3) the first quinquennial, 1220 to l22iFadi, All 
the others were merely extensions of these except in cases where 
modifications were rendered necessary by purely local causes. 

Of the first triennial settlement we possess scarcely any Xtefifit ;; 
record at all* It was very hurriedly conducted, and the 



118 


Mamfvitri District. 


information at the command of the assessing officers was neces- 
sarily most imperfect. This information appears to have con- 
sisted of (1) the accounts delivered by Almas Ali Khan at the 
cession, (2) the schedules of malgwzari receipts of the preceding 
year furnished by cliayfdharpij qanungoa and taluqdam ; and 
(3) the statements of hham proceeds received from those amins 
who had been deputed by the Collector in 1209 Fasli to collect 
statistics. 

The main end would seem to have been to obtain as much 
of the gross produce of an estate as possible, compatible with 
the reservation to proprietors of such a quota as would not drive 
them to refuse engagements. The assessments were fixed at a 
consideral)le increase on the jama formerly realized by the 
Nawab Wazir^s (lOvernmcnt, partly, as the Collector admitted, 
through higher offers being made, and partly on the summary 
enquiries which had been instituted into the capabilities of 
estates. The total revenue assessed over the whole district as 
now constituted amounted to ten lakhs of rupees, a sum which 
it was found impossible to collect in full owing to the depres- 
sion and anarchy which prevailed (;ons6quent on a severe famine 
on the one hand and the depredations of the Marathas on the 
other. Heavy and general remissions were thus necessitated 
during this period. Only in the largo talaqas were the assess- 
ments moderate. 

The second triennial settlement was merely a continuation 
of the first settlement at the same jaiivv in all cases where 
the malguzariff whether proprietors or farmers, had kept their- 
engagements and were willing to renew them. No enquiries into 
rights of ownership were entertained by the Collector, who simply 
allowed the fulfilment of the former engagement to confer on the 
men in possession the privilege of re-entry for three additional 
years. In those instances whore refusals to renew engagements 
on the old terms occurred, the estates not engaged for were 
advertised, and offers were invited, the highest offer being 
generally accepted, with preference- to the hereditary eamirufors 
in the event of their coming forward. The total annual demand 
during this settlement averaged very close on ten lakhs, and 
although heavy biJances did occur, still the collection of the 




AdmimMration and Bevenue^ 


119 


— ■' n 

revenue seems not to have been attended with that insuperable 
difficulty which characterized the first four years of our rule. 

The first quadrennial settlement was conducted by Messrs* 
Valpy and Batson, the former reporting on the western parganas 
at the end of 1807 and beginning of 1808, tlio latter completing 
, the eastern parganas at the end of 1808. Mr. Valpy himself 
estimated the assets upon which the Government demand was 
based, disregarding the recorded rentals as untrustworthy. Of 
these estimated assets he took 90 per cent, as revenue, leaving 
to the mniindar a residue of 10 per cent, to defray expenses of 
cultivation and village expenses and for his own support from 
the produce of the soil.” I own,” ho wrote with much truth, 

“ that I consider this residue a base and sorry pittance, but a 
larger could not have been granted without causing a consider- 
able defalcation of the revenues of the former settlement even in 
these parganas, and an infinitely larger^ one in others of this 
district, and it is to bo inferred from the tenor of the regulation 
for the lower provinces that Government considered that quota 
sufficient in Bengal and Behar.” He further pointed out that the 
revenue thus assessed could only be comfortably realized in favour- 
able years ; and that it was too severe to stand the pressure of 
any failure of crops, unless liberal remissions were promptly made. 
Mr. Batson appears to have assessed on the average of the esti- 
mates of the cultivated area and of the average produce of the three 
years of the expired settlement obtained from (1) the tahsildar and 
qanungo, (2) the zamindars and (3) the patwaris. I added,” 
he reported to the Board, the three estimates of any one estate 
together, and having calculated the amount, I divided the gross 
produce by three, which gave the average of the three dowls, 
which average I have in many cases stated as the gross, on which 
1 have marked the account settlement, being unable to obtain a 
better or more correct gross from the clue of contradictions and 
falsehoods which 1 attempted to unravel to no purpose, and 
finding myself baffied after tedious investigations, and involved 
in a maze of doubt, 1 from necessity had recourse to the average 
of the dowls as the only fair alternative which 1 could have 
recourse to in such cases, when 1 could not succeed by taking 
the average of any adjoining estate as a standard.” Mr. Batsen 


Tho first 
quadren-i 
uial settle 
moni 
1808.0 tc 
1811-12. 


120 


rhe quin< 
juennial 
settle- 
ment, 
1812-13 t( 
1816-17. 


Mampwri Districts 


believed that his estimates were in general 80 to 40 per cent, 
under the true resources/’ and proposed that if the board con- 
sidered his assessments too low^ progressive jamas should be 
imposed. Like Mr. Valpy, he assessed the ^ama at 90 per cent, 
of the assets, ascertained by the method described. The new 
assessment was Rs. 1,10,000 in excess of that which preceded* 
it, the enhancement falling principally on parganas Shikohabad, 
Mustafabad, Ghiror and tahiqa Muhammadpur Labhaua. The 
settlement did not work well. Before its close the zamindars 
had fallen into heavy arrears, which they were either unable or 
unwilling to pay ; 136 estates, amounting to one-eighth of the 
area of the whole district, had passed into the hands of the 
Collector, who held them under direct management, generally at 
a loss, while the pargana officials were thoroughly corrupt, often 
placing themselves in opposition to the Collector and supporting 
the zamindard in their recusancy. 

The quinquennial settlement of the district was made jointly 
by Messrs. Batson and Dawes under Regulation IX of 1812, in 
which it is laid down that the proportion of assets to be relin- 
quished to proprietors should be one tenth on the jama exclusive 
of cost of collection or, in other words, one- eleventh of the net 
assets. The mode of estimating the gross assets was not very 
different from that employed in the preceding settlement, but the 
enquiries were far more detailed and were made village by village. 
The assessing officers were able to bring much more local knowledge 
and experience to their aid than before, and in framing their 
revised assessments profited by the fiscal history of each village, 
whicb they were at pains to Record for each separately in a 
vernacular proceeding. These proceedings were forwarded to 
the Board, who reviewed them minutely and gave orders them- 
eelves in every case, thus constituting themselves virtually the 
assessing officers. A sifting investigation of proprietary rights 
was also carried out, the Board, as in the assessments, permitting 
no record of ownership to be made without their sanction. It 
was from this period apparently that the record of rights 
became a part of the settlement operations, which had previously 
been confined merely to assessment. This settlement was sanc- 
tioned by the Board in 1814. The result was, in round numbers, 



‘AdminiHration and Revenae. 


m 


a total revenue of twelve lakhs of rupees^ an addition of Bs. 86^000 
to tho previous Government demand. The Board^s records show 
that in the first year of this settlement both talaqdars and zamin- 
dars combined to oppose every obstacle to the success of the new 
assessments, both by throwing large tracts out of cultivation 
and by using their influence to frustrate realization of the revenue, 
^Matters came to a head in 1815 in the western parganas of 
Shikohabad (including Mustafabad) and Dehli Jakhan and in 
the taluqa of Muharamadpur Labhaua : and the defalcations wei*o 
so large that Mr. Valpy, who already had some experience of 
the people, was placed in exclusive charge of these parganas. 
From the statement of outstanding balances handed over to him 
by the Collector, Mr. Dawes, it appears that arrears up to the 
end of the preceding year had accumulated to the amount of 
nearly a lakh; that for tho current year about three-quarters of 
a lakh due on the hfiar if was yet unrealized, in addition to nearly 
two and a half lakhs still to bo collected for the rahL These 
balances he attributes to tho refractory disposition of some 
of the principal zamindars, to the neglect of cultivation by others 
and to tho mismanagement of Tahsildar Chiranji Lai, who has been 
dismissed.’’ He is also apprehensive that the utmost vigilance 
will not be sufficient to accomplish the realization of tho whole of 
the jama.” Scarcely hadthopargana changed hands when the crisis 
occurred in the case of taluqa Muhammadpur-Labhaua. The <a- 
iwgofar, Thakur Bhagwant Singh, after regularly defaulting with 
ample means to pay, had gone as far as to disregard entirely any 
demand for payment of his revenue or summons to appear before 
the Collector. It was therefore found necessary to bring his 
whole estate to public auction; and in April 1815 his enormous 
property, consisting of 107 villages in Shikohabad, Ghiror and 
Sakit, was put up for sain and purchased by Government for 
Rs. 10,960. It was resettled the following year at an increase of 
Rs. 11,484 with the zamindars as farmers, and on this tenure they 
continued to hold it till 1839, when they received proprietary 
rights on condition of their liquidating the balances which had 
occurred during the possession of Bhagwaftt Singh. Consider- 
able redactions of revenue had also to be made, with a re-settle- 
ment in a large number of villages in Shikohabad, Musta&bad 




122 


Madnpv/ri District. 


Mr. 

Bdmou- 

stone's 

settle- 

ment, 

1839-40. 


and Dehli Jakhau. These revisions prove that the quinquennial 
settlement; in the west of the district; at any rate, was practi- 
cally a failure, though there is nothing to show that elsewhere 
any revisions were necessitated. This settlement as revised 
remained in force till 1 839, except in the few villages which, as 
already stated, were settled under the provisions of Regulation 
VII of 1822. The only record of the working of the settlement 
is contained in the remarks of subsequent settlement officers. 
F rom these it would appear that the revenue Avas found to be 
excessive only in the case of individual estates, and the work 
really attempted at the next revision in 1839 was the equaliza- 
tion of the demand, by lowering it in over-assessed estates and 
taking a small increase in those villages where the assessment 
had been inadequate. 

The first regular settlement of the district, made under 
Regulation IX of 1833, was Mr. Edmonstone^s in 1839-40, 
and gave a total revenue of Rs. 12,46,000, an increase of 
Rs. 48,000 on its predecessor. Notwithstanding this very moderate 
increase, however, Mr. Edmon8tonc^s assessments broke down 
more or less over the whole district, and extensive reductions 
Avere necessitated almost immediately. This sudden and general 
collapse cannot possibly bo attributed to the slight advance 
in revenue resulting from the neAv settlement, but to the after- 
effects of the great famine of 1837-8, which Averc far more 
lasting and disastrous than had been imagined. This famine 
almost depopulated the backAvard tracts, and even in the most 
favoured parts of the district its effect was felt for years. Mr. 
Edmonstono^s great mistake, judged by the after event, arose 
from a far too sanguine anticipation of the elasticity of the 
district. The ejcceptionally favourable rains of the two years 
during which he was engaged in assessment gave to the country 
an appearance of recovery Avhich it had not really attained, and 
led him to over-estimate its resources. A large proportion of 
the land which had been thrown out of cultivation by the famine, 
had, on account of the seasonable rains of 1839-40, been again 
brought under the plough. Not only did he assess these lands, 
but he also called upon the unploughed waste to pay its quota of 
revenue. His anticipations were not realized. Two or three 



md Revenue, 


123 


seasons of light and untimely rains followed ; the cultivation, 
instead of spreading, declined, the condition of the tenantry 
deteriorated, and in consequence many of the mmlndam ioviA 
themselves unable to ^oet the (Government demand. The debts 
which they wore obliged to contract during the famine years 
still hung over them, the money lenders began to press for 
j)ayment and refused further advances, and the result was a 
very general state of impecuniosity and absence of capital, which 
culminated in 1844, when a revision of Mr. Kdmonstone^s assess- 
ments was sanctioned by (.Government. 

This revision, which was effected by the (Collectors of the Rovision 

of Mr. 

district, Messrs. Unwin, Dick and Cocks, under the orders of Edmon- 
the Commissioner, resulted in a reduction of the janut from 
Rs. 12,46,000 in 1840 to Rs. 10,46,000 in 1846-6, rising grad- 
ually to Rs. 11,40,000 in 1860-1. These measures restored the 
district to prosperity. In 1850-1 the area under the plough 
was 9 per cent, in excess of the cultivated areas of 1836-7, the 
year preceding the famine, and the (lovornmont revenue was 
realized without a single farm or sale. Thus, then, in the year 
when the revised assessments reached their maximum, wo find 
the district in a higher state of prosperity, its administration more 
easy, its public revenues more punctually paid, than at any period 
since the cession in 1801.” Neither the anarchy consequent on the 
Mutiny of 1867-8 nor the famine of 1860 appears to have inflicted 
other than a temporary check on the advance of the district to 
recovery. The spread of the Ixiisuri weed in 23 villages 
in Mustafabad and Shikohabad necessitated a reduction* of 
Rs. 6,361 in the Government which, together with reduc- 
tions on account of the appropriation of land for the Etawah and 
Cawnpore branches of the Ganges Canal and their distributaries 
and for roads and other public projects, brought the jama of 
1860-1 from Rs. 11,40,000 down to Rs, 11,21,289, at which 
amount it stood when it was succeeded by the revised assess- 
ment made by Messrs. McConaghey and Smeaton. 

The effect of Mr. McConaghey’s revision was to raise the Mr. 
Government demand to Rs. 12,76,430, an increase of Rs. 1,65,141, 
or 13*84 per cent., though only Rs. 31,430, or 2} per cent., in excess 

of the burden which Mr. Edmonstone had bought the district lero-* 

Md, 


stono'B 

aSBOBS- 

ment. 




124 


Mainpuri Didt'iet. 


Bevision 
in 1891-a. 


capable of bearing thirty years before^ when canal irrigation 
W'as unknown. The increase was justified on the grounds 
that (1) cultivation had increased by 17J per cent, since 1836-7 
and by llj per cent, since 1850-1; (2) iwigation had increased 
in the same proportion ; (3) population had advanced 24 per 
cent, since 1850; and (4) harvest prices had risen 45 per cent, 
since the Mutiny. The assessment was made after a new and 
careful survey carried out, under supervision, by the patwaris 
and amins, and the revenue represented rather less than half the 
estimated rental assets of the district. There was, however, a 
considerable difference in the methods employed in the five 
parganas, Kuraoli, Mainpuri, Ghiror, Alipur Patti and Bewar, 
that were first assessed, and in the six parganas forming the 
remainder of the district, with the result that the enhancement of 
rents in connection with settlement operations amounted to 27 
per cent, in the first set of parganas and only 7 per cent, in the 
second, and that the revenue assessed was 45‘5 per cent., of the 
corrected rental as it stood after enhancement in the first set, but 
67 *6 per cent, of the second. And as the corrected rent-roll after 
enhancement was only Rs. 23,19,377, even after allowing for con- 
cealments, the assets cannot be taken to have been more than 24 
lakhs. Mr. McConaghey’s valuation of Rs. 26,30,930 would there- 
fore appear to have been somewhat excessive and his jama to 
have represented a higher percentage of the rental assets than ho 
claimed for it. The settlement, however, worked well on the 
whole, and the Government, in a review of it made some seven 
or eight years later, in 1880, while concluding that no interference 
with the assets was necessary, pronounced, the new revenue 
lenient in the five parganas first assessed, but not too lenient, 
except, perhaps, in Ghiror, and fully adequate in the remaining 
and greater portion of the district, but not too high, with the 
possible exception of the hhur portion of pargana Bhongaon. 

Reasonably moderate as the assessment was, a combination 
of causes which could not have been foreseen, and for which it 
was in no way responsible, rendered its revision necessary in 
1891 in four out of the five tahsils of the district, and resulted 
in an aggregate reduction of Rs. 30,000, or 2 per cent, of the 
whole demand. These causes were (1 ) the floods in the Kali nadi ; 



and Revenue. 


(2) deterioration due to wet seasons and the spread of kana grass ; 

(3) damage from the super-saturation and water-logging due to the 
Bhognipur Branch Canal. 

As early as 1877 it was found necessary to reduce by 
Rs. 6,850 thejaina of 70 villages in pargana Kuraoli, Alipur Patti, 
Bewar, Bhongaon and Kishui, which lay in the valley of the 
Kali Nadi and suffered severely from flooding after 1873. This 
reduction was made for flve years only, but at the revision in 
1881 only Rs. 1,685 of the reduction were recovered and a further 
sura of Rs. 7,780 had to be reduced in 171 villages in the five 
northern parganas. In 1885 these villages were swept by the 
terrible flood from the Nadrai aqueduct and suffered very severely. 
Though the full magnitude of the disaster was not appreciated 
at the time, suspensions of revouue and advances of money only 
being given, yet in 1 889 remissions of revenue had to be granted 
in eighteen villages, and in 1890 in nine more. A regular 
revision of ‘settlement was then ordered. 

The wet season also caused a very serious spread of the 
noxious grass in the lighter soils of Bhongaon and Mainpuri, 
and the . deterioration arising from this was so grave that 
remissions of revenue amounting to Rs. 6,784 were necessitated 
in nineteen villages, and eventually this tract also had to be 
included in the sphere of the revision of 1891, 

When the Bhognipur branch canal was first opened the 
interference with the natural drainage which it involved, and 
the rise in the water level of the surrounding country, were so 
great that not only was the productivity of the soil in its neigh* 
bourhood much injured, but wells fell in and houses collapsed. 
A special settlement officer was accordingly deputed in 1891 
to examine into and revise the settlement in all the affected 
areas of the district. In 1891 the circumstances of 152 villages 
were enquired into and relief was given in 122 mah/da. 
Rs. ,13,595 of land revenue were reduced, and Rs. 17,357 6f 
arrears of revenue were remitted, while Rs. 2,350 were awarded 
as compensation for injury to houses. In 1892 the operations 
were continued and resulted in a redaction of Rs. 6,303 of land 
revenue, in remission of Rs. 6,422 of arrears, and the payment 
of Bsi 4,370 as compensation to hoose owners. 


Kali Nadi 
floods. 


Kant, 


Effect of 
the Bhog* 
nipur 

ganftl . 



126 


MainpUtvi Distriot 


Beoent 
Bettlement 
1902 to 
1906. 


Survey, 


A forecast made shortly before the falliog in of the revenue 
engagements taken at the last settlement indicated a probable 
increment to the State demand of some [6 per cent. A revision 
of assessment was therefore financially desirable. Besides 
this the incidence of assimsment throughout the district required 
to be equalized, and the temporary reductions to be recon- 
sidered. But of still greater im])ortance than all these was the 
need for re-adjusting the rents of the huge body of protected 
tenants, who held no less than 64 per cent, of the total cultivation 
of the district. Yriiile the competitive rents of tenants-at-will 
had advanced in timely correspondence with the rise in prices 
and in the value of land, the protected rents had remained 
stationary, 78 per cent, of thorn being unchanged since the last 
settlement and some 38 per cent, from a very mucli older period. 
There was no reason why this stagnation should be. perpetuated 
and the landholder and the State should not share in profits from 
the enhanced value of land, of which an unfair proportion was 
being monopolized by the protected tenant. A new settlement 
was therefore ordered, and in November 1902 Mr. W. J. E. Lup- 
ton, I.C.8., was placed in charge of it. 

The re-assessment was preceded by and based on a complete 
new survey of the whole district and of each village, and a revision 
of all the village records. A traverse survey of the whole district 
was made during the three seasons 1898 to 1901, and skeleton maps 
of each village were prepared on the scale of 16 inches to the 
mile. On receipt of these outline maps the survey/ officers pro- 
ceeded, with the aid of the village patwaris, whom they had 
been training in survey for the purpose, to fill in on the maps 
each field, plot, village site, well, grove and so forth, giving to 
each a number ; and in accordance with the new numbering a 
new record of rights was drawn up, based on the old but prepared 
on the spot under the supervision of the survey officers and in 
presence of jihe parties interested, both landholders and ter^nts. 
Actual possession was the basis of the new record, and all dis- 
puted entries were noted in a dispute list for subsequent 
adjudication, and corresponding lists of old and new numbers 
were prepared to aid in identification. On completion of the 
field work, which lasted from October to May each season, the 



Admimitmtion and lUv&i/iue, 


127 


patwarifl came into headquarters and, among other work, 
extracted the area of each newly numbered field in acres and 
decimals. These were then entered in thcA;tomandtheib^/ai«n^ 
slips, and the area obtained by summation of fields of each 
village was chocked against that supplied by the Traverse Survey. 

The detailed survey and record writing in the field were systema- 
tically checked by the Survey officers and supervisor kaiiungos 
of the district. This work, which began in November 1899, was 
completed in October 1903 at a total cost of lls. 1,62,895. 

. The attestation was carried on from November 1901 to Attests- 
March 1 904. On receipt of the rough records from the survey 
office the khatauni and khewit slips were distributed through 
the patwaris to each tenant and zamindar affected, and about 
a fortnight later, when the contents of the slips had been read 
and digested, both tenant and zamindar appeared before a 
gazetted officer, encamped for this purpose, either in their village 
or in its immediate neighbourhood. If th<' parties agreed as to 
the entries in a slip and no objection was raised by any one else, 
it was formally attested by the officer as admitted correct. Dis- 
puted cases were either decided then and there in the presence of 
the assembled villagers or later on by trial. At the same time 
the dastm dehi or memorandum of village customs was drawn 
up. Attestation over, the attested slips were sent back to the 
headquarters office, there to form the basis of the new Settlement 
records, the various entries needed for the new khasra, khatamii 
and khewat being abstracted from them. 

Concurrently with the attestation work, the officers were 
employed in supervising the preliminary soil classification 
and in checking on the spot the list of groves and wells. The 
soil distinctions used followed closely those of the last settle- 
ment, but with some modifications, and they have now the merit 
of employing terms and representing differences recognized by 
the people themselves. The soil classes having f)een decided on 
by the settlement officer, the soils in each village ^re roughly 
marked off on the map by kanungos and amins trained for 
this purpose by him and were checked by the deputy collect- 
ors. In due course they were examined personally by the 
settlement officer on the spot, and corrected where necessary* 



MmnfVtVi Diitrici, 


Assess- 

ment 

Oiroles. 


mntm. 


The soil demarcation thus finally fixed represented the idea of the 
settlement officer himself guided by the opinions of the villagers, 
which wore freely invited, and by ensuring the systematic inspec- 
tion of every portion of the village, gave great confidence in the 
subsequent differentiation and assessing. The prevWling rent 
rates wero at the same time continuously ascertained and noted. 

Every village thus came under the close personal inspection of 
the assessing officer, in general and in detail, and its characteristics, 
quality and capability were carefully noted. From the impres- 
sions thus formed, backed by a careful examination of their 
statistics, past and present, and of thoir fiscal history, the 
villages of each tract were differentiated and grouped with similar 
villages into assessment circles. The actual circles formed at the 
present assessment differed in no noteworthy respects from those 
adopted by Mr. McCoiiaghey, the natural soil divisions of the 
district affording a ready and sound- basis for differentiation* 
Thus the villages of the central loam tract, though physically 
fairly uniform, were, as a matter of convenience, and to avoid 
all danger of over-assessing in the less favoured, grouped into 
two circles, the first comprising the best villages with perfect 
irrigation or a larger portion of the better soils and the better 
cultivating castes, and generally with a higher revenue-bearing 
-capacity, and the second containing the remainder of the villages. 
1& the northern hhur tract, again, the presence in some villages 
of canal irrigation with its attraction for population, its incentive 
to closer and more lucrative cultivation and generally the great 
stability derived from its protection, necessitated a similar 
differentiation of these villages from those still outside the 
canal area or only partially within its infiuence. The same 
considerations applied to the southern mixed tract, owing to the 
new Bhognipur canal, which now runs through tahsil Shlkphabad. 
The villages on the Jamna ravines, owing to the unique charac- 
teristics of this tract, naturally formed a separate circle of. |h^ 
own. And t^e villages along the Kali Kadi, whiph^h^d for. tne 
most part suffered severe depreciation during the. last seti^qipen^ 
were, chiefly for this reason, formed into a separate cirple^ 

The rates quoted by villagers nearly always represented tiuf 
latest competition rents for specific plots in any onejrabi (har)^ 




Adminii^raJliiM and Bevenue, 


But such rents were^ in the first place^ based on a recent rapid 
rise in prices during a series of abnormally dry seasons ; and 
secondly, even if they could have been regarded as expressing 
stable rental values, they would have given soil rates much too 
high for assessment in the circumstances of the district. The 
real problem of the assessment was the treatment of the large 
body of old and inadequate protected rents, which could not, 
however, bo abruptly enhanced beyond a certain level without 
risk of danger. The sir and khudJcasht (land cultivated by 
proprietors) amounted to only 12 per cent, of the whole, and was 
practically all in the hands of poor proprietary communities, 
mainly Thakurs and Ahirs. The rent-free and grain-rented areas 
^ also, the first being unremuncrativo to the revenue payers and tho 
second comprising for the most part very variable and most inferior 
soils in which cultivation is spasmodic only, similarly needed 
easy and safe treatment. Of the areas hold by tenants-at-will, com- 
prising only 17 to 18 per cent, of the whole, the rents were found 
to remain in most cases only partially collected. There were 
left only some 13 to 14 per cent, of tho whole in the shape of 
the later occupancy rents, which could be taken as stable and 
not too high, but at the same time as adequate in the circum- 
stances of the district. These later occupancy rents were accordingly 
taken as a rough standard of fairness, the actual assessment 
rates being ultimately extracted from the rents of a number of 
representative normal and adequate occupancy holdings. Besides 
these, the quoted rates ascertained from villagers, though not 
used as a basis for assessment, wore of great importance as 
revealing the existing proportional capacities of the several soils. 
These proportions, being thus established, were expressed in 
definite ratios by reference to a selected soil, and these ratios 
wero then applied to tho almost universally prevailing lump 
rents of the< representative holdings and the lump rents thus 
.split np into their underlying soil values. From jthe latter, 

^ tabulated village by village and circle by circle, the standard 
assessment rates wofo deduced, representing in the final result for 
the district in general the soil values of the actual rents being 
paid, by occupancy tenants who had in the record year held their 
boldines for at least twenty years, but not at the last settlement. 



BesuUs of 
the assess- 
icent. 


130 Mainpuri DistrioL 


The next eiTect of these rates was to raise the older protected rents 
for the purpose of calculating the assets approximately up to 
the level of the new occupancy rents. 

With these rents as a guide for comparison and valuation, 
the actual recorded non -occupancy rental of the year of record 
was reduced by Es. 40,175, or 7-5 per cent., to Rs. 5,78,780. On the 
otherhand,the total occupancy rental, including the small expro- 
prietary amount, was raised from Rs. 17,93,924 to Rs. 19,47,013, 
that is by Rs. 1,53,089, or roughly 9 per cent. But of a sum of 
Rs. 40,061, subsequently deducted from the assets as compensation 
for improvements, Rs. 19,928 represented the new wells of tenants; 
and this amount being deducted in detail from the rental enhance- 
ments decreed on individual holdings by the rent courts, the .total 
real occupancy enhancement was thus Rs. 1,33,161, or 7*4 per cent, 
only. Theassumptionarea— that for which no cash rents are paid, 
such as khudkaaht <&c.— was actually valued at Rs. 3,70,858, but 
Rs. 47,372 of this were remitted as allowances to numerous and poor 
proprietary communities on their lands actually self-cultivated, 
thus leaving a net assessed valuation of only Rs. 3,23,486. 
The grain-rented and rent-free areas, which are included in the 
assumption area, were moderately valued also, the first at 
Rs. 10,272 as compared with its valuation of Rs. 12,636 giwn 
by the standard rates; and the rent-free at Rs. 1,04,811 as 
compared with Rs. 1,26,686. The total assets or annual value thus 
obtained were then adjusted by a lump deduction of a further 
sum, viz. Rs. 90,515, for unstable or excess areas, which were 
set aside from assessment as a further margin for fluctuations. 
An addition of Rs. 740 for short cultivation and small mahala 
assessed on average assets, and of Rs. 1,288 for assessable myar 
profits (income of grass land, <&c.) (out of a total recorded income 
of Rs. 27,288 >, and a deduction of the remainder of the Rs. 40,061, 
already referred to, for zamindars^ improvements, then brought 
the net assets of the district to Rs. 28,85,819, or, excluding the 
figures for the four revenue-free villages, to Rs. 28,31,709. The^ 
assessments sanctioned aggregated Rs. 13,57,364, ab all-round 
percentage of 47*93 of these latter assets; this aggregate rev-» 
enue, however, not being reached till after ten years, but pro- 
gressive from an initial revenue of Rs. 13,53,069. The expiring 



AU'nfiifiistration ttnd Mevenue. 


131 


demand (revenue plus the owners’ rate or canal dues) of the 
year of record being Us. 12,69,923, the now aggregate rovcniie 
was thus an increase of Us. 87,441, or 6*89 per cent., but of 
Rs. 56,527, or 4 per cent, only, on the initial re venue of Rs. 1 2,76,430 
declared at the previous settlement. On the actual cultivated 
area of the record year the new revenue thus fell at Rs. 2*30 per 
acre. The rc-adjusting effect of the ro-asscssment is shown by 
the fact that, while in 1,847 estates out of a total of 2,600 in the 
district the now revenue exceeded tho expiring demand, on the other 
hand, in 235 estates that demand was retained unchanged, and 
in 518 estates it was actually reduced. Of tho increase in the 
demand a very large portion was directly due to tho increased 
values conferred by tho now canals or new extensions of tho older 
systems, the rest being duo to tho natural rise of rents and values 
consequent on a marked rise in prices and population. Although, 
os explained, the circumstances of tho district compelled in the 
assessments a largo interference with tho prevailing low rents of 
the protected tenants, yet, briefly put, tho distinguishing feature 
of tho recent re-assossment was that it was based on the actual 
assets and, not like tho previous settlement, on a valuation, that 
is, an estimate of what tho value of the land ought to be. The 
assessment rates of the recent revision did not pretend to express 
actually prevailing rental values, but represented primarily tho 
rates of rents twenty years before. At tho previous settlement, on 
tho other hand, tho assessment rates admittedly represented the 
prevailing rates at the time, that is, the rents which wore being 
actually paid by fair representative holdings, and which could| 
on purely economic grounds, be imposed on all similar lands 
at the time. Bat undoubtedly such rates were in general much 
above, and in detail often very considerably above, the ordinary 
level of t!io rents being paid by the very large body of the pro- 
tected tenants whoso rents are not free to respond to merely 
economic factors. And these rates, besides tending to impose on 
tile protected area a valuation which, however fair as compared 
with present values, gave an abrupt enhancement often too 
severe to be borne all at once, were also inclined to take into 
account, however unconsciously, a mere prospective rise in 
,y,al?^0|H-a factor which not merely discounted future improvement 



182 


McSn'pWfi DUMd. 




IVfliM 

stitioiM. 


Oriine, 


but also tended to make the initial demand very full^ if not 
Qovere^ upon the actual assets of the moment. 

The police force is under tho control of the Superintend- 
ent of Police, subordinate to whom are the deputy superintend- 
ent of police, the reserve inspector, the prosecuting inspector, 
and two circle inspectors. The regular civil police force con- 
sists of 25 sub-inspectors, 15 head constables and 330 constables 
posted at the various stations, and 7 sub-inspectors, 12 head 
constables and 17 constables in the reserve. The armed police 
comprise 1 sub-inspector, 20 head constables and 127 constables, 
all of whom are kept at headquarters or at tahsils. In addition 
to these there are 3 head constables and 82 constables employed 
in Mainpuri city for watch and ward, 47 town chaukidars in the 
Act XX towns, and 21 provincial chaukidars in the notified areas 
of Shikohabad town and Mainpuri civil station. The roads are 
patrolled by 104 road chaukidars, and watch and ward is kept 
in the villages by 1,759 village watchmen, an average of one to 
every 460 of the population. 

The district is divided up into 12 police circles. The circle 
boundaries bear no relation to the fiscal subdivisions, being con- 
terminous with neither the parganas nor the tahsils except in 
tahsil Mustafabad. The police stations are situated at Mainpuri, 
Ghiror and Kuraoli in the Mainpuri tahsil ; at Bbongaon, Bewar 
and Eishni in Bhongaon ; at Kurraand Karhal in the Earhal tahsil; 
at Shikohabad and Sirsaganj in the Shikohabad tahsil; and at 
Mustafabad and Eka in the Mustafabad tahsil. The population 
of ^ch circle will be found in the appendix. The average num- 
ber of enquiries into cognizable cases made yearly at each station 
is 96. These circles have recently been redistributed, a new one 
being created at Mustafabad, while four were abolished at 
Barnahal, Auncha, Pharha and Jasrana. The figures in the 
appendix are those of the 1901 census for the old circles. There 
are police outposts at Pharha, Auncha, Barnahal (to be trans- 
ferred to Narangi Bah) and Punchha, the two last being on the 
Jamna. 

The statistics given in the appendix will throw some light 
on the amount and the nature of the crime prevalent in the 
district, and will be found to present few peculiar features, 



Admim^raiion and Revenue^ 


133 


From time to time outbreaks .of dacoity^ especially in years of 
scarcity like 1897^ call for energetic action on the part of the 
local authorities. Not. infrequently Ihesc are the work of armed 
gangs of professional^ dacoits who make a carefully planned 
and organized attack on the house of some wealthy bania or 
zamindar. Such gangs consist, as a rule, of local bad characters, 
but will sometimes recruit assistants from neighbouring districts 
and the Gwalior state. Sometimes a gang of this sort will 
make a rapid raid through the district, committing several 
dacoities in succession, the members of the gang dispersing to 
their houses if they elude the vigilance of the police. Only 
rarely do the inhabitants of the villages where the dacoities are 
committed venture to make any combined attempt at self-defence. 
The criminal tribe of Haburahs, and those almost equally lawless 
wanderers, the Kanjars, have given a good deal of trouble in 
the past in the matter of dacoities and robberies on the roads. 
These crimes of violence are a comparatively recent development 
in the case of the Haburahs, whose tendencies were formerly 
all in the direction of the less ostentatious forms of larceny and 
theft. Organized action in this and the surrounding districts has 
for the time being put a stop to this nuisance. The ancestral 
home of the Haburahs lies in the £tah district, on the border 
near £ka police station, and camps of their womenfolk are 
often seen on the march through this district, but the men, though 
keeping in touch with the caravan, arc rarely to bo seen 
accompanying it. Burglary, cattle theft and ordinary theft are 
fairly common, and are not confined to any particular castes, 
though the Aheriyas and Ahirs in the Eka police circle appear 
to have an unusual predilection for these forms of crime. Most 
of the circles can boast of one or two villages which are 
favourite haunts of well known criminals and police suspects, 
and in this Eka is pre-eminent, though there are several other 
centres which reqtdre to be watched: such are Biltigarh in 
Shikohabad Azampur, Silauta and Bajhera in Josrana; Man- 
chhana in Mainpuri and Baijua in Sirsaganj. This list has 
no pretensions to be exhaustive. Cattle theft is perhaps more 
common than would appear from the returns. The Ahirs, who 
ma fktt in tliA district, havo lonsT been 




184 


Femalo 

infanti- 

cide. 


f 

i 

V 


Mcmpv/ri Distrid, ' 


renowned for this among many other lawless practices. One 
of their favourite devices is to pass on stolen cattle from village 
to village where they have connections, until all possibility of 
tracing the animals is lost. Another of their practices is the old ' 
border blackmail, the holding of cattle to ransom. It not 
infrequently happens that the villager finds it less trouble to pay 
the sum demanded than to leave the enquiry to the police. 

The Mainpuri district has always been notorious as the 
stronghold of female infanticide. This is chiefly due to its 
being the principal homo of the Chauhan Thakurs, ^v]lo are well 
known to have been addicted to the practice ; but Bhadauria, Tank 
and Bais Thakurs as well as Kamharia, Ghosi and Phatak Ahirs 
have also been suspected with good reason. Active measures 
for the repression of this crime were first taken in 1842-3, 
when Mr. Unwin issued a sot of rules for the supervision of the 
Chauhan Thakurs and Phatak Ahirs, among whom it was most 
common. The chaukidars in all Chauhan and Phatak villages 
were at once to report at the police station the birth of any 
female child. After verifying this report the officer in charge 
of the station was to inform the Magistrate, who called for a 
further report on the child^s healtli at the end of a month. Any 
illness was to bo reported without delay and the case inspected by 
a police officer, and in the event of the child^s death under 
suspicious circumstances the corpse was sent to the Civil Surgeon 
for a post mortem examination. These rules continued in ' 
force till they wore superseded by others under Act VIII of 
1870. In 1843, the year in which they wore issued, there was 
not a single female child to be found among the Chauhans ; in 
1844 there were 156 female children alive; in 1845 there were 57 ; 
in 1846 there were 222, and 299 in 1847. But though the rules 
were beneficial they were inadequate, as it was very often 
impossible to get such evidence as would secure the conviction 
of a parent under the provisions of the existing law, even where 
it was quite certain that a female child had been murdered. 
Eeporting on Mr. Unwin’s rules in 1851, Mr. Eaikes proposed 
a measure by which proof of gross neglect on the part of the 
parents should render them liable to imprisonment, but nothing 
was done to carry out the suggestion. He also attempted to 



and JRevenue. 136 


put down tho crime through the agency of the people themselves^ 
and with this object ho in 1861 assembled tho heads of tho 
various clans at a conference at Saman and induced them* to 
enter into an agreement to curtail their extravagant expenditure 
on marriages. Tho sum of Rs. 500 was fixed as the limit o ? 
tho dowry to be demanded by a bridegroom, tho presence of 
Rrahmans and Bhats and the other attendants on marriages 
was to be discouraged and the profuse outlay on tho wedding 
feast in feeding tho numerous followers of the invited chiefs 
was to bo reduced. A similar meeting, attended by tho leading 
chiefs of all the neighbouring districts, was held soon afterwards 
at Mainpuri by the Commissioner, and a set of rules drawn up 
and signed by the Rajas of Mainpuri, Partabnair and Rampur. 
These rules were, however, never observed, tho real motive for 
extravagance, and therefore the hidden cause of infanticide, 
lying entirely beyond the reach of any such regulations. A 
Thakur’s ambition to make an illustrious alliance could only 
bo gratified by purchasing a son-in-law of nobler blood than 
his own ; tho nobler the lineage, the larger the sum. So long 
as this costly ambition remained rooted in the Thakur, the 
scale of expenditure could not be controlled. Tho habit of 
contracting equal marriages had to bo naturalized to him, directly 
by advice and encouragement, and indirectly by the enactment 
of heavy pains and penalties to follow on tho destruction of 
his daughters. In September 1866 Mr. B. Colvin made a census 
of the Ohauhan and Phatak infant population, which showed 
among the Chauhaus 2,066 boys and 1,469 girls, and among 
the Phataks 699 boys and 423 girls. In six important Chauhan 
villages not a single girl under six years of age was alive, 
and within the memory of man there was never a daughter 
known in them. Mr. Colvin at once selected Narayanpur, the 
scat of one of tho younger branches of the Mainpuri house, in 
which no female children were to be found, and, with the sanction 
of Government, quartered upon it a force of additional police. 
In 1866 the Chauhan girls had increased to 1,656, in 1868 to 
2,019 and in 1869 there were 1,707 girls, tho falling off in this 
year being attributed to tho ravages of small-pox. In 1870'an 
enquiry into the question was held by Mr. LanC; and as :th 9 



Mainpuri District* 


186 


result of it new rules under Act VIII of 1870 were introduced 
in the following year. This enquiry showed that there were 
in the district 606 villages in which Chauhans and Phataks 
formed a part of the inhabitants. Among the Chauhan villages 
316 were found to contain 40 per cent, and upwards of female 
children where 27 years before not a single daughter had been 
allowed to live. In other words 69 per cent, of the Chauhan 
tribe throughout the district had reformed. Of the Phatak tribe 
only 21 per cent, remained tainted with guilt. A marked 
improvement had thcroforo been brought about by Mr. Unwinds 
rules. But the attempt made by Mr. Eaikos to bring about a 
reform by voluntary effort on the part of the tribes themselves 
was a complete failure. ‘During 1869 the Eaja of Mainpuri, 
one of the signatories at the Mainpuri meeting of 1851, married 
his sister to the Eaja of Bhadawar in the Agra district. The 
bridegroom’s family was higher in rank, and the alliance there- 
fore to be paid for in proportion. The total cost did not fall 
far short of a lakh and a half of rupees, for, though no actual 
dowry (hadan) was fixed, yet, besides presents voluntarily sent, 
the Bhadawar chief took whatever met his fancy when he came 
for his bride, and there was practically no limit to what might 
have been annexed by him but the exhaustion of the means 
of the bride’s family or the good taste of the bridegroom himself. 
However, in the following year the Mainpuri Eaja called a 
meeting of his clan, and invited the District Officers to witness 
his signature to an agreement to put down infanticide and 
curtail marriage expenses similar to that adopted at the previous 
conference. At this meeting one old Thakur told Mr. Lane 
that he had nine daughters, of whom he had married two at a 
cost of Es. 5,000 each, but to do the same for the other seven 
would be his ruin; what was he to do? There was a generally 
expressed opinion that a reduction in the scale of marriage 
expenses was desirable, but it was obvious that it could not be 
brought about except by a very radical and universal reform 
in Thakur public opinion. Further enquiries instituted in 
connection with the census of 1872 showed that ^'Inany tribes 
hitherto never named in connection with infanticide were in 
Veality maoh on the same standing mth those whose nunes bad 


MiMmiakation mi Mevenue* 


137 


become a byword^ and showed figures time placed them on a 
par with, and in somo cases below, those to whom the stigma 
had alone hitherto attached.” The result was that in 1873 
there w^erc 606 villages on the register, with a guilty population 
of 33,288, amongst whom there were 10 inquests and 12 post 
mortem examinations in suspicious cases. During the next 
few years increased activity on the part of the new supervising 
staff led to a great improvement, and under the rule by which 
villages where 35 per cent, of the minor population were girls 
could be exempted from the operation of the Act, the numbers 
on the register were largely reduced, till in 1875 there were only 
276 villages, containing 11,794 inhabitants, under supervision. 

In 1905 the number of villages proclaimed had decreased to 83, 
of which 19 were branded as specially guilty .” The number 
of boys tinder 6 years of age in the proclaimed villages was 
1,732 and of girls 1,215. A special police force consisting of 
1 sub-inspector and 10 head constables was employed in keeping 
up the registers, the expense being met by a tax levied on the 
guilty villages. A special report was called for in that year 
by the Local Government, wdiich was considering the question 
of the retention of the Infanticide Act for the whole province. 
After careful enquiry the Magistrate reported that 52 out of 
the 83 villages might safely bo exempted, while of the remainder 
14 were still “ specially guilty.” It was decided that so small 
a number did not justify the maintenance of a special establish- 
ment, and the provisions of the Act >vero withdrawn from 
Mainpuri as from the rest of the province. It was, however, 
directed that the villages still suspected should bo carefully 
watched and the statistics examined again after five years, the 
result being reported to Government. 

There is only one jail in the district, and the Magistrate’s Jail 
lock-up is situated within it. It is on an ancient and obsolete 
plan, and has a bad reputation for the prevalence of dysentery. 

The date of its construction does not appear to be known. The 
earliest records available date from 1850, when the average 
number of prisoners was 529, a figure which had sunk by 1900 to 
864 and by 1908 to 323. The jail is of the second class, and the 
ordinary manufactures of carpets, mattine) both of mmj and 



138 


Mainputfi 



aloo fibrC; and cloth of various coarse kinds^ arc carried on^ the 
total value of the manufactures produced in 1908 being Es. 4,314. 

The excise administration is concerned with the manufacture 
and sale of liquor and spirits, intoxicating drugs, opium and 
tar i, and the statistics dealing with this branch of the administra- 
tion will bo found in the appendix for the years 1890 to 1907. It 
will bo soon that during this poriod tho receipts have more than 
doubled, and they arc three times as great as they wctg forty years 
ago. The district was for many years provided with a distillery, 
but it was not a success. Only four or five stills were in use, 
and the Kalwars, w-ho \voro both ignorant and unskilful, 
found it more convoniont to import their liquor from Meerut and 
Farrukhabad. The distillery W’as closed in 1906. The country 
spirit consumed in tho district is that prepared from molasses. 

Charas and hhang are the drugs chiefly consumod, the use of 
ganja being very limited. Charm is imported from Hoshiarpur 
and hliii'iig from Saharaupiir. The farming system has always 
been in force and there is now only one contract for tho whole 
district, instead of one for each tahsil as was formerly the case. 
There has of recent years been a remarkable inflation in the price 
of this contract, which at tho last auction realized Rs. 22,943, 
whereas in 1890 it was disposed of for Rs.S,820 — this, too, in spite 
of the fact that since 1890 a duty has been levied on the drug 
itself. This is now Rs. 4 per ser on g%nja and Rs. 6 on charaSf 
and about Rs. 6,000 a year is realized from this source. There 
are now 62 shops in the district licensed to sell the hemp drugs. 

The income is derived from license fees and duty, the latter 
being included in the price of tho opium, which is sold at the 
Government treasury at Rs. 17 a scr. The contract is given for 
tho whole district to one person, but a monopoly and any undue 
raising of the price are prevented by the sale of opium to all 
comers at tho treasuries. There is a fairly large consumption of 
opium in the district, amounting for some years past to about 
12 maunds a year on the average. This refers to the exciseable 
article, as it is of course impossible, in an opium-growing district, 
to estimate how much of the crude drug is smuggled in spite of 
all possible precautions on tho part of the Opium department. 
There are 20 shops licensed to sell tho drug. 



Admmi»tration and Revenue, 139 

— - 

Tarif tho fermented juice obtained from the tar or palmyra Tari, 
palm by tapping, is not consumed to any very groat extent in 
this district. The farming system has always been in vogue 
except in the interval between 1890 and 1903, when the shop-to- 
shop system was experimentally tried. This resulted in some 
increase in the revenue, but was 'abandoned owing to tho trouble 
and risk of loss involved in dealing with a nuinl)cr of small 
vendors. The receipts from the sale of tarl reached their 
maximum in 1899, whontlio sum of Rs. 4,723 was obtained, but 
in 1908 they were only Rs. 4,225. 

Stamp duties aro colic jted under tho Indian Sta’np Act (II Stamps, 
of 1899) and tho Court Foes Act (VII of 1870). A table given 
in tho appendix shows the total receipts from stamps for each 
year since 1890-1, witli details for non-judieial and other stamps 
and also tho cxpondituiv. Very few negotiable instruments aro 
exGCuted, and the transactions consist chiclly of tho transfer of 
landed property. Tho income from non-judicial stamps has 
remained fairly stationary, with fluctuations from year to year, 
but that from court-foo stamps has for some timo past shown a 
steady tendency to rise and is now at a high level. This may bo 
taken as a sign of prosperity, as litigation is an o.xponsive luxury 
which cannot be indulged in in bad times. It is worthy of note 
that in the famine year of 1896-7 tho receipts from court-fee 
stamps dropped to tho lowest point they have reached during 
the period. 

Tho Registrar of tho district is the District Judge, subordinate 
to whom are tho sub-registrars stationed at the headquarters of 
each of tho tahsils, viz. at Mainpuri, Karhal, Bhongaon, Shikoh- 
abad and Jasrana. The average receipts from registration for 
the last ten years have boon Rs. 7,310 and tho expenditure 
Rs. 4,428 for tho same period. 

The introduction in 1903 of the new rules under which Idooi# 
incomes of less than Rs. 1,000 aro exempted from taxation has 
materially reduced the receipts under this head in Mainpuri. In 
the year 1902*3 the net receipts w’ere Rs. 26,759, and in 1903-4, 
the first year after the new rules came into force, they dropped ^ 
to Rs. 18,373. In the previous year the tax derived from incomes 
of less than Rs. 1,000 amounted to Rs. 7,506, and was levied ;; ; 



140 


Madnpuri IHeK/rid. 


Post 

Office. 


Tele- • 
graphs. 


Canal 

tele- 

graphs. 


Municipa- 

lities. 


from 654 aBsessees^ while there were only 421 persons assessec 
on incomes of Rs. 1,000 or more. In 1908-9 the total numbe: 
of persons assessed was 415, of whom 819 paid on incomei 
ranging between Rs. 1,000 and Rs. 2,000 and 9G on incomes abov< 
Rs. 2,000. The net receipts in both classes were Rs. 8,394 am 
Rs. 10,060 respectively. 

A list of the post offices is given in the appendix. Th< 
headquarters office is situated in the civil lines at Mainpuri, anc 
there are besides 10 sub-offices and 22 branch offices, whence 
the mails are distributed to the villages in each circle. All thes( 
offices arc now under imperial management, the district dai 
having been finally abolished in 1 907. 

The head telegraph office is at Mainpuri, with branch office* 
at Karhal and Shikohabad. There is a line to Karhal alon^ 
the Karhal road, but elsewffiere the wires run along the railway, 
which has a telegraph office at each station. Thus all the tahsil 
headquarters except Jasrana are connected by telegraph witb 
Mainpuri. The canal telegraph offices at Jera and Gopalpur arc 
also available for the public, and wires run from the canal 
office at Mainpuri to the Bewar branch at Bilon and the Cawn- 
pore branch at Dannahar, from which two points the main lines 
along the canals are tapped. 

There are telegraph offices in connection with the wires 
along the four main branch canals and the wire from Mainpuri 
to Dannahar and Bilon at the following places : Mainpuri, Gopal- 
pur, Tarha, Jalalpur, Ghiror, Bujhia and Shikohabad. At 
several bungalows a camp instrument can be set up, these places 
being called interpolating stations, viz, at Muhkampur, Danna- 
har, Bhanwat, Dhanraus on the Cawnpore branch ; at Bewar^ 
Barauli, Bilon and Majholi on the Bewar branch ; at Patikra; 
Gangsi and Bilanda on the Etawah branch, and at Bhadan on 
the Bhognipur branch. The canal telegraphs are available pri- 
marily for departmental use in regard to the regulation of sup- 
ply at the regulators and escapes and other departmental matters, 
and secondarily for the use of the public. 

The only municipality in the district is the principal town 
Mainpuri. There are no records available to show how the 
affairs of the town were managed in the early days of British 



Hitiiory, 


149 


a Bite for a memorial building. Until the end of the century no 
more is heard of the district. In 1392 Bir Bahan,* the muq- 
adda of Bhongaon, joined Narsingh, the Tomar chief of G walior, 
and Sarvadharan of Etawab, in a rebellion against Muhammad 
Shah Tughlaq, but the revolt was crushed and the country of the 
rebels laid waste. 

Evidently the whole of this portion of the Dual) was now in 
a very disturbed and insecure state, for the Emperor had found 
it necessary some few years before to make Jalesar, in the Etah 
district, his headquarters in order to be able to exercise a more 
efficient control, and, when recalled to Delhi at the end of 1392 
on account of troubles in the north, was obliged to send an army 
under Mukarrab-ul-Mulk to keep order at Jalesar. Nor was the 
qirecautiou unnecessary. No sooner had the Emperor gone than the 
Bajput clans once more broke out into open rebellion headed 
again by Bir Bahan and Sarvadharan. Mukarrab-ul-Mulk, who 
was despatched against the insurgents, tried conciliatory methods, 
and by lavish promises and engagements induced the chiefs to 
surrender and accompany him to Kanauj, where he treacherously 
put them to death with the exception of Sarvadharan, who escaped. 
But this dishonest victory ^vas of no lasting boneiit. On the 
death of Muhammad Shah in January 1394 and the accession of 
his youngest son Mahmud Shah, owing to the turbulence of the 
base infidels the affairs of the fiefs of Hindustan had fallen into 
such confusion ’’ that it was found necessary to divide up the 
empire and appoint a viceroy to govern the eastern provinces 
under the title of Maliku-sh Sharq, or King of the East, with 
authority over all Hindustan from Kanauj to Bihar. This was 
the beginning of the Jaunpur kingdom which was to prove here- 
after such a thorn in the side of the Delhi empire. The first act 
of Khwaja-i-Jahan, the new viceroy, on proceeding to his charge 
was to ** chastise the rebels of Etawah, Kol, Kahura-Kanil, and 
the environs of Jaunpur,” after which he went on to Jaunpur, 
..where he gradually consolidated his power. Hence forward Main- 
puri, like the rest of the Duab, becomes a sort of debateableland 
on ^ichliha various pretenders to the throne of Dehli fought 
out their claims. The year 1394 ended with two rival kings, one 


Forma- 
tion o£ 
Jaunpur 
Kingdom. 






160 


Mainpmi DiMrid. 


at Delhi and the other at Firozabad, with daily skirmishes taking 
place between their adherents. This eoiitiimed till 1398, when a 
third aspirant, in the person of Ii][bal Khan, entered the arena, 
and by a combination of violence and treachery established 
himself as virtual sovereign at Delhi while professing to restore 
Muhammad Shah, who was, however, a mere puppet in his 
hands. But tho new regime had only lasted a fc\v months >vhoii 
the invasion of Timur drove both king and minister to take 
refuge in flight. Tho whole Diiab was laid waste with fire and 
sword, and in the next year, 1399, after tho invader’s return to 
Samarkand, pestilence and famine visited the ravaged land. 
Another period of anarchy followed. Nusrat Shah, tho old 
pretender, once more made head against I qbal Khan, and the holders 
of outlying fiefs set up as independent princes, Malik Mubarak, the 
adopted son of the viceroy of tho East, taking the title of Sultan 
Mubarak Shah. The Hindu chiefs of Mainpuri and Etawah were 
not likely to lose such an opportunity to assort their independence, 
but \vere again unsuccessful, being defeated in 1400 l)y Iql)al Khan 
at Patiali in tho Etah district. Tho fugitives were liuntod all across 
Mainpuri up to the Etawah border, Iqbal Khan now marched 
against Mubarak Shah, but after tho armies had lain facing one 
another on opposite sides of the Ganges for two months both depart- 
ed home without bloodshed. Next year (1401) Iqbal Khan returned 
to Kanauj with the titular Emperor Muhammad Shah, who resented 
his humiliating position and took an early opportunity of leaving 
his too powerful minister and going over to the Jaunpur army. 
Here, however, he was coldly received, and so proceeded to 
Kanauj, where he established himself and was left in peace by 
both parties, who, as before, returned to their homes without 
a battle. Another rising of tho irrepressible liajputs in 1404 
ended with the siege and capitulation of Etawah, after which 
Iqbal Khan made an attempt on Kanauj, but without success. 
In the following year he w’as killed in the Punjab, and Muham- 
mad was invited back to Dehli, Kanauj soon after falling into 
the hands of Ibrahim Shah, who had succeeded his brother 
Mubarak Shah as King of Jaunpur. 

After several years of turmoil and confusiou Khizr Khan 
the Saiyid succeeded in 1414 to Muhammad and sent his general 



iM 


Taj-ul-Mulk to pacify Hindustan. Sapri was still in the hands 
of a Musalman amir, Hasan Khan^ who with his brother Malik 
Hamza hastened to wait upon the Emperor’s representative. But 
the rest of the neighbouring Duab was evidently as insubordinate 
as over and Taj-ul-Mulk had to wrest Jalesar from the infidels 
of Chandawar in order to restore it to Musalman control, while 
the way in which the same infidels are recorded as having bowed 
their necks to the yoke of obedience ” and paid in their taxes, 
clearly indicates that this submission was an unaccustomed thing.* 
Taj-ul-Mulk returned to Delhi by way of Etawah, “ chastising 
the infidels,” presumably the Rajputs of Mainpuri and Etawah, as 
he went. But the Thakur clans were not easily to be tamed, By 
1420 they wore again in rebellion, and another punitive expedi- 
tion under Taj-ul-Mulk had to be despatched against them. 

After crushing the revolt in Aligarh, the imperial troops marched 
to Mainpuri, where they destroyed the village of Dehli, or Dihuli, 
in Barnahal, described as the strongest place in the possession 
of the infidels,” and then, as now, the headquarters of a colony of 
Bais Rajputs. The Etawah chief was soon forced to submit, and 
after laying waste Chandawar and its neighbourhood the army 
proceeded into Rohilkhand. 

In 1426 the Jaunpur king, Ibrahim Shah, made another Fall of 
attempt on Delhi, but was defeated in a pitched battle to the 
west of the Jamnaand his force retreated by Rapri to their own 
country, being followed by the enemy as far as Batesar. f The 
new Amir of Rapri, Qutb Khan, son of Hasan Khan, would seem 
to have made common cause with the Chauhans, Rathors and 
Bhadaurias in the rebellious which occurred, year after year, at 
this time, for in 1429-30 the fief was taken away from him by 
Mubarak Shah, the successor of Khizr Khan, and given to his 
uncle, Malik Hamza, who had wisely attached himself to the 
imperial interests. § On the death of Mubarak’s successor 
Muhammad, however, and the accession of Ala-ud-din in 1444, 

Qutb Khan was once more in possession of Rapri, to which were 
also attached the fiefs of Chandawar and Etawah. At the same 
time Rai Partab held Bhongaon, Patiali, and Kampil. *The 
latter was evidently a personage of some note, for we find him 


» n. n. r fv sa i 4 nu tv as i 4 ilid, tv. ar. r i ihid. TV. 48S. 








Mainpuri JM$lnct, 


heLodii. 


16i! . 


among the first consulted by Ala-ud-diu, who, though titular 
Lord of the World, was actually master only of Delhi and its 
environs, as to the best means of strengthening his position. 
The father of the Emperor’s Wazir, Hamid Khan, had, some 
years before, carried off the wife of Rai Partab and plundered his 
estates. The Eajput chief, implacable in his vendetta, offered his 
assistance but demanded as the price of it the death of Hamid 
Khan. Ala-ud-din unwisely embraced the injured husband’s 
cause and gave orders for Hamid Khan’s execution, but the 
wazir escaped and seizing Delhi offered it to Bahlol the Lodi. 
Ala-ud-din retired to Budaiin, and soon after resigned his crown 
to Bahlol, who in 1450 assumed the imperial title.* Thus the 
rape of the Chauhanin Rani of Bhongaon w^as the cause of the 
down fall of the Saiyid dynasty. 

With the accession of Bahlol the truce with Jaunpur which 
had continued through the last years of the Saiyids came to an 
end, and Mahmud, who had succeeded Ibrahim, marched on 
Delhi, but was defeated, Bahlol then preceded to establish his 
power firmly, and with this object made a progress through his 
dominions, visiting the various fiefs whose governors had, during 
his predecessor’s feeble reign, become practically independent. 
Some were confirmed in their authority, some were dispossessed, 
and all were compelled to recognize his suzerainty. Rai Partab, 
** chief of the zamindars in those parts, was confirmed in his poss- 
ession of Bhuinganw.” At Rapri, Qutb Khan attempted resistance, 
but his fort was speedily captured, and he then submitted, where- 
upon he also was confirmed in his jagirs.i^ In the meanwhile, 
Mahmud of Jaunpur, at the instigation of Malika Jaban, the 
chief lady of his harem, who was related to the deposed Emperor 
Ala-ud-din, advanced with a considerable force against Bahlol 
and encamped near Etawah. After an indecisive engagement, 
by the good offices of Rai Partab and Qutb Khan, a treaty of 
peace was made, the principal provisions of which wore that 
Bahlol should keep the territories which had belonged to Mubarak 
Shah, while Mahmud should be left in possession of these 
formerly hold by Ibrahim of Jaunpur. The latter was also to 
hand over Shomsabad to one Rai Karan, son of the Rai of Gwalior. 


! £. H. I., IV. 74, 79. I t Y, 79 and IV, 489« 



amcry. 


XDii 


This last condition was not observed and Bahlol had to expel 
the Jaunpur governor from Shamsabad by force of arms,* 
Mahmud, regardless of the treaty, at once marched on Shams- 
abad and some skirmishing ensued, in the course of which Qutb 
Khan Lodi, the cousin of Bahlol, was taken prisoner. The war 
was terminated by the death of Mahmud and another peace was 
made on the old terms. Once more, however, a woman was the 
cause of war. This time it was the chief lady of BahloPs harem, 
who was Qutb Khan’s sister. She sent a message to the Sultan, 
bitterly reproaching him with his supinenoss in allowing her 
brother to remain a captive, and threatening to kill lierself unless 
he were released. Bahlol at once sot out against Muhammad 
Shah, the successor of Mahmud, who, equally ready to resume hos- 
tilities, without loss of time attacked Shamsabad and occupied 
’5iit. This success alarmed Kai Partab, who hastened to abandon 
the cause of Bahlol and go over to the victorious party of 
Muhammad Shah. The latter crossed the Maiiipuri district by 
forced marches until he reached Sarseni near Rapid, whore Bahlol 
was encamped. Some fighting took place between the two 
armies,t but a disastrous night manoeuvre, which resulted in the 
capture of one of Muhammad Shah’s brothers and the headlong 
flight of another back to Jaunpur, compelled that prince to beat 
a retreat to Kanauj. 

Hero he found that Husain Khan, the brother who had flqd 
from Rapid, had been proclaimed king in his absence by the 
queen-mother in revenge for the murder of another of her sons 
by his orders. A battle followed between the brothers in which 
Muhammad Shah was defeated, and after his subsequent murder 
peace was once more made between the two kingdoms, Qutb 
Khan Lodi being released in exchange for Jalal Khan the Jaunpur 
prince, and Rai Partab again returning to his old allegiance.}; 
But neither the new peace nor the renewed loyalty was destined to 
endure. Shamsabad was once more the stumbling-block. Bahlol 
again drove out the Jaunpur governor, reinstating his own nomi- 
nee, Rai Karan. Almost immediately afterwards Rai Partab’s 
son, Narsingh Deo, was murdered by Darya Khan, a cousin 
of &hlol. In revenge for this deed the Bhongaon chief conspired 


• S, ILI., V. 80. 


I \lHd. 81, 


I 88.8i. 





164 


Mainjmri District* 


with Qutb Khan of Rapri and other nobles, and they went over 
in a body to the Sharqi monarch.* Weakened by these defections 
Bahlol had to retire to Delhi, whence he was summoned to Multan 
by news of trouble in the Punjab. Before he had gone far he 
was recalled in haste to meet a fresh invasion by the Jaunpur 
army, and, after a bloody but indecisive action lasting seven 
days, one more truce was made for three years.f The history of 
the next few years is one of the continual renewal and breaking 
of truces with equal discredit to either party, but with gradually 
increasing advantage to Sultan Bahlol, who in 1483 dealt his 
enemy a severe blow by falling upon him as ho was marching 
unsuspiciously off after concluding yet another treaty. By this 
treachery Bahlol took many prisoners, among others Malika 
Jahan, the chief wife of Husain Khan, and also got possession 
of several of the Jaunpur parganas. Husain Khan turned at 
Bapri and faced his enemy, but a battle was averted by the 
conclusion of the usual truce. This time it was Husain Khan 
who broke his word, incited thereto by his wife, who, though 
honourably treated and quickly returned to her husband, had 
not forgiven Bahlol for the insult of her captivity. A desperate 
battle was fought at Sonhar in Etah. Husain Khan was routed 
and fled to Rapri, whither he was followed by Bahlol. In another 
sanguinary engagement Husain Khan was once more defeated 
and driven in flight across the Jamna, losing many of his wives 
and children in the passage of the river. Bahlol proceeded to 
occupy Etawah and then advanced against Jaunpur, which 
he captured, eventually driving Husain Khan into BiharJ 
(1479). The Jaunpur kingdom thus ceased to have an independ- 
ent existence, but Bahlol, instead of dividing it up into separate 
flefs, conferred it as a whole on his son, Barbak Khan, an act 
which was destined to cause trouble to Delhi in the future. At 
the same time he portioned out the rest of his dominions among 
his other sons. Nizam Shah, afterwards called Sikandar, was 
nominated his heir and successor and received Delhi and several 
districts in the Duab • to Alam Khan were allotted KaiTa and 
Manikpur; to his grandson Azam Humayun Lucknow and 

• E. Hri.7lV, 85 with notes. | - 1 IbiJ, 
t E, H. L, V. 86-90. 




History* 


155 


Kalpi ; and Baliraicli to Muliamraad Furmuli ; while Khan Jahaii, 
a relative and one of his oldest officers, obtained Budaun.* 

^ Until BahloPs death in 1188 the Dual) enjoyed a period of 
lUiwoDted peace, but with the accession of Sikandar the old 
disorders broke out anew. Many of the nobles regarded Azam 
llumayun as the rightful heir,f and the new Emperor’s two 
brothers Alain Khan and Barbak Shah espoused their nephew’s 
cause. The former fortified himself at Rapri, but was soon com- 
])elled to take refuge in flight, and Rapri was made over to 
Khan Jahan, or Khaii-Khanaii Lohani as he is sometimes called, 
who remained consistently loyal to liis new master. 

Sikandar then proceeded to Etawah, whore he spent the 
rainy season. Here a reconciliation was effected with Alam 
Khan, and, in order to detach him from Azam Humayuu’s inter- 
ests, Etawah was conferred upon him as a fief.f After a success- 
ful campaign against Biana, which had rebelled, Silcandar had 
to meet an attack made by Barbak Shah. The latter was defeated 
in a battle at Kanauj and compelled to surrender at Budaun, 
whither ho bad fled. The emperor, with a clemency most unusual 
at tho period, not only forgave him but replaced him on tho 
throne. Barbak, however, jiroved unable to keep order in his 
kingdom, and when Sikandar, who had already suppressed one 
rising of the insubordinate Bachgoti Rajputs, was called to Jauii- 
pur to put down a secroud, he abandoned the effort to maintain 
his brother on the throne, and in 1494 Barbak was sent in 
chains to Delhi. § This was the end of tho Jaunpur kingdom, 
after an independent existence for a century, and for many years 
to come Mainpuri and the surrounding Duab, in ceasing to bo 
the battle ground of tho two kingdoms, cease to interest tho 
chroniclers. One more attempt was, however, made in 1518 on 
the accession of Sikandar’s son Ibrahim by the latter’s brother 
Jnlal to set up an independent monarchy at Jaunpur. But on the 
Emperor’s marching to Kanauj his rival’s forces molted away 
and he was soon after taken prisoner and privately executed,' 

It Avas the Amir of Rapri, Khan Jahan, who was mainly 
responsible for this easy conquest, as it was owing to his remons** 

• Firishla, L.660. I t B. H. I., IV. 446 note. 

I E. H. I., IV. 466 note. • § Ibid. IV. 466. V. 92-94. 


Bikaudai 

Lodi. 


Babftr, 




166 


Mainpuri Listrict. 


[nietnal 

liaoider. 


trances that the supporters of Jalal abandoned his cause and 
went over to Ibrahim Shah.* But the latter’s cruel and suspicious 
temper soon gave his partisans reason for regretting their choice^ 
and his reign was disturbed by continual revolts and invasions, 
and when in 1526 he was defeated and slain by Babar at 
Panipat, there was no longer an empire, but a mere aggregation 
of petty principalities. The governors of the various fiefs all 
asserted their claims to indopondonce and declined to submit to 
Babar as resolutely as they had refused obedience to Ibrahim. 
Eapri was held by Husain Khan Lohaiii, Etawah by Qutb Khan, 
and Kanauj and the whole country beyond the Ganges by the 
Afghan Farmulis.f The latter arc described by Babar as 
particularly bold and contumacious. They even advanced against 
Agra and fortified themselves at an unnamed point in the 
Mainpuri district, three marches distant from Kanauj.]; An 
expedition under Prince Humayun reduced the Afghans to 
order, but when in 1527 Babar was threatened by the Bajput 
confederacy at Biaua, his troops and governor were obliged to 
abandon Kanauj, while Husain Khan once more occupied Bapxi, 
Qutb Khan seized Chandawar, and the whole Duab broke out 
into insurrection. § The very day after his great victory at Sikri 
Babar despatched an army into the Duab, which without difficulty 
restored order. But in 1528, while the Emperor was at Chanderi, 
his lieutenants were attacked in Oudh and driven back to 
Kanauj, and from there compelled to fall back on Eapri. No 
sooner had Chanderi fallen than Babar hastened to their assist- 
ance. Crossing the Jamna just below its junction with the 
Chambal, he advanced on Kanauj, the enemy fleeing before him in 
every direction. On the Ganges, beyond Kanauj, they made a 
stand, but were utterly defeated, nothing but a whim of the 
conqueror’s for delaying further action till the anniversary of 
the victory of Sikri saving them from complete destruction by 
giving them time for escape. || The power of the Afghans was 
now broken and their fiefs were redistributed. . 

Henceforward Eapri ceases to be mentioned as a separate 
administrative division of the empire and its territories seem to 

♦ B.H.I.,V.8. I tE.H.I.,IV, 263. I J /Wrf. IV, 266* 


History, 


167 


have been merged in those of Etawah to the south and Firozabad 
to the north. On the accession of Humayun in 1530 civil 
r strife again broke out, and Kanauj and its neighbourhood were 
constantly the theatre of war. The embarrassments of the 
supreme government were evidently the opportunity of the unruly 
Rajput clans of Maiiipuri, and from occasional hints it is clear 
that the whole countryside was in a most disturbed condition. 
After Ilumayun^s defeat by Sher Shah at Kanauj in 1540 ho 
fled with a 'small following towards Agra through the district. 
“ When they reached the village of Bhuingaon, the peasants, who 
were in the habit of laundering a defeated army, stopped up 
the road, and one of them wounded Mirza Yadgar with an 
arrow But under the iron rule of Sher Shah during the next 
- y five years these disorders ceased. Even the intractable Ahirs 
/ and Mewatis in the Jamna region were compelled to submit by 
having 1,200 horsemen quartered on their villages, f and so 
complete was the order that prevailed throughout Hindustan 
that a decrepit old woman might place a basket full of gold 
ornaments over her head and go on a journey, and no thief or 
robber would come near her, for fear of the punishments which 
Sher Shah inflicted.” J But the other princes of the house of Sur 
had little of the talent or the energy of the founder of their line, 
and when Akbar succeeded his restored father in 155G the empire 
was once more rent with dissensions between the nobles and a prey 
to internal anarchy. An interesting light is thrown on the 
condition of the country by the account of Akbar’s adventure at 
Paraunkh in pargana Bewar with the local Bais Rajputs in 
1562. The Emperor was on his way to Sakit on a hunting 
expedition when a Brahman complained to him that dacoits from 
that region had murdered his son and plundered all his property. 
Akbar at once resolved to punish the offence, and advanced with 
his elephants and retinue to the village Paraunkh in Bewar where 
the dacoits had taken refuge. The number of men with the 
imperial camp amounted to only a few hundred with 200 ele- 
phants, while the dacoits were said to number four thousand. 
Nevertheless Akbar ordered the village to be attacked, himself 
leading the assault. A desperate hand-to-hand conflict ensued 


• E.H. I.,Y144. I ti»M.lY,4X0. f 




MmnpihTi uistfiot 


15». 


Akbar’s 

roorgiiniz- 

atioii. 


Nawabs of 

Farrukh- 

abad. 


lasting several hours, and it was only by scjttiiig lire to the* 
village that the dacoits wi‘rc ultimately overcome. 

In Akbar’s great reorganization of his empire, tlui tract of 
country which is now tin.* Mainpuri district was all included in 
the mhah of Agra, and divided between the sarkars of Agra and 
Kanauj. These sarhars were further subdivided, for revenue 
purposes, into mahalSf on each of which a certain fixed sum was 
assessed and from which a certain contingent of troops was levied. 
One of these mcthals was Rapri in the sarkar of Agra, mentioned 
as possessing a brick fort. It comprised the existing parganaa 
of Ghiror, Mustafabad, and 8hikohabad, and its^ cultivated 
area was 477,201 highas, on which 1,35,08,035 dams of revenue 
were paid. The population consisted mainly of Chauhaus, who 
had to supply a contingent of 200 cavalry and 4,000 infantry 
to the imperial army. The niahal of l^tawah, in the same earkar, 
included the two Mainpuri parganas of Karhal and Barnahal, but 
what proportion of the total 284,100 hlgkiff of cultivation they 
accounted for there are no moans of knowing. The chief castes 
were Chauhans and Bhadauriya Brahmans, and the whole malial 
was liable for 1,07,39,325 dams and a contingent of 2,000 cavalry 
and 15,000 infantry. The rest of the district was within the 
Kanauj sarkar, Bhongaon, noted for its fort and a neighbouring 
“tank called Somnat full of water extremely sweeV^, paid 
45,77,010 dams on 3,37,105 of cultivation, and could j>5 
called upon to furnish 1,000 horsemen and 10,000 foot frpm'lts 
Chauhan population. Alipur Patti, assessed at 11,53,682 clhms 
on 38,418 highas, was chiefly inhabited by Rajputs, and their 
contingent was 20 horse and 600 foot. Sauj, now divided 
'between Karhal and Mainpuri, was the home of the Dhakara 
clan of Rajputs, evidently a warlike rather than a cultivating 
race, as, though the area of their mahal was 64,070 bighns, or 
nearly twice as great as Alipur Patti, its revenue w’as only 
12,00,000 dams, and they were expected to supply 200 cavalry 
and 3,000 infantry. The mahal of Kuraoli 40,445 highas in 
area, paid 14,09,988 dams and farnished.20 horsemen only, and 
1,000 foot. The landholders were Rajputs. 

Under the rule of Akbar and his successors Jahangir 
and Shahjahan, Matnpuiiv and its neighbourhood enjoyed a long 



HiMofry. 


169 


period of quiet, which continued unbroken during the long reign 
of Aurangzel) (1G58 — 1707), though the rest of tin* empire was 
r now suffering from the inroads of the Marathas. It was at this 
time that a house was founded which was destim d to play a very 
important part in the history of the empire and of this part of 
the Duab. Horn about 1G65, Muhammad Khan was the sou of a 
Ilangash Afghan who had settled a few years before at Mau 
Rashidabad in what is now the Farriikhabad district. Early in 
life he took to the profession of arms and was for many years 
a mercenary freebooter in the service of various Rajjis of Bun- 
delkhand, His courage and ability soon gained him a consider- 
able reputation and in 1712 he was recognized as an ally whose 
favour was worth courting. In that year Bahadur Shah, the 
- ^ successor of Aurangzeb, died, and after a struggle among his 
sons the throne was secured by Jahandur Shah. But it was soon 
claimed by his nephew Farrukhsiyar, who, supported by the 
sul)ahdar3 of Bohar and Allahabad, defoato I Jahandar Shah’s son 
Azz-ud-din at Khajuha in the Fatehpur district. After the vic- 
tory he was joined by Muhammad Khan with 12,000 men and a 
second battle was fought at Samogar in the Agra district, result- 
ing in the complete success of Farrukhsiyar, who rewarded his latest 
supporter with various honours and grants of land in Bundcl- 
khand and Farrukhabad. In 1702 ho received further advance- 
ment a^d rewards at the hands of Muhammad Shah, and though 
during the remainder of his long life he experienced various ups 
and ddWi^s of fortune and court favour, at his death in 1743 his 
poSisdBSions were popularly stated to embrace the whole Ganges- 
Jamna' Duab from Koil in tho north to Kora in the south, and 
certainly included practically the entire district of Maiupiiri/ 
It was in 1737, a few years before Muhammad Khan’s death, 
that the Maratha inroads first penetrated to this part of the Duab. 
In that year a large force under Baji Kao, after defeating the 
raja of Bhadawar, crossed the Jamna near Rapri and laid siege 
to Shikohabad. The governor, Lalji Khatri, saved the town 
from destruction by the payment of a large sum of money, and ^ 
the invaders, after burning the neighbouring towns of Firozabad 
and Itmadpur, were routed by Burhan-ul-Mulk and driven back 
yrith fieavy losMcross the Jamna. . * 



Mainpuri-SUtrid, 


Abmad 

Khan. 


160 : 


In 1748 Muhammad Shah was succeeded by his son Ahmad 
Shah, who shortly afterwards appointed Safdar Jang, the Subah- 
dar of Oudh, as his wazir. I'he inroads of Marathas and the in- 
vasions of Nadir Shah in 1739 and Ahmad Shah Durrani in 
1748 had severely shaken the stability of the central governmeni 
and given to the provincial governors a dangerous degree 
of power. One of the most influential of these was Ali 
Muhammad in Rohilkhand, and the new wazir, who had 
already quarrelled with him, looked with apprehension on hu 
growing prestige. With Qaim Khan, the son of Muham- 
mad Khan, he had also a hereditary feud, and he determined tc 
set his two enemies at one anothcr^s throats, being certain to be 
himself the gainer whatever the event. Accordingly on the death 
of Ali Muhammad in 1749, after an abortive attempt to over- 
throw his successor by other means, an imperial farman was 
issued to Qaim Khan conferring on him the mahals of Bareilly 
and Moradabad wrongfully usurped by Sadullah Khan, the sou 
of Ali Muhammad. Qaim Khan fell into the trap laid for him 
and set out to the conquest of his new territories with a large 
force, but at Kadirganj on the Ganges in the Etah district he was 
defeated by the Rohillas under Hafiz Rahmat Khan and killed. 
Safdar Jang at once attempted to seize Farrukhabad and the 
other Bangash parganas, but Ahmad Khan, the son of Qaim 
Khan, collected his adherents and in 1750 defeated the Wazir’s 
general Nawal Rae at Khudaganj, and the Wazir himself soon 
afterwards near Patiali. Had the ambition and enterprise oi 
Ahmad Khan been equal to his personal courage there is little doubt 
that he might now have pushed on to Delhi and made himself 
master of the Emperor’s person and virtual sovereign. He was, 
however, far too easy-going in disposition to embark on such a 
scheme and contented himself with the recovery of his family’s 
former territories and the recognition of his title to them from 
the Emperor. The administration of the various parganas was 
given to his brothers and relations, Shikohabad, which included 
Sakit, Knraoli and Alikhera, going to Azim Khan, and Bhon- 
gaon and Bewar to the Majhle Nawab. Shadi Khan was sent 
to occupy Kora, but was opposed and defeated by Ali^uli KhaOi 
fhA ilAmifv in f.bA AllftbahAd Bubah. Ahmad Khan’s * reluctance 



to move was overcome by the insistence of his counsellors and 
he was’ persuaded to advance on Allahabad in person. While he 
^ was besieging that town the wazir had had time to recover from 
his defeat and had called in the Marathas to his assistance. The 
approach of the united armies towards Farriikhabad obliged 
Ahmad Khan to raise the siege of Allahabad^ and after some dis- 
cussion he decided to return to protect his own home. But the 
discouragement produced by this retreat proved too much for his 
mercenaries and they melted away until when he reached Fateh- 
garh he had too small a force to attempt to do more than hold 
the fort. After a month’s siege a Rohilla army under Sadullah 
Khan and Bahadur Khan came down to his assistance, but was 
defeated by the Marathas, and Ahmad Khan then fled through 
Rohilkhand to Kumaon, where ho remained till 1752, when a fresh 
^ invasion of India by Ahmad Shah Durrani made Safdar Jang 
and the Marathas anxious for peace. It was agreed that Rohil- 
khand and Farmkhabad should bo evacuated on condition that . 
Ahmad Khan took over the debt of thirty lakhs of rupees duo 
from Safdar Jang to the Marathas as pay for their services, ced- 
ing as security for the debt sixteen and a half of the thirty three 
mahals comprised in his territories. The management of the 
whole remained in the hands of Ahmad Khan, who paid the sur- 
plus revenue, after deducting the cost of management and the 
pay of the troops, to two Maratha agents stationed at Kanauj 
and Aliganj. Payments continued to be made till the battle of 
Panipat in 1761, when the Marathas left Hindustan for a time. 

N'o list is given of the parganas ceded to the Marathas, but The 
they certainly included Shikohabad, Karhal and Barnabal, for *•“ 
in 1764 these are stated to have been taken from them by Hafia 
Rahmat Khan, the Rohilla. In the same year Safdar Jang died 
and was succeeded by his son Shuja-ud-daula as Nawab of Oudh, 
while Ghazi-nd-din Imad-ul*Mnlk became Wazir. In the mean- 
while the Marathas had been recovering tbeirlost ground in the 
■ North and in 1759 they invaded Rohilkhand, easily drivia# 
Hafiz Rp.hniii.t and the Rohillas before them. Ihe latte* appUad 
for help to 8huja-ud-danla, who, realiang better than hie fathe* 

where the real danger to the empire lay, iBMehedt*thei*airieb. 

ah«e from Ondh and defeated tiie Mantthae in a hattM om the 



162 


Mainpu/ri DistnW, 


Gauges. The battle of Pauipat two years later, in which Ahmad 
Shah Durrani was supported by both Shuja-ud-daula and the 
Rohillas, broke the Maratha power and freed Hindustan from 
them for some years to come. Ahmad Khan recovered his ceded 
parganas with the exception of Shikohabad and Ktawah, the 
possession of which was confirmed to Hafiz Rahmat. 

Eng- . In 1764 Shuja-ud-daula first came in conflict with the Eng- 
• lish and was defeated at Biixar, and in the following year he met 
General Carnac’s force near Jajmaii and suffered another re- 
verse. Reduced to extremity lie threw himself on his enemy's 
generosity and proceeding almost unattended to the English 
camp was honourably received. On the arrival of Clive in 
August a treaty of alliance was entered into. The whole of his 
former dominions werfe restored to 8hiija-ud-daiila with the ex- 
ception of Kora and Allahabad, which were reserved for the Em- 
peror Shah Alam as a royal demesne, and the English were bound 
to assist him to the utmost of their ability if he was attacked. 
On his part the Wazir undertook to pay 50 lakhs of rupees to 
the English Government, and the Emperor formally assigned to 
the Company the right of collecsting the revenues of Bengal,^ 
Behar and Orissa in consideration of an annual payment of 26 
lakhs. Clivers object was the maintenance of a friendly buffer 
state on the border of the English territories as a barrier against 
the pei'petual inroads of the Marathas. But though Shuja-ud- 
daula was willing enough to co-operate against what he recognized 
to be the common enemy, the feeble Emperor, who had set his 
■ heart on being restored to Delhi, was quite indifferent, and when 
in 1771 the Marathas, who were now in possession of the capital, 
opened negotiations with him, he acceded eagerly to all their 
demands and conditions and in December of that year returned 
to Delhi as their vassal. The Marathas at once recommenced 
their incursions into Rohilkhand. The Wazir appealed to the 
English for help, and a brigade under Sir Robert Barker was 
despatched into Oudh. After a good deal of intrigue a reci- 
procal treaty was entered into between the Wazir, the Rohillas 
and the English for mutual assistance against the Marathas, 
while the Rohillas bound themselves to pay 40 lakhs of rupees 
to -the Wazir for his services. In i772 the Marathas, who had 



♦ History* 


168 


now thrown off all pretence of respect for the Emperor, compelled 
him to give them a grant of the provinces of Kora and Allah- 
abad which had been assigned to him by tlie P]uglish, and again 
entered Kohilkhand, but wore expelled by Sir Robert Barker’s 
brigade. In the following year it was decided that the Emperor 
had by his own act surrendered all title to Kora and Allahabad 
and these districts were accordingly conferred on Shuja-ud-daula. 
The Dual) parganas in the Etawah and Mainpuri districts, for- 
merly acquired by Haliz Rahmat Khan, had been recovered in 
1771 by the Marathas and wore still held by their garrisons. 
The opportunity seemed to the Wazir a favourable one for round- 
ing off his dominions by the addition of this region, so in 1774 he 
advanced upon Etawah. N o opposition was made by the IMarathas, 
who \vithdrtnv their troops froin the Duab, and from this time 
forward the Main])uri parganas (jontinued to form part of the 
domains of the Nawab Wazir of Oudh, and werii with them coded 
to the British by the treaty of 1801. 

Mainpuri became the headquarters of the civil administra- 
tion and small cantonments wore established there and at 
Shikohabad. In 1803 the great confederacy of thci Marathas 
under Daulat Rao Sindhia and the C.-entral Indian chiefs assumed 
such threatening proportions that a simultaneous campaign 
against them was organized in Northern India and the Deccan, 
and in August Lord Lake advanced through Kanauj and Main- 
puri to attack (Jeneral Perron at Aligarh. While the British 
force was engaged at Aligarh a l)ody of 5,000 Maratha horse 
under M. P'leury, one of General Perron’s lieutenants, suddenly 
appeared before Shikohabad and made a fierce attack on the 
cantonment, whi(^h was commanded by Lt.-Col. Cunningham. The 
whole force at that officer’s disposal consisted of 5 companies of 
Native Infantry, and 1 gun, but the little garrison made so deter- 
mined a resistance that after an engagement lasting ten hours 
the enemy was repulsed with heavy loss. Two days later, 
however, the attack was renewed and after several hours, resist- 
ance the British commander, who was himself wounded as well as 
four of his officers, was obliged to capitulate. The only condition 
exacted was that the troops should not again be employed against 
Sindhia during the campaign, and the garrison marched ont with 


Atteokfl 

Bhikoh. 

abad. 



"164 ifoiHjntn 


all the houonrs of war, taking its one gun with it. The Marathas 
then burnt and pillaged the cantonment. Immediately on receiv- 
ing the news of the attack bn Shikohabad Lord Lake despatched 
a detachment of cavalry under Col. Macan to its relief, but the 
enemy, declining an engagement, retired precipitately across the 
Jamna, 

olkarat In November of the following year Holkar, in his flight 

ainpuri. Parrukhabad where his army had been surprised and over- 
whelmed by Lord Lake, passed through Mainpuri, and in revenge 
for his defeat attacked the cantonment and fired the outlying 
houses of the English residents. But Captain White with three 
companies of provincial militia and one gun made good his 
defence until the arrival of the British cavalry under Captain 
Skinner, who had been sent in pursuit from Farrukhabad. The 
enemy then abandoned tho attack and continued their flight across 
the Jamna. 

l^he At the beginning of 1867, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Harvey, 

tftttiay. the Commissioner of tho Agra division, was on tour in the 
Mainpuri district when his attention was drawn to a mysterious 
distribution of chapatls which was being carried on with aston- 
ishing rapidity. Nothing could bo elicited from their bearers, 
who appeared to know no more of tho purport of the symbols than 
that on receipt of a cake five more were to be prepared and for- 
warded without delay to villages further in advance along the line 
of the Grand Trunk Road where they could be called for. In this 
manner the cakes travelled often over 160 or 200 miles in a 
night. Mr. Harvey saw some which had that morning been 
delivered on the Etawah side of Mainpuri. On the following day 
he heard of them at the extremity of Etah and Aligarh. Enquir- 
ies were made as to the meaning of this mysterious move- 
ment, but beyond a conjectural tracing of its source to Bundel- 
khand or Nagpur and the fact that it was generally acknowleged 
to be of Hindu origin, the recipients being for the most part 
Hindus, nothing was discovered. In January the sullen demeanour 
of the troopers of the 3'rd Light CaviJry who formed part of the 
Cbmmander-in-Chief’s escort through Muttra and Bhartpur was 
noticed and commented on, buttbeseseem to have been the odyin- 
dications of iheeom1ngstonn,andtheyi^notbeededl at ttotite 



y .. Bistory. 165 


On the 11th of May a broken telegraphic message announc- Arrival od 
ing the mutiny of the 3rd Cavalry at Meerut reached Agra, and 
on the following day the tidings arrived at Mainpuri. A con- 
sultation was hold, and it was decided to send away the women 
and children to Agra, but only one family actually left. Rao 
Bhawanl Singh, the uncle of the Raja of Mainpuri and claimant 
to the raj, volunteorod to raise a body of Chauhan Thakurs, and 
with his assistance Mr. John Power, the Magistrate, began to 
enlist a force with which he hoped to resist any attack by mutinous 
sepoys. The garrison of Mainpuri consisted of a detachment 
of the 9th Native Infantry, the remainder of the corps being 
quartered at Aligarh. Late on the night of the 22nd Rao 
Bhawanl Singh awoke Mr. Cocks, the Commissioner, with tho 
news that the 9th had broken into open mutiny at Aligarh, and 
murdered their officers, and thiit they had sent an express to 
their brethren at Mainpuri bidding them follow their example. 

Mansur All, the tahsildar of Bhongoon, rode in with tho same 
intelligence almost directly afterwards, and warned Mr. Power 
that tho Mainpuri detachment was not to bo trusted. Arrange- 
ments were at once made for the removal of the ladies and 
children to Agra, whore they arrived safely escorted for tho first 
stage by Mr. James Power, the assistant magistrate, and after- 
wards by a sowar, Sheikh Amin-ud-din. Messrs. Cocks and Power 
then proceeded to the house of Lieutenant Crawford, who com- 
manded the station, and it was arranged that the detachment should 
be taken out of their lines and marched to Bhongaon. Lieuten- 
ant DeKantzow was sent on in advance with the main body and 
Lieutenant Crawford followed him after leaving a small guard 
at the treasury and quarter-guard. A council was then held at 
Mr. Power’s house, consisting of Rao Bhawanl Singh, Mr. Cocks, 

Dr. Watson, the Revd. Mr. Kellner and the Jail Darogah. The 
Rao said he could answer for the loyalty of his followers, but 
could not undertake to assemble them till the evening. The 
Darogah was convinced that the Jail guard, consisting of 50 well- 
drilled sepoys, would certainly imitate the conduct of the regular * « 
troops. 

By this time it was about four in the morning and the magistrate ifntiw ^ 
had only just retired to rest when Lieutenant Crawford galloped in 




8oeii«at 

the 

hmiwy. 


166 


Mmnpuri DisHct, 


and reported that his men had broken into open mutiny, and, 
after refusing to obey his orders, had fired at him with their 
muskets; adding that he believed Lieutenant; DeKautzow to 
have been killed. He gave it as his opinion, when the question 
was put to him, that nothing more could be attempted and 
declared his own intention of riding off to Agra. In this 
opinion Mr. C’oeks concurred, and the sepoys now approaching 
the station, firing off their muskets and shouting, he and 
Mr. Kellner drove off with Lieutenant Crawford. Mr. Power, 
however, desperate as was the position, was not the man to 
despair. He still hoped that Lieutenant DoKantzow^ might have 
escaped, as Lieutenant Crawford had not actually seen him fall, 
and resolved to do what he could to prevent the outbreak from 
spreading to the city. With this object he proceeded to the 
bridge over the Isau on the Grand Trunk Road, accompanied 
by his brother, Mr. James Power, who had just returned from 
escorting the ladies on the first and most dangerous stage of 
their journey. At the bridge they were joined by Rao Bhawani 
Singh with a small force of horse and foot and l)y Dr. Watson 
with Sergeants Mitchell, Scott and Montgomery of the Road and 
Canal departments, and Mr. McGlone, a clerk in the Magistrate’s 
office. Here they took up their position, in the hope of keeping 
the high road open and of preventing a junction between the 
mutineers and the bad chara(;ters of the city. In the meantime 
the sepoys had returned to the station, firing into and plundering 
the houses of Sergeant ^lontgomery and Dr. Watson as they 
passed and then breaking open and looting the magazine of the 
rearguard, from which they carried off all the ammunition. 
.Lieutenant DoKantzow was forced to accompany them as their 
prisoner, and while the rearguard, was being plundered his life 
was in the greatest danger. 

** The men fired at random,” writes Mr. Power in his report 
of the 25 th May,'^ and muskets were levelled at him, but wei^ 
dashed aside by some of the better disposed, who remember!^ 
perhaps, even in that moment of madness, the kind and generous 
disposition of their brave young officer. Lieutenant DeKantzow 
stpod up before his men; he showed the utmost coolness and 
presence of mind ; he urged them to reflect on the lawlessness of 



History, 


187 


their acts^ and evinced thojiitmost indifferoneie to his own life, in 
his zeal to make the sepoys rotiirn to their duty. The men 
turned from the rearguard to iho kiitehorry, dragging Lieu- 
tenant DeKantzow with them. They were mot at the treasury 
by my Jail guard, who wore prepared to oppose them and fire 
on them ; but Mr. DeKantzow prevented them from firing, and 
his order has certainly prevented an immense loss of life. A 
fearful scene here occurred. The sepoys tried to force open the 
iron gates of the treasury and were opposed by the Jail guard 
and some of the Jail officials ; the latter rallied round Lieutenant 
DeKantzow and did their best to assist him'; but they, though 
behaving excellently, wore only a band of twenty or thirty (if 
so many) and poorly armed against the infuriated sepoys, who 
were well and completely armed, and in full force. Tt is im- 
possible to describe accurately the continuation of the scene of 
the disturbance at the treasury. Left by his superior officers, 
unaided by the presence of any European, jostled with cruel and 
insulting violence, buffotted by the hands of men who had 
received innumerable kindnesses from him, and who had obeyed 
him, but a few hours before, with crawling servility, Lieutenant 
DeKantzow stood for three dreary hours against the rebels, 
at tho imminent peril of his life. It was not till long after 
Lieutenant DeKantzow had boon thus situated at the treasury, 
that I learnt of his being there. I was anxious, with all my 
heart, to help him, but was deterred from going by the urgent 
advice of Kao Bhawani Singh, who informed mo that it was im- 
possible to face the sepoys with the small force at ray disposal, 
and I received at this time a brief note from lieutenant De 
Kantzow himself, by a trusty emissary I sent in search of him, 
desiring me not to come to the treasury, as the sepoys were 
getting quieter, and that my presence would only make matters 
worse, as tho beasts were yelling for my life. At this time the 
most signal service was done by Eao Bhawani Singh, who went 
alone to the rebels, volunteering to use his own influence and 
persuasion to make them retire. He succeeded ably in his 
efforts ; drew off and then accompanied the rebels to the lines, 
where, after a space of time, they broke open and looted the 
bells-of-aiftns and the quarter guard, carrying off, it is supposed, 




Mainfuri DistrioL 


m 


Bs. 6,000 in money, and all the arms, .etc., they found of use to 
them, I had returned, with the Europeans with me, to the Kaja 
of Hainpuri’s fort on the departure of Rao Bhawani Singh, 
according to his advice, and shortly after the sepoys Icfu the 
treasury, Lieutenant DeEantzow joined mo, and I again took 
possession of the kutcherry. I found on my return, the whole 
of the Malkhana looted, tho sepoys having helped themselves to 
swords, iron-bound sticks, etc., wbic!i had accumulated during 
ages past. The staples of the stout iron doors of the treasury 
had alone given way but the doors themselves stood firm.” 

Tho treasure, which amounted to three lakhs of rupees, was 
placed in tho Raja of Mainpuri's fort, under tho charge of Rao 
Bhawani Singh, and Mr. Power then took up his position in 
the court-house and 'prepared to stand a siege. Tho garrison 
consisted of tho officers who had met at the bridge, with the 
addition of Lieutenant DcKantzow and Messrs. Donovan and 
Richards, from tho jail and tho treasury. Tho same day (May 
23rd) news came in of tho outbreak at Fatehgarh, that Etah had 
fallen, that Etawah had been sacked and that Europeans had been 
murdered on the Grand Trunk Road. Without, I hope, being 
considered an alarmist,'^ reported Mr. Power on the 25th, '' I 
may venture to say our position is not pleasant ; but wo stand 
well prepared and unable, even at such a moment, to resist 
the temptation to poke fun at the High Court, whose latest cir- 
culars on the subject of the weeding of files had cvideutly not 
met with his approbation, he continues, “ all tho Foujdarry 
(criminal court) records have been taken up to the roof of 
the kutcherry, and being placed behind its railings form an 
excellent breast work. This matter had better bo reported to 
the Sudder (the High Court) ; but at the same time it may be 
mentioned that the Foujdarry record room at My^poory has 
undergone a thorough purification by the purpose to which its 
contents have been applied. I may also mention, for the 
Sudder’s information, that a good stout Ehana Jungee misl' 
(judicial record of a case of affi.ay) prepared after the Sudder’s 
last and most approved fashion, and thickened with false evi- 
dence, is an excellent article of defence, and has, by experiment^ 
tioAn fnnnd tn lip bullet nrnof.’’ Old ffuns were also collected and 



History^ 


m 


mounted^ and othor arms were received from Agra^ while the 
defences of the building were further strengthened by the digging 
^ of a wide; deep ditch round it. The Zamindars of the district 
remained loyal, offers of help coming in to the Magistrate from" 
all quarters, and it was in a spirit of the most cheerful resolution 
that the district officers addressed themselves to the hopeless task 
of restoring order and preserving some semblance of government. 
But the position of Mainpuri rendered this impossible. Lying 
on the highroad to Agra and Delhi, it was tho focus on which 
converged the rebels of tho Jhansi division, and of Cawnporo, 
Farrukhabad and Gwalior, on thoir way to the groat mutineer 
rendezvous at Delhi. There seems to have been little or no real 
disaffection in the district or city, and had it not been for these 
contaminating influences and the defection of tho Raja of Main* 
puri, the head of the great Chauhau tribe, the district would 
very probably have remained loyal. Even as it was, the towns- 
people of Mainpuri, after their European officers had been driven 
from their posts by the military advance of an armed body of 
disciplined mutineers, drove off the Jhansi rebels with consider- 
able loss when they attacked tho town, and in Shikohabad tho 
Ahirs, formerly the most insubordinate subjects of tho Govern- 
ment, attacked and defeated the rebel Raja Tej Singh when his 
troops came into their pargana. On the 29th May, Major 
Hayes, Military Secretary to Sir H. Lawrence, and Captain 
Carey of the 17th N. I., joined tlie garrison. The former had* 
come by forced marches from Lucknow to be under the orders 
of the Lieutenant-Governor, and had under his command threo 
or four troops of an Oudh Irregular Regiment, with Captain 
Carey, Lieutenant Barbor of the 20th N. I. and Mr. Fayrer, a 
volunteer. Major Hayes had intended ordering his force to 
Fatehgarh, whither he had proceeded from Gursahaiganj, but 
being dissuaded from doing so by Colonel Smith of the 10th 
N. 1* and Mr. Probyn, the Magistrate, at the instance of the 
troopers of the 10th N. 1., had sent orders to Lieutenant Barbor 
to march to Bhongaon on the 30th May and meet him at Euraoli 
on the Slst. The troopers arrived at Bhongaon on the SOth, but 
their behaviemr was so mutinous that Lieutenant Barbor reported 
•them in a letter which was intercepted. On the Slst they broke 




170 




Murder 

oCM^jor 

Hftyee. 


out iuto open mutiny. In the meanwhile^ news arrived that 
they had not marched on the olst, and Major Hayes wrote 
to enquire the cause, but received no reply. Late in the 
afternoon of the olst, Mansur Ali, the tahsildar of Bhongaou, 
arrived with a hesitating and confused report of discontent 
among the troopers on acconnt of the long marches they 
had made, and a vivid description of the dejected and des- 
pondent state of tlie two young officers at Bhougaon. Major 
Hayes prepared to go to Bhongaon, but as ho was leaving 
several of his troopers arrived. They reported that the force 
had halted at Bhongaon as the men were tired, but was then 
on its way to Sultanganj, the next oncamping-ground, to halt 
there for the night. 'J’hey brought also a letter from Lieutenant 
Barbor to Major Hayes. -‘^This letter has always appeared . 
a mystery to me writes Mr. Power, it appeared like the ' 
continuation of a letter previously despatched, and as if the 
writer were unable fully to express his meaning. Lieutenant 
Barbor stated tliat the men wore than proceeding in an orderly 
way to {Sooltauguiigc, and requested Major Hayes not to join 
the force till the following morning, the Ist June, Major 
Hayes delayed his departure. I despatched Munsoor Ali to 
SOoltangunge, which is only five miles from Mynpoory, to 
ascertain the state of these troopers. Munsoor Ali returned to 
me after au absence of three hours or so. He reported that the 
•troopers were quiet and contented, but he brought no letter 
from Lieutenant Barbor. 1 afterwards learnt, beyond doubt, 
that Munsoor Ali had never proceeded to Sooltangunge, and 
that his story was a mere invention. Had he gone there and 
made enquiries he would have learnt that the troopers had 
forcibly compelled their officers to accompany them ; that a guard 
was placed over them ; and that the party sent to Mynpoory 
were merely intended to deceive Major Hayes, and decoy him 
to Kurowlee. 

“Major Hayes and Captain Carey left me early on the let 
June to join their force. They found the troopers drawn up on 
the plain at Kurowlee to receive them. As they approached 
some native officers rode out to wain them off. They saw 
their danger and turned to escape, and rode for their livef#^ 



Hikory, 


171 


The troopers spread over the plain in pursuit. Major Hayes 
was overtaken j and receiving a deep sword cut across the face, 
which penetrated to the brain, fell dead from his horse. Captain 
Carey, though closely pursued, was enabled to escape, and got 
safely back to Mynpoory. About the same time that Major 
Hayes was thus killed the troopers murdered also Lieutenant 
Harbor and Mr. Fayrer. "rhe bodies of these unfortunate gentle- 
men (fearfully mutilated,, wc‘re conveyed to Mynpoory by Lachman 
Singh, Talookdar of Kurowlee, and were buried by me in the 
churchyard at Mynpoory. I'he murder had unquestionably 
been planned at Lucknow, and Kiirowlee selected us a fnvouralde 
“spot for the perpetration of it. After the murder tl\e troopers 
made off towards Dohli.^* On the 1st June the garrison was 
reinforced by seventy troopers of the 1st Gwalior Cavalry under 
Major Jiaikes, and some six or eight Sikhs from various dis- 
lianded corps, with about ten of th.j IJth N. 1. who had remained 
loyal. Messrs. Boodrie and (.’ollins were sent from Agra to 
open a telegraph office, and Mr. Lawrence and Sergeant Swan, 
who had been hiding from the mutineers, found refuge at the 
court-house. Mr. Power then proceeded to raise a body of 
mounted police and succeeded in collecting about a hundred 
well armed and mounted men, mostly troopers from disbanded 
regiments of irregular cavalry. This lbrc,e was placed under 
the command of Lieutenant DeKantzow and for a time behaved 
very well. In a sharj) action with the 7th Regular Cavalry 
near Bhongaon they lost several men but were outnumbered and 
driven back, Lieutenant DeKantzow receiving a severe wound on 
the head. The rebels then attacked the police station, and though 
the thauadar ran away the jamadar and several policemen 
defended their post till they were all killed. Shortly afterwards 
Sergeant Wills and his wife were wounded by some passing 
mutineers at the Nabiganj toll-bar, and the former died soon 
after his removal to Mainpuri. 

In the early part of June writes Mr. Power, our posi- state of 
tion became extremely precarious, as all the surrounding districts 
broke out into open rebellion and Mynpoory remained the only 
spot in which authority was upheld. We were hourly kept in 
anxiety. The worst information reached us from Cawnpor^i 



172 


UaiKypvi,T% District, 


Fatehgarh, Lucknow and Jhansi. The Trunk Road swarmed 
^ with mutineers proceeding to Delhi^ whose spies intrigued about 
us^ and whose picquets reconnoitred our position at Kutcherry. 
The Thanahs, Tehseelees, Schools, Bungalows and Chowkies along 
the Etah branch of the Grand Trunk Road were burnt, and all 
Mooslafabad was in rebellion, influenced by the state of the 
adjoining district of Etah. Every night villages were to be 
seen burning in all directions around us, and every hour brought 
notice of some heavy affray having occurred, or the commission 
of some fearful murder. Wo had lo contend with the treachery 
of Raja Tej Singh on his return to Mynpoory. We know that 
they held nightly meetings in the Fort at Mynpoory, and plotted 
against us and that their emissaries were sent in all directions 
to draw some mutineer force to Mynpoory. We momentarily 
expected an outbreak in the Jail, and I had constantly to hear 
that the police had been overthrown or had grossly misconducted 
themselves in different parts of the district. These troubles 
hourly increased throughout the month of June. During this 
trying time, however, nothing could exceed the cheerful energy 
with which each gentleman at Mynpoory and the European 
sergeants and clerks laboured to uphold our position. Major 
Kaikes and Captain Carey were unremitting in their attention 
to their men, and never left them. Dr. Watson had numerous 
sick and wounded to attend to, to whom and to ourselves he 
showed the utmost consideration and kindness. Lieutenant De 
Kautzow did his best to organise the levies under his charge, 
and undertook any other work entrusted to him. Mr, J. W. Power 
had charge of the Jail and of the treasury, and all the miscella- 
neous work belonging to the office. In addition to this work, 
all these gentlemen patrolled the station and town in all direc* 
tions at night, at uncertain hours. They were always accompanied 
by the sergeants or clerks of the office, whose aid in all 
matters was of the very greatest advantage to us. The 
watchfulness thus evinced, and the constant preparation 
to resist attack, enabled us in fact to keep our position. We 
>yere also materially assisted by several faithful Zamindara 
an d by those native officials who remained at theia 
posts. 



History* 


178 


Towards the end of June it became manifest that our The 
authority was drawing rapidly to an end. The mounted police 
were insolent and disobedient. The telegraph was nightly cut, doned. 
The whole district was influenced by the rebellion then raging 
on all sides, and all was faithlessness and defection around ns. 

On June the 28th people flocked in from Kurhal and informed 
us that the Jhansi force had reached that place, and,, on the 29th 
June, the advanced guard of this force had reached Mynpoory 
itself. The force consisted of the 14th Irregular Cavalry, of the 
12th N. I., a large body of other mutinous sepoys, and four or 
more guns. It was deemed absurd our facing them, owing to 
the state of feeling then existing in Mynpoory. The Jail broke 
loose on the morning of the 29fch, and this was effected with the 
^aid of Rao Bhawani Singh’s men, the Jail guard and Jail 
officials. Nothing could be more disgraceful than their conduct. 

The place then swarmed with every description of villains, who 
with the Collectory Sowars anti Mounted Levies commenced 
plundering our property before our eyes. After consigning 
the Government treasure to the joint caro of the Rajah of 
Mynpoory and Rao Bhawani Singh, I left Mynpoory in company 
with Major Raikes and Captain Carey, the Sergeants who 
had joined me, Mr. McGlono, Mr. Collins and Mr. Boodrie. 

We were guarded by the troopers of the Gwalior Contingent, 
but for whose faithful conduct at ihat time we should not have 
escaped with our lives. The other officers not above-named 
proceeded to Agra in advance.” The fugitives reached Shikoh- 
abad on the morning of the .30th June, and stayed there four 
days, Mr. Power being reluctant to abandon his district ; 
but urgent orders were received to proceed to Agra, where the 
services of Major Raikes’ Gwalior troop were required. At 
Firozabad, however, these men, who had hitherto displayed such 
unshaken loyalty, quietly mutinied, and without attempting to 
harm their officers, marched off to Gwalior. All the Mainpuri 
garrison reached Agra in safety except the three clerks, Messrs. 
Richards, Li^wrence and Donovan who remained behind to try 
and save Aeir property, and were barbarously murdered by the 
Jhaimi mutineers who arrived in Mainpuri on the 80tb. 

Unis body afsebefe ploadMod and busned all the buni^^ in 



174 


Mainpuri DiMriet, 


the statiou and attempted to sack the town^ but were beaten o£P 
with loss by the better disposed among the inhabitants, 

The whole district now passed for a time into the hands of 
the Raja of Mainpuri. In Shikohabad tlui influence of Prag 
Datt, the tahsildai* who hold his charge to the last, kept the 
pargapa loyal, though the rebellion was at its height in all the 
surrounding districts, and the Ahirs of Rharaul actually defeated 
the Raja’s troops. In Kuraoli too Tjaehman Singh, the taluqdar, 
long held the police station and harassed the mutineers on their 
way through the district l.y ket^ping the roadside villages 
deserted so that no supplies could bo obtained. Rao Hhawani 
Singh, though unable any longer to control his clansmen who 
followed the lead of the acknowledged head of the Chauhans, 
succeeded in preserving ‘intact the treasure placed in his charge, > 
and when, on October the 10th, the rebels evacuated Mainpuri 
before Sir Hope (Irant’s column, he handed it over to the British 
general. Grant, however, merely halted for the night at Mainpuri 
on lus way to Cawnporo and the district remained in the power 
of Raja Tej Singh. He seems to have boon a dissipated and 
incapable youth, but wielded a great influence through his 
position as chief of tho whole Chauhan clan. His claim to the 
Mainpuri Raj had l)eon disputed by his uncle Bhawani Singh and 
decided in his favour by the High Court. An appeal against 
this decision was pending before the Privy Council when the 
Mutiny broke out. Ft might have br'en expected that the official 
decision would have kept him loyal and driven Bhawani Singh 
to revolt.. But there were other motives at work. The raj had 
been shorn of three-fourths of its estates by the settlement of 
1840, and though a money compensation had been given, the 
wound caused to the honour of the house by the curtailment of 
its hereditary dignities still rankled, and, irritated by interested 
evil counsellors, finally provoked the Raja into taking arms 
against the Government. Bhawani Singh, on tho other hand,^ 
once his nephew had cast in his lot with the rebels, had nothing < 
to lose and everything to gain by siding with the British,' and 
did in fact by his steadfast loyalty win both tho title .and tho 
estates. At the beginning of the insurrection an old feud between 
the Mainpuri Raj and the Farrukhabad Nawab nearly led;iio 



open war between the two rebel leaders^ but after their forces had 
spent part of July facing one another in Be war the quarrel was 
patche^up and thenceforward both parties displayed the utmost 
unanimity in their defiance of the British Government. The 
Raja offer^ no opposition to Sir Hope Grant’s column on its 
march through the district in October, but in December, [gearing 
that Brigadier Seaton was coming with a small force from Rtah 
to join General Walpole at Mainpuri, he advanced to Kuraoli 
with the intention of barring the road. Seaton, however, easily 
outmanoeuvred him, and th(^ rebels fled in disorder, losing eight 
guns and about a hundred men. 

It was after this action that the famous Hodson of Hodson’s 
Horse performed one of th * most daring exploits of even liis 
adventurous career. Accompanied by his se lond-in-command, 
McDowell, and 7o men, he rode across a countryside swarming 
with rebels to carry despatches to the Corn raandor- in- Chief. 
At Bewar he left all his e.-^cort l)ut 25 men and with them and 
McDowell pushed on to Chhibramau, where he learnt that Sir 
Colin Campbell was not at Gursahaiganj, as had been believed, 
but at Miran ki Sarai, 15 miles further off. Leaving the 25 
native troopers at Chhibramau the two officers rode on alone and 
reached Sir Colin Campbell’s camp in safety, having ridden 65 
miles in ten hours without changing horses. On their return the 
same evening they wor.j warned Iry a native to whom Hodson 
had given an alms in the morning that after their departure a 
party of 2,000 rebels had entered Chhibramau, killed the twenty 
five troopers left there, and wore now waiting for Hodson’s 
return.* Hodson never hesitated but boldly continued his journey. 
When they reached the village he and his companion dismounted 
and leading their horses along the soft v'arth at J}he side of the 
road passed right through the village unnoticed by the enemy, 
whose voices could be distinctly hoard in the houses on either 
hand. At Bewar they found a party sent by Seaton, who had 
heard of the disaster at Chhibramau, and next day marched to 
that place himself , joining forces there with Brigadier Walpole on 
the 3rd January and proceeding with him to Fatehgarh. 

The district was now reoooupied by the Civil authorities and 
though it was not by any means brought under complete control 


Adventure 

of 

Hodson. 




176 


Mainputfi Di^riot 


till late in 1858, no other events of any importanoe took place 
within its borders. The rebel Raja of Mainpuri, after a vain 

effort to induce the mutineers in Farrukhabad to re-enter and 

* 

once more raise the Dual)— a scheme which was defeated by 
Seaton^s victory at Kankar in April 1868— engaged in another 
campaign on his own account. But ha met with little success, 
being repulsed from Shikohabad by the loyal Ahirs, and finally 
compelled to surrender to Mr. Hume in EtaAvah. 



GAZETTEER 

Oli’ 

MAINPURI. 

DIRECTORY. 


12 




GAZETTEER 

• OF 

MAINPURT. 

DIRECTORY. 


CONTENTS. 


yiau ... 

\.kbarpur Aunelift ... 

AH pur Patti and Ali Kliera 

AUpur Patti pargana 

Allahabad... ... 

Angantha 

Araon 

Aung 

Aurandh ... 

Auren Panraria ... 

Barsgiion... .. 

Barnahal ... 

Barnahal Far g ana 

Basalt 

Bowar 

Bevrar Pargana 
Bhadan ... 

Bhadana ... 

Bhanwat ... 

Bharaul ... 

Bhongaon 

Bhongaon Pargana ... 

Bhongaon Tahtil ... 

Chhachha ... 

Chi tain ... ... 

Dihuli 

Kka .•• ... 

Ghiror ... 

OhirOT Pargana 
Hatpao ... 

Jasrana ... 

Jawapur ... 

Jot ... ... 

Kailai ... 

Kankan ... 

Karhal ... ... 

Karhal Pargana 
Karhal Tahiil 
KarimganJ 
Kanrara Bu^urg 


Page, j 


Page. 


181 

Khairgarh 


218 


181 

Kishni ... 

... 

218 

... 

182 

Kishni-Nabiganj Pargana 


218 

... 

183 

Koama 


222 


185 

Kuchela ... 

... 

222 

... 

186 

Knmhau] ... 

••• 

222 

... 

186 

Kuraoli ... ... 


223 

... 

186 

Kuraoli Pargana 

... 

224 


187 

Karra 

... 

227 


187 

Kusiari ... 

... 

227 


187 

Kusmara 

... 

227 

... 

188 

Madban ... ... 

... 

228 

... 

188 

Mahuli Shamsher^nj 

... 

228 


vn 

Mainpuri .. 


229 


191 

Miinpuri Civil Station 

... 

233 

... 

192 

Mato pari Pargana ... 


234 

... 

196 

Mainpuri Tahtil 


236 


19.6 

Manchbana 

... 

238 


196 

Muhammad par Labhana 


238 


196 

Mustafabad 

... 

238 


196 

Mustafabad Pargana and 

TaUih 

239 


198 

Nabiganj ... 


243 


201 

Nauner ... ... 


244 


203 

Orawar Hasbt Taraf ... 


241 


204 

Faindhat ... ... 


245 


204 

Parham or Paiiham ... 

... 

246 


205 

Pariar .m 

... 

240 

... 

206 

Patara 


247 


206 

Pharonji ... 


247 


209 

Phaiha or Pharlha 


247 


209 

Pundri ... 

... 

248 


209 

Papri 

... 

248 


210 

Sahan ... .*■ 

... 

249 


210 

Sahara ... 


250 


210 

Saman 


260 


211 

Sauj 

... 

261 


212 

Sbikohabad ... 

... 

261 


216 

Shikobabad Pargana and Tahni\ 

265 

... 

216 

Siraagan] .. 


261 


217 

Urasar 

••• 

262 



Umida ««« tf* 

••0 

269 




DIRECTORY. [Akbarpar Anneba. 


AILAU, Pargana and TahsU Bhongaon, 

This village, in 27® IV N. and 79® 10' E., lies six miles south 
of Bhongaon, 8 miles east of Mainpuri, immediately south of the 
Nagaria distributary which traverses the village lands. In 
1901 the population was 2,080, the principal inhabitants being 
Thakurs and Brahmans. The village site of mauza Gadaipur is 
included in the site, and there are twelve subsidiary hamlets. 
The sole proprietor of the village, whi(5h constitutes one mahalf 
is the Raja of Mainpuri, who pays Rs. 1,700 land revenue per 
annum to Government. 


AKBARPUR AUNCHA, Pargana Ghiror, Tahsil Mainpuri. 

Akbarpur Auncha was till recently the site of a police station, 
founded here, it is said, to stop the depredations of dacoits and 
robbers who infested the dhak jungle to the north of tlie site. The 
police station has been replaced by an outpost, and the circle 
divided among the neighbouring circles. The village lies 16 
miles to the west of Mainpuri town in 27® 20' N. and 79® 14' 
E. and contains a post-office, a bazar and a vernacular school. 
The population in 1901 numbered 2,390, of whom 1,276 were 
cultivators, 168 traders, 181 labourers and 71 artisans. The 
village covers an area of 4,088*49 acres with eight outlying hamlets 
and yields an annual revenue of Rs. 3,340. The old village 
mound or hhera lying north and south for half a mile is about 
a furlong wide, and contains the present village at its southern 
extremity. Prom old remains it seems that an ancient town 
existed here. Tradition connects the ruined brick and mud fort 
situated on its highest point with the Emperor Akbar, and thus 
the name Akbarpur arose. The second half of the name is 
probably derived from the elevated (uncha) nature of the site. 
Kumerous squared blocks of hvnJcar masonry, either plain or 
engraved, have been built into the modern buildings, and old bricks 



182 


ilainpwri District. 


are everywhere plentiful. Old brick-built wells abound, also 
remains of stone statuary, many of which latter have been converted 
into Hindu shrines, on or near the site. The principal shrine is the 
Rikhi Asthan rebuilt by Cbaudhri Jai Chand of Farrukhabad 
at the time of the settlement of 1873, on the remains of an ancient 
shrine. The present edifice consists of a platform with steps 
leading down to a shallow tank, lying close to the dhak jungle, a 
few furlongs to the north-east of the town. There is an inscrip- 
tion under a piece of statuary in Sanskrit, dated 334 samb it or 
A.D. 277, if the sambit is the Bikrama sambat, which is doubtful. 
The sculptures are Vaishnavite, representing the incarnations of 
Vishnu. The old shrine is still intact, being covered with stone 
slabs, and having an entrance to the west which is blocked up. 
Chaudhri Jai Chand of Bishangarh in the Farrukhabad district 
owned at the time this village and the neighbouring village of 
Achalpur. When ho came from Farrukhabad in connection 
with the settlement he had a bad finger, to cure which he bad 
spent many hundreds of ru|)ce8, and ho made a vow that he 
would rebuild the shrine if it were healed. In a few days the 
finger became well, and the vow was fulfilled. During the 
building the Chaudhri intended to open the old shrine, but was 
warned in a dream not to do so, nor to disturb the trees by the 
shrine, the tank, or the adjacent jungle. On a previous occasion 
he cut down some of the jungle, but ceased when his horses and 
elephants died. The succeeding owner, Gaya Parshad, Khattri of 
Cawnpore, also made a similar attempt, but desisted when his son 
died. His nephew, Gopi Narayan of Cawnpore, is now in pos- 
session, and neither he nor any one else has since made any attempt 
to open up the shrine. A fair is held at the shrine every year on 
Chait Tunni sudi (March). There are two market days in the 
week on which trade in grain and tobacco is carried on. 

ALIPUR PATTI AND ALI £H£RA, Pargiim Alifua 
Patti, Tahsil Bhonqaon. 

These two large connected villages lie in 27® 20' N. and 79® 
14'£. about nine miles to the north-east of Mainpuri town. In 1901 
tlie population of Alipur Patti was 2,116 and that of Ali Khera 
2,492. There is a fair market here for hides and blankets, and 


Alipw Patti Pwgam, 111 


leather buckets are manufactured for irrigation purposes. Ali 
Khera contains a post-office and a shop for the sale of liquor 
and drugSj and there is a village school at Alipur Patti. A 
weekly market is held in the village every Thursday. The 
hereditary zcbmindarH of Alipur Patti are l?anadh BrahmanSi 
while Ali Khera is owned by a Kaya.3th family of Shamsabad East 
ill Parrukhabad. Most of the land is held in occupancy tenure, 
and there is a good deal of resumed mmji held by Musalmans, 
but the principal cultivating castes are Brahmans, Kachhis, 
Chamars and Lodhas. In addition to the two main villages 
there are six nagkta or hamlets scattered round it. A partjally 
metalled road connects the village with (Jhhachha on the Grand 
Trunk Eoad, and thence with Bhongaon, and another but 
unmetalled road leads to the Mota railway station. 


ALIPUR PATTI ParguncL 

Alipur Patti is tho smallest of the four parganas which 
make up the Bhongaon tahsil and the smallest in the whole 
district. On its north side it is separated by the Kali Nadi 
from pargana Aliganj in the Etah district, and on the west, 
south and east it is enveloped by pargana Bhongaon. It consisU 
of four main tracts: (1) the Kali Nadi taraiy which is of a 
fluctuating character, capable of a high degree of fertility in a series 
of favourable dry seasons, but liable to saturation after continuous 
flooding. It appears to have been highly cultivated and 
productive till about 1873, but shortly afterwards much of it 
was thrown out of cultivation owing to an excessive rainfall and 
inundation. Assessments were reduced and in 1891 the settlomeut 
had to be revised on this account. (2) The second tract is 
upland varying from sand hills to level plain;. (3) next 
comes 8 sandy loam tract ; and (4) south of this a stretch of real 
loam with war and underlying clay soils. The bhur tract also 
underwent considerable deterioration between 1876 and 1891, 
ham grass becoming very prevalent. In a few years over 3,000 
acres went out of cultivation from dkis cause, but there has been 
a recovery since. 

The area of the pargana is only 30*37 square miles or 19,441 
acres distrihiited amonir 26 villaues with 62 inaJuxle, of which 




1»4 


Mainpuri, 


one village, AUpiir Patti hhas^ has 24. The total population in 
1901 was 10,1 r;o, l)(.iiig 5o8 to llie square mile of area and 860 to 
the square jiiilo of cultivation. The cultivated area is 12,318 
acres, a decrease of 1,234 acres since the last settlement, the 
reasons for which have already been given. Of the rest 493 
acres are under groves, 3,343 acres are culturable (fallow and 
waste) and 3,287 aen s are incapable of cultivation from one 
cause or another. J\o less than 9,105 acres or almost three- 
quarters of the cultivated area areirrigalde, tiio new Bewar branch 
canal, constructed in 1880, now accounting for 5,494 acres of 
this.. Ill ordinary years about 44 per cent, of the cultivated 
area is irrigated, a ligui‘o somewhat below the district average. 
At the 1873 settlement, however, the irrigable area was recorded as 
8,012 acres, so that a good deal of this canal irrigation has merely 
replaced a previous well-supply. In the southern half of the 
pargana the well-capacity is good and water is found at no great 
depth from the surface, liut in the hlmr tract only percolation 
wells are possible, and hero the canal is invaluable. The river 
is used to a small extent for irrigation, and on the border of its 
tarai dhenUi wells arc common. AVhoat, alone or in combina- 
tion, forms the chief rabi crop, while the kharif consists 
for the most part of ji(,ar with arhar and maize. There has 
been some increase in the area undoj* poppy since last settlement, 
as also in that under wheat, both being due to the introduction 
of the canal. Indigo has nearly disappeared and cotton has 
fallen off in area, winlc the practice of double-cropping has in- 
creas;:d. The area cultivated by Lodhas, Thakurs and Ahirs 
appears to have diminished since the last settlement, Brahmans 
now taking the first place; but Tluikurs and Ahirs still cultivate 
a fair proportion of the soil at low rents, the rest being mainly 
in the hands of Lodlias, Chamars, and Kachhis. There are few 
grain rents left, lump rents on mixed holdings being the rule. 
Seventy per cent, of the cash rent holdings are held by occu- 
pancy tenants and only thirty per cent, by non-occupancy tenants. 
The area held as sir and hliudkaslii has decreased sineo the 1873 
settlement, but there has been an i?»creasc in that held rent-free. 
The Sottlement Officer’s standard rates vary from Rs. 10-8-0 per 
acre on irrigated guuhan to 12 auiias on the worst quality of 




Allahabad. 


186 


unirrigated bhiM'y these rates representing the rates of occupancy 
tenants of over 20 years standing. The revenue assessed is now 
Ks. 21,176 as compared with Rs. 21,890 at the previous settle- 
ment and an expiring demand of Rs. 18,141. Ten thousand 
five hundred and thirty-four acres, or more than half the cul- 
tivated area, arc owned l)y village communities of Thakurs and 
Brahmans, and of the rest 7,164 acres are owned in single zamin- 
ikiri. The principal proprit iors are the Banias of viduza 
Chhachha, th(^ Kayasths of Ali Khera, and the Muhammadans 
owning Rajwana and other property. The Brahmans hold 
Alipur Patti Jehaa and sliares in other villagiis, and practically 
all the remainder is held hy 'Fhakurs. The Birch family, which 
at one time held most of tlu; pargana, has now disai)pearcd. The 
founder of it was originally an oflicer in Sindhia's 8(;rvicc and a 
shrewd man of husiness, who became a successful indigo planter. 
But with his death the fortuiu's of the family declined, and the 
only traces of it that now survive are a few tomh-stones in Main- 
puri and the ruins of a house at Alipur Patti. 

There are no towns in the pargana and no good roads. 


ALLAHABAD, Pargana and Tafml Bhoxgaon. 

This village, named also Ilahalnina, lies in 27° 9' N. and 79° 
17' E., eight miles distant from Bhongaoii tn the south-east, and 
had, in 1901, a population of 8,024. 1'he area of the village is 
2,978 acres and it pays Rs. 4,100 in revenue. There are 19 
hamlets. The zamlndar is Nawab Mohdi Ali Khan of Shamsabad, 
district Farrukhabad, and most of the cultivators are occupancy 
tenants. The inhabitants are, for the most part, Mahajans, Mar- 
waris, Brahmans, Kunjras, Faqirs, Chamars, and Kahars, and 
though the great majority of them are engaged in agriculture a small 
proportion do some business as shopkeepers in the bazar, where 
a market is held twice a week, on Thursdays and Sundays. The 
village contains a school, a post-office, and a shop for the sale of 
liquor and drugs, and a little way off to the east there is the 
tomb of a Musalman saint of considerable local celebrity to which 
both Hindus aud Musalmaus repair after the Thursday market 
with prayers and offerings. The tomb is especially frequented 
by women on these occasions. 




186 


Mainpwri JHttriet. 


ANGAUTHA, Targami and TahsU Mainpuei. 

This large village, in 27® 10' N. and 79® 6' E., lies six miles 
south-east of Mainpuri town. The village lands cover a total area 
of 4,681*84 acres, of which 1,983 acres are cultivated, nearly one- 
fourth of the cultivation being irrigated from the canal. There 
are 16 hamlets. The village consists of one mahal belonging to 
Mt. Ram Piarl, a Khattri of Cawnpore, and pays Government 
revenue to the amount of Rs. 5,600. The populationln 1901 num- 
bered 2,616 persons, of whom 15 wore zaviindarSy 1,791 cultiva- 
tors, and 222 labourers. There is a vernacular school in the 
village. 


ARAON, Parg'ina and Takdl Shikohabad. 

This village, in 27? 2' N. and 78® 47' E., lies about two miles 
from the railway station of the same name on the Shikohabad- 
Farrukhabad branch of the East Indian Railway. It is situated 
on the Agra road about seven miles from Sirsaganj, eight from 
Shikohabadaiid 24 from Mainpuri. The population in 1901 num- 
bered 1,430, distributed over four hamlets in addition to the main 
site, and the area at survey was 2,680 acres. The site of the vil- 
lage is an old khera, to the north of which flows the river Sengar, 
crossed by a bridge on the Mainpuri road. The zmxmdars are 
Sanadh Brahmans, and the cultivators Lodhas, Abirs, Brahmans 
and Chamars. The form of land-tenure is pattidari, and the 
seven maJuils of which the village consists are assessed at Rs. 3,240 
for purposes of land revenue, A fair in honour of Debi is held 
here in the months of Chait and Kuar every year. A village 
school and a small bazar are to be found here, and close to the 
bazar is an encamping-ground for troops, where lie buried two 
soldiers of the 2ud Field Battery, who were drowned in a tank at 
Bharaul while shooting there in 1891. 

AUNG, Pargana and Tahsil Bhongaok. 

This village, in 27® 10' N. and 79® 16' E., is about six miles 
to the south-east of Bhongaon. It contains 22 hamlets and a 
total population of 3,000. The village covers an area of 3,161 
acres, is irrigated by a canal minor and pays Rs. 4,000 in land 
revenue. The zemindff/rB are Thakurs and most of their tenai^ 





187 


have occupancy rights. The village is a very old one^ contain- 
ing two temples of some antiquity, and an annual fair in honour 
of Debi is held in it in the month of Chait It is unconnected by 
anything but rough cart tracks with the rest of the district. 


AURANDH, Pargana and Tahsll Bhongaon. 

This village, in 27® 21' N. and 79' 14' E., lies two miles north 
of Sultaoganj and ten from Mainpuri. The population in 
1901 was 2,400, spread over the main village and eight subsidiary 
hamlets. The prin(;ipal residents are Brahmans and Thakurs. 
The village constitutes one 'inahd owned by Thakur Hot Singh 
and assessed to Rs. 3,700 land revenue. There is a fairly large 
tank to the west of the main site and a village school. 


AUREN PANRARIA, Purg%na and Tahail Mainpuri. 

This considerable village, in 27® 14' N. and 79® 4' E.,lies on 
the Mainpuri-Etawah road two miles to the south of Mainpuri 
town. Consisting of nine mahala and eleven hamlets, it covers a 
total area of 4,615 acres, of which 1,592 acres are under cultiva- 
tion. Nearly all the cultivated area is irrigated from the Nagar- 
ia distributary which passes through the village. The zamindarS 
are Chauhan Rajputs, and the annual revenue is Rs. 3,207. 
In 1901 the inhabitants numbered 2,879, of whom 509 wore 
zamindars, 1,598 cultivators and 252 labourers. The village is a 
recruiting ground for liajputs of the 8th Bengal Cavalry. There 
is a vernacular school in the village. 

BARAGAON, Pargfimi and Ta/isii Mustapabad. 

This village, in 27® 15' 3" N. and 78® 44' 42" E., distant 
23 miles west from Mainpuri and three miles oast of Jasrana, lies 
in pargana Mustafabad. It is a principal station of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey, and the lower or ground-mark stone lies 
on a mound within the village, a foot below the crest, and is 
surmounted by a tower 46 feet 2 inches high and about 14 feet 
square at the top, with a hollow core and a gallery at the bottom 
for reference to the station-mark, which shows 573*30 feet above the 
level of the sea. In 1901 the population, contained in four hamlets 
besides the main site, numbered 1,844 souls, of whom 139 were ^ 




188 


Mainpwri Distrwt* 


zamindars, 874 cultivators and 230 labourers. The village 
consists of four mahaUf covering a total area of 2,575 acres, out of 
which 1,212 acres are under cultivation. There is a vernacular 
school in the village. 

BARNAHAL, Pargana Barnaiial, Tahail Karhal. 

This village, in 27® 5' N. and 78® 55' K., is distant 20 miles 
south from Mainpiiri and 10 miles west from Karhal. It has a 
population of 2,461 souls spread over five hamlets besides the 
main site and an area of 1,571 acres and pays a land revenue of 
Rs. 3,450. Tlie village is owned by the Raja of Tirwa in Far- 
nikhabad (now under the Court of Wards), and most of the 
tenants have occupancy rights. Located here are a village post- 
office, a halqahandi school and a cattle-pound. Markets are 
held every week on Monday and Friday and an annual 
fair on the day of the Ram Namii, Barnahal iU)W gives its name 
to the old pargana of Bibamau, formerly known as Dehli-Jakhan. 
Dehli is a corruption of Dihuli, a village four miles to the south of 
Barnahal. 

BARNAHAL Pargana, 

Pargana Barnahal, oiks of the two pargauas forming the 
Karhal tahsil, is bounded on the north by pargana Ghiror ; on 
the west by Sliikohabad ; on the south by pargana Eltawah of the 
Etawah district j and on the oast by jiargana Karhal. Its area is 
91*68 square miles or 58,607 acres, and it contains 107 mauzas. 
With the exception of 20 villages situated to the north and north- 
east, the whole pargana lies to the south of the Sengar. The villages 
to the north of this river assimilate in their soil to the loam of 
Gliiror and Karhal, with occasional tracts of nsar, while to the 
south of it the soil resembles that found in Shikohabad and 
contains much more silica in its composition. The drainage too 
is more rapid, jhild are of rarer occurrence and the proportion 
of usetr to the total area is smaller. High tracts of sand occur in 
belts parallel to the course of the Sengar and near its banks, and 
in these the soil is poor and the surface uneven and often broken 
up by ravines. The prevailing soil is a light rich yellow loam, 
forming a sort of mean lietween pure loam and sand, and uatur- 


Barnahal Pa/rgam. 


189 


ally little inferior to loam, over which it has, indeed, the advant- 
age of being comparatively free from usar. The Sengar, though 
a fair-sized river containing more or less water throughout the 
year, is not of much service to the cultivator. Its tarai is poor 
and sandy, its alluvial deposits inf(3rtile, and the depth of its 
channel renders it useless for irrigation. The Aganga, which 
flows through the southern corner of the pargana and joins the 
Sengar in the Etawah district, is little more than a drainage 
nalcij drying up immediately after the rains and hence of no 
practical importance. Canal irrigation from the Etawah branch 
of the Lower Canges Canal rc'aches only the strip of country to 
the north of the Sengar, and wells, therefore, mostly unlined are 
the main source of the water-sup])ly. The spring is almost 
invariably reached even by earthen wells, except in the high sandy 
tracts along the Sengar. There has, however, been some deteriora- 
tion in this respect latterly owing to the recent (jyolo of dry years. 
There is only one really important that at Saj Hajipur — 
but there are minor ones at Chandikra, Keshopur, Pairar-Shahpur 
and Nitaoli. The cultivated area is 35,895 acres as compared 
with 35,428 acres at the previous settlement. Seven thousand two 
hundred and forty-eight acres are recorded as culturable (fallow and 
waste) and 14,194 acres as incapable of cultivation. The compara- 
tive figures at the previous settlement were 5,108 and 16,470, 
respectively, the differences being probably due to the more 
exact measurements of the recent survey carried out by profes- 
sional agency. Groves cover 1,270 acres, an area only 94 acres 
less than that which they occupied in 1873. The irrigable area is 
31,956 acres as compared with 31,042 acres recorded at the last 
settlement. Of this 4,919 acres (north of the Sengar) are irrigated 
from the canal, 26,115 acres from wells and 922 from other sources. 
The irrigated area in a normal year is well above half the cultivated 
area and is over the district average. Of the wells 298 are masonry, 
247 half masonry, and 3,761 are earthen wells. The pargana is 
practically an earthen well tract. The principal raU crops are 
wheat and barley, alone and in combination with gram and 
poppy, while the khar if harvest consists for the most part of maize, 
cotton, juwr and bajra, the last three being almost invariably grown 
in combination with a/rhar. Since the last settlement there haa 



Mmrt^n inarm. 


iw 


been an increase in the donble-croppM area, and also in that under 
poppy and garden-crops, maize, cotton mixed with arhar, and 
mixed crops generally. Sugar cane has declined, as have also 
wheat and bajra. 

The principal cultivating castes, in order of importance, are 
Ahirs, Brahmans, Thakurs and Kachhis. The occupancy area, 
61*76 per cent, of the whole, shows a considerable increase, though 
both sir and khudkcisht have fallen off. The average size of occu- 
pancy holdings has diminished, though not to the same extent as 
that of non- occupancy ones, and the average incidence of non- 
occupancy rents has risen 68 par cent, in the last 80 years, being 
now Rs. 6*20 per acre, while that of occupancy rents now stands 
at Rs. 4*94 per acre, a rise of 16 per cent. Lump rents on 
mixed soil holdings prevail. 

The present revenue demand is Rs. 93,631, and that of the 
previous settlement was Rs. 89,650. There has thus been an in- 
crease of 4*44 per cent. The first settlement (1210 — 1212 Fasli) 
fixed the demand at Rs. 99,223 ; the second (1213 — 1215 Fasli) at 
Rs. 1,00, 1 26 ; the third (1216—1219 Fasli) at Rs. 1,01,825 ; while the 
average of live years preceding Mr. Gubbins' settlement in 1839 
was Rs. 1,02,756. In the first year of Mr. Gubbins^ settlement 
the demand was Rs. 87,457, in the second Rs. 88,430, in the third 
Rs. 88,713, and at the expiration of the settlement it had fallen 
to Rs. 81,980. Notwithstanding the severity of the demand 
during the early settlements the collections were easily realized 
up to 1834, when over Rs. 10,000 wore outstanding, while in 1839 
considerably over a lakh and a half remained uncollected. From 
that year onwards no difficulty was experienced in getting in the 
reduced revenue, and in 1871 Mr. McConaghey once more raised 
the demand to Rs. 89,310. 

This pargana is a purely rural tract with a population of 
43,767 in 1901 as compared with 42,593 in 1872. This and the 
neighbouring pargana of Karhal were the only ones in the 
district which lost no population between 1881 and 1891, though 
there was a decline during the next decade. With excellent 
surface drainage, and irrigation mainly derived from earthen 
wells, it is better adapted tostand wet than dry seasons. Thereaie 
1 ^ towns, Bi^rnidii^ itself beiu^ a n^ere villa^, with severi4 4ti^; 




Bewar. 


191 


approached duly by village tracks. The new Shikohabad-Farrukh- 
abad railway just touches the extreme north-west corner, and 
the only two roads, one from Karhal to Sirsaganj and the other 
from Ghiror to Karhal, are both uumetalled. The pargaua is 
therefore very badly off for communications. Co-parcenary 
communities hold roughly one half the pargaua, but both they 
and joint zamindari have been losing since last settlement. 
Brahmans hold 26,076 acres, a gain of 4,580 acres since 1873, 
and Thakurs, chiefly Chauhan, Bais and Baghol, hold 19,960 
acres, having lost G,02l acres during the same period. 
Ahirs come next, and after them ^Musalmans, Banias and 
Mahajans. 


BASAIT, Fargd'm Kishni, Tahail Biiongaon. 

This village, in 27® N. and 79® 20' E., lies two miles 
south-east of Kishni. Its population in 1901 was 2,686, spread 
over the main village and 11 subsidiary hamlets. The main 
castes are Brahmans and Kachhis. It is one mahal owned by 
the Thakur of Saman as manager of the Ham Chandra temple 
and assessed to Us. 4,700 land revenue. A largo and important 
jhU which holds water for the greater part of the winter adjoins 
the northern edge of the main site. A village bank under the 
presidency of the zamindar is located here. 

BEWAR, Pargana and TahsU Bbwab. 

This village, in 27® 14' N. and 79® 21' E., lies on the Grand 
Trunk Road at the point where it is crossed by the Etawah- 
Farrukhabad road, 17 miles east of Maiapuri. It has a fair 
bazar containing a number of shops for the sale of cloth, grain 
and sweetmeats, which do a considerable amount of trade. There 
is a police station in the town as well as village schools for both 
boys and girls, a canaU bungalow, a military encamping-groand, 
a cattle-pound, a post-office, and shops for the sale of country 
liquor and drugs. The village comprises six hamlets and three 
mahaU covering an area of 2,326 acres and paying land revenue 
to the amount of Bs. 1,916. The z(mindoi/r8 are chiefly Brahmans 
and Kayasths, and the cultivators, who are of various castes, are 
principally occupancy teni^nts. The mMOAe, which is locally 




Ma^wri LuMci, 


102 


pronounced Berwdr^ is said to be derived from the her shrub 
which is common in the neigl^bouring jlingles. 

BEWAR Pargana. 

Pargana Bewar in the Bhongaon tahsil lies south of the Kali 
Nadi opposite to pargana Shamsabad in the Farrukhabad dis- 
trict* It has pargana Kishni as its boundary on the east, and 
pargana Bhongaon on the south and west. Its total area is 
27,704 acres or 43*29 square miles, of which 2,890 acres arc non- 
culturablc, 903 acres are planted with groves, 6,034 acres are 
culturablo (waste or fallow) and 15,877 acres are now under 
cultivation. In 1873 only 11,324 acres wore cultivated, and 
in 1890-91 when, owing to deterioration, a revision of settlement 
was undertaken, th(; cultivated area was only 12,893 acres. In 
the settlement report of 1873 this pargana was described as 
decidedly the worst in the district. It is situated in the nor- 
thern portion of the Kali Nadi and Isan duab, and contains a 
large percentage of wretched sandy soil covered with hana grass 
and almost entirely devoid of irrigation.** The opening of the 
Bewar canal has made an immense difference, but the pargana has 
been very susceptible to variations in climatic conditions in the 
past, and parts of it may still be looked upon as precarious. The 
alluvial belt along the Kali Nadi hero deteriorates into a stretch 
of sandy soil, and there is little of the good loam met with beside 
that river in other pargauas. In fact real loam is found only 
in a small patch in the south-eastern corner. Except for this 
and the Kali Nadi tarai the pargana consists of hhur and light 
loam, hhivr preponderating. Much of the latter, especially' the 
sand hills following the course of the Kali Nadi, is hardly fit 
for cultivation. Jhila and tala are rarely met with, the only consi- 
derable one being at Paraunkha in the south-east in the loam 
tract and two at Nagla Penth and Bajhera. Until 1880 the 
facilities for irrigation were scanty, the general character of the 
earthen wells being inferior, as in comparatively few of them 
can the true spring be reached, while in many the supply from 
percolation is so deficient that bullocks cannot be worked with 
profit. The subsoil is as a rule so indifferent, and in the worst 
sandy tracts is so bad, that even masonry wells cannot be sunk 



Bewar FOrgam. 


m 


with success. However, in 1861-82 the Bewar .branch canal 
was opened, and, though closed for a.. few years after the Nadrai 
aqueduct disaster in 1885, has since been working regularly and 
has effected a groat improvement in the character of the par- 
gana, so far as its influence extends. The irrigable area, 
which in 1840 was 5,291 acres and 9,775 acres in 1873, now 
amounts to 13,142 acres, though the real benefit conferred by the 
canal is, of course, very much greater than these figures show. 
The actual irrigated area in any ordinary year is 42 per cent, of 
the cultivated area, or considerably below the district average. 
The figure, however, is a high ono for these provinces. The prin- 
cipal rahi crop is wheat, which, either alone or in combination 
with ot'.ier crops, occupies half the rahi area, which is now larger 
by 50 per cent, than the kharif area. The latter harvest consists 
chiefly of maize and juar or hajra with arltar. Since the last 
settlement the area under wheat and poppy has increased consi- 
derably, and that under maize, cotton, potatoes, tobacco and garden 
crops to a less extent, and as elsewhere in the district there is a 
tendency towards double-cropping after maize and mixed crops. 

In regard to rents the general rule is lump rents on composite 
holdings of mixed soils. Privileged rents as such do not pre- 
vail. There is, however, a comparatively large area under 
grain rents apart from those met with in fluctuating soils. Here 
the system, encouraged chiefly by Bais Thakur landholders, 
is merely a convenient arrangement for securing to the proprietors 
a stock of grain. The occupancy holding area, though less 
than in adjoining parganas, is still roughly one-half of the total 
holdings area, and represents almost the whole of the tenants’ 
area. The standard circle rates sanctioned at the recent settlement 
varied from Rs. 9*19 in irrigated gauhan to Re. *66 for the 
lowest quality of unirrigated bhur. 

The first assessment of the pargana as constituted in 1802-03, 
when it formed part of the Farrukhabad district, amounted 
to Rs. 11,867, which was left unchanged till the third settlement, 
when it was raised to Rs. 15,968, eventually rising to Rs. 17,693 
before 1836. In that year the demand was raised to Rs. 19,824 
including two resumed plots, but was again reduced in 

1846-46 to Rs. 14,347, gradually rising to Rs. 16,826 in 1850-61# 




19i 


. Mainpuri District 


Nine villages were then added to it, and the revenue for the whole 
pargaua as it now stands was in 1868-69 Rs. 19,807. At the 
last settlement the demand was raised to Rs. 24,940, but again 
reduced in 1890-91. The revenue now declared is Rs. 26,060. 

The principal castes to which cultivators belong are Tha- 
kurs, Ahirs, Kachhis, Brahmans, and Chamars. The largest 
area is held by Thakurs and Ahirs, the least industrious and 
skilful of all farmers, lhakurs hold practically all the air and 
their rents in g(;neral are low, mainly owing to relationship to 
the proprietors. Ahirs also hold at low rents, but this is because 
they are as a rule settled in poor villages. 

The present population is 21,943, an increase of 21-64 per cent, 
since last settlement, and of 35*94 per cent, between 1891 and 1901. 
The density is 510 to* every square mile of total area, and 757 
to every square mile of the cultivated area. This increase is 
entirely confined to the agricultural portion of the population, 
and it illustrates the precarious character of the pargana and the 
improvements effected by the canal. There is no town in the 
pargana, Bewar khas being the nearest approach to one, with a 
population of 4,209 and a fairly large and important bazar. 
The railway passes through the north-west corner of the pargana 
and a road may some day be constructed from Bewar khas to 
Mota Station. The village is otherwise well situated in respect of 
communications, lying at the point of intersection of the Etawah- 
Farrukhabad and Grand Trunk roads. An unmetalled road 
connects the station at Dayanatnagar Mota with Alipur Patti and 
the Grand Trunk Road. Except on these two metalled roads 
communications are difficult, especially along the sandy Kali 
Nadi tract. 

The hereditary samindara are the Bais Thakurs, descendants 
of those who originally colonized the pargana, and of whom 28 
recognizable branches now survive, the two main ones being 
those of Saidpur and Rampur. Other important branches are those 
owning Bajhera and Chilaunsa. These Thakurs are now for the 
most part in possession of minute shares averaging only 12 acres* 
The Raja of Tirwa, a Baghela Thakur, holds the large village of 
Paraunkha. The property now in the possession of the Kayasths of 
l^cwi^r, the descendants of the old Kanungo familieS| is praoticnll^ 



Bhanwat* 


195 


restricted to a part of Bewar khas^ The money-lending castes 
have not yet secured any great hold of the pargana, but the 
Brahmans^ though isolated^ are increasing their possessions. 

The only historical interest of the pargana centres in the 
village Paraunkha, on account of the adventure there of the 
Emperor Akbar, which has been described in Chapter V. 


BHADAN, Pargino and TahsU Shikoitabau. 

This village, in 26° 6\)' N. and 78° 50' E., lies at a distance 
of about two miles from the railway station of the same name 
on the East Indian Railway, and some 13 miles from Shikohabad. 
It is a pattulari village with, an area of 3,259 acres, 18 hamlets, 
and a population of 3,122, and pays lls. 5,200 in land revenue. 
The zmiindars are Dhakara Thakurs, and the cultivators Thakurs, 
Ahirs and Lodhas. The village includes 18 hamlets and con- 
tains a village school and a branch post-office. A market is held 
here every Tuesday and Friday and a fair in the month of 
GIM during the Hdi festival. 

BHADAN A, Pargana and TahsU Must A fab a i>. 

This village, in 27° 24' N. and 78° 36' E., lies 38 miles to 
the west of Mainpuri and 14 miles north-west of Jasrana. It 
covers a total area of 2,563 acres, of which 1,678 acres are cul- 
tivated, a little more than one-third of the cultivated area being 
irrigated from the canal. There are nine outlying hamlets. 
There is one mahal yielding Rs. 4,380 a year in revenue to 
Government. In 1901 the population numbered 2,605 souls, of 
whom 127 were zamindara, 1,312 cultivators and 224 labourers. 
The zaminda/ra are Thakurs and Ahirs. There is a vernacular 
school in the village. 

BHANWAT, Pargana and Tahail Bhonoaon. 

This village, in 27® 9' N. and 79° 7' E., lies some six miles 
south of Mainpuri on the unmetalled road to Saman and had, 
in 1901, a population of 2,112 persons. The area of the village 
is 3,145 acres with 11 hamlets and it pays Rs. 3,500 in land 
revenue. The zamindara are chiefly Thakurs, Brahmans and 
Ea^asibs, imd the cdtivators consist for tbo most part of 



196 


Mainpuri Disf/ricU 


and Lodhas. The village is situated on a high mound or "khera 
with a big jhil to the north-east of it, and contains a large ruined 
building formerly the property of an old Thakur family. The 
Cawnporo branch of the Lower Ganges Canal passes the southern 
comer of this village and there is a canal bungalow close to the 
bridge. The village contains a cattle-pound and a shop for the 
sale of liquor and drugs. 

BHARAUL, Pargana and Tahail Shikohabad. 

This village, in 27® 11' N. and 78° 48' E., is situated on the 
Agra-Mainpuri road, 10 miles from Shikohabad and 20 miles 
from Maiiipuri. It is a paiiMiri* village with five inhabited 
sites containing a population, according to the last census, of 
2,245 inhabitants. The total area is 2,147 acres and the land 
revenue Rs. 3,900. The principal castes are Ahirs, Lodhas.- 
Brahmans, Kayasths and Chamars. The village possesses a 
school and a post-office, and a market is held in the bazar every 
Wednesday and Saturday. It was here that in 1857 the Ahirs 
had a desperate fight with the rebel Raja of Mainpuri, in which 
Indrajit, the brother of Karan Singh, lost his life. On the 
restoration of order proprietary rights in one and a half villages 
were conferred upon the family, >vhich now owns several villages. 
Its present head is Chaudhri Sarnam Singh, a man of great 
infiuence and position. 


BHONGAON, Pargana and Tahsil Bhonoaon. 

This town, in 27° 17' N. and 79° 14' E., is the headquarters 
of the tahsil of the same name and lies at the junction of the Agra 
road with the Grand Trunk Road about nine miles to the east of 
Mainpuri. The alternative spellings of the name are Bhuingaon 
and Bhogaon, the latter being however a misspelling. The 
population of the town according to the census of 1901 is 5,582, 
of whom 2,915 are males and 2,667 females. Classified according 
to religions there are 3,687 Hindus, 1,776 Musalmans and 119 
others. The town is a very old one and includes the sites of three 
villages— Bhongaon, Mahabatpur and Ahmadpur. The Grand 
Trunk Roail passes right through the town, dividing it into two 
unequal parts, the larger of whioh is on the' north, while the 



Bhongaou. 


197 


tahsil with its buildings is situated to the south. Shops 
line both sides of the road, and with its railway station, 
Public Works Department rest house, police station, hospital, 
cattle-pound, 8arai, post-office, upper primary school, and 
liquor and drugs shops, Bhongaon may fairly bo classified as a 
town. Act XX of 1856 is in force and the sanitation is attended 
to under its provisions, a good deal having recently been done 
by filling up and levelling insanitary hollows and uneven ground. 
The town site is long and narrow and somewhat raised above the 
level of the surrounding country, especially towards the south 
where the surface dips down to form an extensive jliiL The 
central road is well kept and clean, and from it turns off the 
winding lane which runs through and past the old bazar. The 
houses generally are built of mud and the few brick- built ones 
that exist are so scattered as to be scarcely noti(!eable. To the 
west of the town, near the point where the Grand Trunk and 
Agra roads meet, is the aaraij a good sized enclosure with its 
mud buildings, little used now that the railway has taken the 
place of the Grand Trunk Road. The temple of Mahadeo, built 
for Dwarka Das, a SaraogiBania, stands near tho sarai but a little 
removed from the road and contains rooms for the freo accom* 
modation of poor travellers, who also receive a daily dole of 
grain. Between the temple and the tahsil is situated the police 
station, facing the tahsil buildings. The 2 )f 6 T’(/o, or halting- 
place for carts, is adjacent to the tahsil, and next to it is the 
school building cooped up in a small enclosure. Behind the 
school the surface slopes down to tho groskijltU, and lo tho east of 
it starts the long bazar. A mosque and a small temple with a 
a very high steeple crown a mound in the centre of the town close 
to the Grand Trunk Road. 

The whole town site, where not interfered with by excava- 
tions, drains into the jhilf which in its turn, when full to over- 
flowing, drains by a TuUa into the Isan Nadi throe miles to the 
south of the town. The area of the town lands is 1,370 acres, 
assessed at Rs. 2,393 for land revenue. The form of tenure is 
the paitidari, Thakurs, Brahmans and Kayasths being the 
principal eamituiars. There is no special trade done in the 
town, tJiongh a certain amount of business is carried on in 



198 


Maiii'pwn District, 


tobacco and the chief food grains. A small bazar has lately 
been established near the temple mentioned above. 

BHONGAON Pargana. 

Bhongaoni the largest of the four parganas which make up the 
tahsil of that name, stretches from the Kali Nadi, which separates 
it on the north from pargana Aliganj in the Etah district, along 
the whole length of the east of the tahsil to pargana Karhal oh 
the south. It is bounded on the north-west by Alipur Patti, 

■ on the west by parganas Mainpuri and Kuraoli, and by pargana 
Kishni on the east. 

Its physical features are varied, and it has been described 
as *^made up of stray pieces of the adjacent parganas, the 
meeting-place of all surrounding varieties of soils . . . 

Every class of soil, every quality of cultivation, every caste of 
cultivator, every kind of tenure and all the varieties of irriga- 
tion arc found within it.’’ The pargana is drained by the Kali 
Nadi on the north, tho Isan in the centre and the A rind in the 
south. Along the Kali Nadi there is an alluvial belt, which 
rapidly gives way to a sandy soil. Midway between the Kali 
and Isan there is a considerable wedge of loam, which, as it 
approaches the Isan and gets within the influence of its drainage 
action, deteriorates into saud. Sand ridges are found on both 
sides of the river, and beyond these to the south there is the great 
loam tract. 

The Kali Nadi tract consists of lowlying lands rising 
abruptly into sandy ridgos, with occasional strips of loam inter- 
vening. In 1873 this tract seems to have been in a high state 
of fertility, but it subsequently suffered from heavy rains and 
floods, and in 1877 the Settlement Officer revised his assess- 
ment, reducing it by Rs. 6,850 for five years. There was how- 
ever no improvement, and in 1885 the whole region was devas- 
tated by the great flood from the broken Nadrai aqueduct, 
which led to another revision in 1891-92. Since then there has ^ 
been a slow recovery, assisted by a cycle of dry years, but in 
several villages the damage seems to be permanent. The bhw* 
tract was remarkable in this as in other parganas of the tahsil 
for the prevalence of kans grass during the eighties, and the 



Bhosgaon Pargana. 199 


outbreak was aggravated by the heavy rainfall at the end of the 
period. The revision of 1891-92 afforded relief here also, and 
there has been considerable improvement since. No villages 
are now seriously affected, but the tract must be considered 
precarious. The principal j/iUs are at Airwa, Asauli, Kinaiwar, 
Bhanwat, Eui, Bilon, Aurandh, Maiichhana, Chitaiu, Dalippur 
Naraini, Pundri and Patna Tilua. 

The total area of theparganais 174,683 acres, of which 06,346 
acres (as compared with 98,382 at the last settlomeiit) were cul- 
tivated in the year of record. Of the cultivated area 77,984 
acres were reckoned as irrigable (as against 67,557 at the pre- 
vious settlement), 39,902 from canals, 26,221 from wells, and 
11,861 from other sources. At the last settlement the canal 
only commanded 14,876 acres, while wells accounted for 38,054. 
As a rule only a little more than half the cultivated area is 
irrigated in the year, or about the same percentage as for the 
whole district. The culturable area (waste and fallow) at the 
recent settlement was 25,856 acres, 4,000 acres in excess 
of the previous estimate j 4,069 acres were under groves and 
48,405 acres were found to be incapable of cultivation. At the 
last settlement cultivation was found to have increased by 29 per 
cent, since 1840, and irrigation by 44 per cent. 

The increase in irrigation is almost entirely confined to the 
bhur tract, and is due to the opening of the new Bewar Canal. 
Distributaries of the Cawnpore branch of the Lower Ganges 
Canal also serve the pargana, but their rearrangement has 
caused a deficiency in places. Masonry wells have increased 
from 908 to 1,008 during the last thirty years, and though the 
area irrigated from wells has slightly fallen off in the period, the 
loss has been more than made up by the large increase in 
canal irrigation. There has been a slight rise in the number of 
ploughs and plough-cattle, though other cattle have decreased in 
number, probably owing to the substitution of canal for well 
irrigation. 

In the rabi season the principal crops are wheat, barley and 
gram, both alone and in combination, while rice, hajra, 
maize, cotton and sugarcane occupy a large area in the hho/rif, 
A detailed table is given in the appendix. Since the last settlement 



200 


Mainpuri Disti^iot* 


there has been a decrease in the cultivation of cotton and 
sugarcano and a remarkable rise in wheat, poppy, garden crops 
and maize, and the dofadi area has increased by 305 per cent. 

Rents have risen considerably : occupancy rents by 23*69 and 
non^ccupancy rents by 67*08 per cent., mainly on account of 
the extension of canal irrigation. Grain rents are seldom met 
with except in uncertain tracts, the usual arrangement being to 
pay lump rents on holdings of mixed soils, with considerable 
variations for the different kinds. The new rates have a greater 
range than those fixed at the last settlement, varying from 
Rs. 12-7-6 for the best quality of irrigated gaukan to Rs. 3-4-6 
on the lowest class of the same soil when unirrigated, while the 
rates for bhur vary from Rs, 5-10-6 for the best to 12 annas for 
tlie poorest, with many intermediate rates. The revenue demand 
is now Rs. 1,89,339, or 5*10 per cent, in excess of that declared 
at the last settlement, with an incidence of Rs. 1*96 per cultivated 
acre. There are 237 villages, the same number as at the last 
settlement, though the number of inhabited sites has risen from 
665 to 798. Of the 407 rmhalSy 126 are held in single zamindari 
tenure, 117 in joint zamindari, 43 in perfect pattidaH and 
116 in imperfect pattidari, and 6 in ^/iai^/ac/iara, each proprietor 
holding on the average 29 acres only, as compared with 62 at 
the former settlement. The chief proprietors are communities, 
mostly of Chauhan Thakurs, who still hold 101,564 acres of the 
total area. Both they and the Ahir communities have lost 
ground considerably since the last settlement, though the greatest 
losers have been the Kayasths, the descendants of the Kanungos 
who acquired extensive possessions in this pargana under native 
rule. Brahmans have increased their holdings by 7,661 acres 
and now possess a quarter of the pargana ; Musalmans, who, 
thirty years ago owned only 733 acres, have now over ten times 
as much, and the money-lending classes have secured a firm 
footing, particularly the Mahajans, who in 1873 were not to be 
found in the list of proprietors and are now in possession of 4,293 
acres. Of individual proprietors the largest is the ^Raja of 
Mainpuri, who also receives malikana from 81 villages. 
Among the cultivating classes Thakurs and Ahirs greatly pre- 
ponderate both as tenants and in respect of the sir and khvdhosU 



fihongaon TaJait. 


m 


areas^ while their rents are the lowest, but there is a strong leaven 
of Xachhis, Brahmans and Chamars. 

In 1901 the population of the pargana was 131, 135^ an 
increase of 12’2 per cent, since 1891, but of only 10*27 since 
1872, owing to a very considerable decrease during the eighties 
caused by the serious deterioration of the hhwr tract. The 
density is now 488 to the square mile of total area, and 849 per 
square mile of cultivation. There are no towns except qasha Bhon< 
gaon, with 5,582 inhabitants, and the tract is solely agricultural. 
There are not many roads in the pargana. Qaahci Bhongaon 
lies on the Grand Trunk Road from Allahabad to Delhi, which 
connects it with Bewar and Farrukhabad to the east and with 
Kuraoli and the Etah district to the west. There is a metalled 
road, the Agra branch of the Grand Trunk Road, connecting the 
town with Mainpuri city, and the metalled Etawah-Fatehgarh 
road runs through the eastern corner of the pargana between 
Kishni and Bewar. The principal unmetalled road runs from 
Mainpuri through the ^outh-west of the pargana to Saman and 
Kishni, but the interior of the pargana is for the most part only 
served by village tracks of various degrees of difficulty for 
wheeled traffic. The only bridge over the Isan is at Kusmara 
in the south-east, and the long stretch of the river from this 
point to the next bridge at Mainpuri is mostly impassable in 
the rains and difficult to cross at other times. The new Shikoh- 
abad-Farrukhabad railway now runs through a portion of the 
pargana, from Mainpuri to near qmha Bhongaon and onwards 
to the Kali Nadi. 

Bhongaon was a pargana in the time of Akbar, but has 
undergone considerable changes since then. In the eighteenth 
century Kishni-Nabiganj was separated from it, and at the 
settlement of 1840 four of its villages were transferred to Bewar 
and fifteen to Mainpuri, while 113 villages belonging to ixthbqa 
Manchhana, which itself originally formed a part of Bhongaon, 
were added to the pargana. 

BHONGAON TahsU. 

Bhongaon tahsil, comprising the parganas of Bhongaon, 
Alipur Patti, Bewar and Kishni-Nabiganj, is the largest tahril 




JUainpuri DisHct. 


in the district. Its area, according to the recent survey^ is 458*64 
square miles, or 293,534 acres, of which 184,281 acres are 
cultivated. The Kali Nadi separates it on the north from 
parganas Aliganj of the fStah district and Shamsabad of 
Farrukhabad; on the east are parganas Sakrawa, Saurikh and 
Chhibramau in Farrukhabad ; south of it lie the Bhartanau 
pargana of Etawah, and pargana Karhal, while parganas Main- 
puri and Kuraoii form its western boundary. It thus occupies 
the whole of the eastern portion of the Mainpuri district. Three 
rivers, the Kali Nadi, Isan and Arind, drain the tahsil, and its 
physical features are controlled by them. To the east the Kali 
and Isan are close together and the hhur soils which characterize 
the watershed of each merge into one another. Further west, how- 
ever, a little to the south-east of the town of Bhongaon, the Isau 
takes a decided sweep southwards, and the wide watershed, escap> 
ing the scouring influences of the drainage, expands into a 
stretch of dimat soil. South of the Isan the tahsil lies within 
the southern loam tract, and it is here that most of the large 
natural reservoirs are found, though jkds and lakes of fair size 
exist in other parts of the tahsil. 

The tahsil forms a subdivision over which a full-powered 
officer of the headquarters staff holds criminal and revenue juris- 
diction, and there is aict/isiitto with magisterial powers stationed 
at Bhongaon. Kunwar Bhagwan Singh of Saman exercises 
honorary magisterial powers within the Kishni police circle ; civil 
jurisdiction is exercised by the munsif at Mainpuri. There are 
police stations in Bhongaon, Bowar and Kishni, and part of the 
tahsil also falls within the Kurra, Mainpuri and Kuraoii police 
circles. 

The cultivated area is now 184,281 acres, a decrease of 6,632 
acres since the last settlement, but confined to the hlmr tract. 
Though the area irrigated from wells has decreased by 26,674 
acres, there is a net increase in irrigation, due to the canals, of 
28,748 acres. 

The census returns for 1901 show that the population was 
then 226,940, an increase of over thirty thousand since 1891. 
.Of this total 123,246 were males. As in all other tahsils, Hindus 
enormously preponderated over Musalmans, there being 216,263 



OhhEolilift* 


oi the former to 9J30 of the latter. The most numeroTxs of the 
castes composing this majority was that of the Chamars with 
30^055 members, and next to them came Kachhis with 25,398, 
while close behind were Ahirs with 24,464. Brahmans and Rajputs 
follow with almost identical numbers, the former having 18,320 
representatives and the latter only 20 loss. Other important 
castes are Lodhas, 14,011 ; Kahars, 10,671 ; Gadariyas, 7,962; 
Koris, 7,563 ; and Baiiias, 6,821. The tahsil is a purely agricul- 
tural tract, with but one town, qaaha Bhongaon, administered 
under Act XX, containing a population of 5,562, a large propor- 
tion of which is non-agricultural and stimulates a considerable 
production of vegetables and garden produce in its suburbs, A 
good deal of tobacco is also grown in its vicinity for export. It 
has a small bazar, but there is scarcely any trade and the town 
is a very poor one. There are fairly large bazars at Bewar, Kus- 
mara and Alipur Patti, but they are of only local importance. 

Means of communication are still backward over a great 
part of the tahsil. The only bridge over the Isan is at Kusmara, 
on the Etawah-Farrukhabad road, so that in the rains the tract 
to the south of that river is practically cut off from communica- 
tion with the rest except at the cost of either long detours or a 
very considerable amount of difficulty and risk. The now 
railway from Shikohabad to Farrukhabad with stations at 
Bhongaon and Mota will no doubt help to open out and develop 
the tahsil, but now roads will be required, and it will scarcely 
touch the southern portion of the tahsil. At present the Grand 
Tioink Road runs through the northern portion from west to 
east, skirting the south of Alipur Patti and connecting the towns 
of Bhongaon and Bewar with each other and with the districts 
of Etah and Farrukhabad. There is a metalled road from qaeha 
Bhongaon to Mainpuri, while through Bewar runs another 
metalled highway from Etawah to Farrukhabad. The other 
road are merely village tracks of varying degrees of difficulty. 

CHHACHHA, Pargam Alipue Patti, Tahsil Bhongaok. 

This large village, in 27® 19' N. and 79® 11' E,, is 
three miles north-west of Bhongaon and eight miles north- 
east of Mainpuri, and had in 1901 a population of 2^804*. 



<204 


Modnjmri District* 


The area is 4,019 acres and the land revenue is Rs. 4,250. The 
village includes ten separate sites inhabited chiefly by Lodhas, 
Chamars, Kachhis and Ahirs, with a sprinkling of Kayasths and 
Brahmans, the descendants of the former zamindars. The 
cultivators are mostly occupancy tenants. There is a village 
school in this mauza. A partially metalled road connects the 
village with Alipur Patti, and thence an unmetalled road runs 
to Mota on the railway. 

CHITAIN, Pargana and TcthsU Bhongaon. 

This village, in 27® 4' N. and 79® 13' E., is situated two 
miles north>east of Saman on the Mainpuri-Saman unmetalled 
road. Its population in 1901 was 2,170, the principal castes being 
Brahmans, Thakurs, Eachliis and Chamars. There are nine subsi- 
diary hamlets. The village constitutes one mahal owned jointly 
by the Raja of Mainpuri, Badri Parshad and Pitam Singh, and 
is assessed to Rs. 3,000 land revenue. There are two jhila to 
the north and south, and a tank to the north of the site. 


DIHULI, Pargana Barnaital, TahsU Karhal. 

This village, in 27® 2' N. and 78® 53' E,, is situated on the 
Sirsaganj-Karhal unmetalled road, at a distance of eight and nine 
miles respectively from each, and 28 miles from Mainpuri. Its 
population in 1901 was only 362, the principal castes being 
Banias, Brahmans, Thakurs and Musalmans. The village com- 
prises throe mahalu owned by Rani Baisni Madho Kunwar, Kun war 
Jagannath Singh and Babu Ram of Karhal, and is assessed to 
Rs. 1,160 land revenue. A market is held twice a week on 
Saturdays and Tuesdays. There are a village school and three 
temples within the site, and two tern pies, lie outside the village. 
The site is an ancient one, and a stone bearing a comparatively 
modern inscription was lately unearthed and removed to Main- 
puri. Relatively to its size the village is unimportant, but it 
was once the headquarters of the old tappa of the same name, 
connected with that of Jakhan in Etawah, under the combined 
name of pargana Dehli-Jakhan or Bibamau, which was subse- 
quently distributed between pargana Barnahal and the present 
pargana of Bibamau in Etawah. It was formerly owned by Ahirs* 



Gbiror Pargana, 


205 


EKA, Pargana and Taheil Mttstafabad. 

This large village, in 27° 24' N. and 78° 40' E., is distant 
about 34 miles from Mainpuri and 22 miles from Shikohabad. 
Its population in 1901 numibered 6,269 souls, of whom 60 were 
3,754 cultivators, 218 traders, 81 artisans and 457 
labourers. It contains 32 hamlets and an area of 8,364 acres, and 
yields Rs. 12,400 as Government revenue. It contains, besides a 
small bazar, a first class police station, a post-office and a verna- 
cular school. The Arind Hows close by the village on its north 
side, and near it is the mud fort of the zamindar of the place, 
who is a hereditary Raja, and whoso family is a branch of 
the Partabnair stock of Chauhan Rajputs. Nearly three-quarters 
of the cultivated land (4,072 acres) of the village is irrigated from 
the canal. 

GHIROR, Pargana Giiikob, TakaU Mainpuri. 

Ghiror, the chief village of the pargana of the same name, 
lies on the Agra branch of the Grand Trunk Road, in 27° 12' N. 
and 78° 51' E., 16 miles distant from Mainpuri and 14 miles 
from Shikohabad. Its population in 1901 numbered 2,631 souls, of 
whom 1,003 were cultivators, 247 traders and 449 labourers. It 
contains an area of 1,902 acres and nine hamlets, and yields 
Rs. 2,650 annually as Government revenue. The village consists 
of one makaly in which 17 J shares out of 20 are held in zamindar i 
tenure by tho Raja of Mainpuri and the rest by Kanungoi 
Kayasths. It was formerly the site of a tahsil, and now contains a 
first class police station, located in the old tahsil, a post-office, a 
cattle pound, a vernacular school and a bazar, while a market is 
held twice a week at which some business is done in cloth, grain 
and cattle Metalled roads connect tljc village with Jasrana, 
Shikohabad, Mainpuri and Kosma railway station, and an un- 
metalled but bridged road with Kuraoli. About five miles to the 
east is the Kosma station of the Shikohabad-Farmkhabad Railway. 

GHIROR Pargana, 

Pargana Ghiror, in the south-west of the Mainpuri tahsil, is 
the second largest of the three parganas of which that tahsil is 
composed. It is bounded on the north by pargana Sakit in Eteh 




200 


Mainpuri District 


and pargana Kiiraoli ; on the west l>y pargaua Mustafabad ; ou 
the south by parganas Shikohabad and Barnahal; and on the 
east by pargana Mainpuri. The total area is 94^653 acres or 
147*90 square miles. 

The pargana lies entirely in the central ctumat tract. The 
surface is level except where subject to the action of the rivers 
Isan and A rind, the latter of which flows in a winding course 
through the centre of the pargana with a rich and clayey tarai, 
while the former traverses the northern portion but has here no 
sand on its banks and no of any value. The Sengar flows 
through two villages in the south-east corner of the pargana, 
exercising no perceptible influence. The Cawnpore and Etawah 
branches of the Lower Ganges Canal run along the watershed of 
these rivers, and though dTainage cuts have been made to relieve 
waterlogged areas more might be done in parts of Kosma, Bidhiina, 
Gangsi, Nasirpur, Pachawar and Nagla Punnu, where water 
accumulates. The principal J/dls are at Pachawar, Ghiror, 
Nagla Punnu, Faizpur, Bidhuna, Bigrai, Karaoli and Gangsi. 

The cultivated area is 39,729 acres as compared with 43,533 
at the previous settlement. There would appear, however, to be 
some room for doubt whether there has been any real loss, as the 
area at the last settlement would seem to have included tracts of 
fallow and uncultivated land omitted in the figures of the present 
settlement. The culturable area (fallow and waste) is 13,290 
acres as against 12,415 recorded at the last settlement, and the 
area under groves is 935 acres, an increase of 258 acres since 1873. 
Thirty -seven thousand eight hundred and eighty-six acres are 
shown as irrigable as against 40,192 recorded at the previous 
settlement, but here again it is very doubtful whether the figures 
are not misleading. Canal irrigation, has certainly increased, but 
there has been a falling off in the area watered from wells. 
This is due in pare to the substitution of canal water, but also to 
the fact that, owing to a general rise in the spring level in tho 
vicinity of irrigation channels, the construction of earthen wells 
has become more difficult. The actual irrigated area in any 
ordinary year is about 63 per cent, of the cultivated area, a 
figure well above the district average and second only to that of 
pargana Karhal. . The principal crops are, in the rabi wheat an4 



Ohiror Farg'ina. 


207 


barley^ both alone and in combination, and poppy ; and in the 
kliarify jua/r and bajra, rice, maize and cotton. The area under 
poppy, maize, cotton, potatoes and tobacco, the most valuable crops, 
shows a large increase, though both indigo and sugarcane have 
declined. The double-cropped area has considerably increased 
since the last settlement. Three crops a year are commonly 
grown in the usually maize for the klutr ify bejliaror some 
other winter crop for the rahij and melons or tobacco as a zaid 
crop. The crops sown on the dofasli land are wheat, hejhar or 
tobacco after maize, or, in some soils, peas after cotton. 

The principal castes of cultivators are Ahirs and Thakurs, 
who, with the exception of the Kayasths, pay the lowest rents. 
Next come the Brahmans, Kachhis and Charaars. Thakurs, Ahirs, 
and Brahmans hold the largest area of sir. The average size of 
occupancy holdings is about 4*65 acres, and of non-occupancy 
holdings 1*85 acre. The total occupancy area has slightly 
increased since the last settlement and the rental has risen from 
lls. 4*40 to Ks. 4*78 per acre. The non-occupancy rental, on the 
other hand, has risen from Es. 4*31 to Rs. 6*19 per acre, an" 
increase of nearly 44 per cent. The rent rates fixed at this 
settlement vary from Rs. 11-2-0 iorgmJtan to Re. 1-6-6 formaiyar. 

The sanctioned demand at the present settlement is Rs.1,01,295. 
A little more than half the pargana is still held by co-parcenary 
communities, while single zamindari occupies about a fifth and 
joint zammdari about a quarter of the area. The tenure of the 
communities is still mainly imperfect •pattidari^ but that held in 
perfect pattidari is tending to expand. Some 3,000 acres are 
held in bhaiyachara tenure. The number of proprietors has 
increased 50 per cent., and that of the mahals has doubled since 
last settlement. The average area held by each proprietor is now 
51 acres instead of the 78 acres of 30 years ago; but it is still 
rather more than in most other parganas of the district. Thakurs 
and Brahmanu are still the largest owners, but both have recently 
been losing ground considerably. The chief Khatiris and Banias 
who have replaced them are the two Cawnpore partners, Babu 
Bans! Dhar (Bania) and Babu Go^i Narain (Khattri), who have 
jointly acquired villages of the Auncha tahiqa from 
Ifbnkrupt estate of the Bridimim Chaudbri of Bishangarh in 



20S 


Mainpuri District, 


Farrakhabad district. Other considerable estates in the pargana 
are those of the Raja of Mainpuri, who owns the bulk of Ghiror 
kfuis and the whole of Bamhrauli; the Raja of Awa, who holds 
shares in two villages ; Eunwar Ulfat Singh and his aunt, raises 
of Awa, who own nine entire villages ; Thakur Suraj Bakhsh 
Singh of Badshahpur and Thakur Bhagwan Singh of Ealhor, each 
of whom holds shares in five villages ; the present Registrar 
Eanungo of Mainpuri and his Eayasth relatives resident in 
Ghiror, who own ancestral shares in six villages ; the Chauhan 
Thakurs, Ehanjan Singh and others of Mainpuri ; and Chaudhri 
Talc Singh and Debi Singh of Bharaul, the leading Ahir proprie- 
tors in this pargana. The Ahirs of Chitain and Milaoli, the 
Muhammadans of Eosma and the Eayasths of Auncha and 
Ghiror have added considerably to their possessions since the 
last settlement. Among the traders and speculators in land who 
have been ousting the hereditary landowners, the most prominent 
are the Mathuria Brahmans, Radha Mohan and Deo Eishan of 
Mainpuri ; the Banias, Raja Ram and Ganga Ram of Euraoli, 
*and the late Thakur Tukman Singh of Tindaoli in pargana 
Mainpuri, who had purchased considerable landed property of 
recent years in this district. 

The population of the pargana is almost exactly the same as 
it was 30 years ago. In 1881 it had risen to 62,837, but ten years 
later it dropped to 57,871 and in 1901 it was 59,613, or only 152 
more than in 1872. The decrease in the eighties was general 
throughout the district and has already been explained. The tract 
is a rural one, devoted to agriculture, and Ghiror, the headquarters 
of the pargana, though it has a certain amount of trade and is an 
important cattle mart, is nothing more than a village. Other 
important villages and market places are Auncha, Eosma, Darbah 
and Euchela. The Agra branch of the Grand Trunk Road was 
till lately the only metalled road, but the Jasrana-Ghiror-Eosma 
road has been recently construbted. Two unmetalled roads 
connect Ghiror with Euraoli and Earhal and there are several 
smaller unmctalled roads connecting the bridges on the Cawnpore 
and Etawah canals. The ne^hikohabad-Farrukhabad Railway 
traverses the east of the pargana almost parallel to and about 
three or four miles east of the Agra road. 




lIHlYlipaX’. 


6\JV 


HATPAO, Pargana and Tahail Bhongaon. 

This village, ia27® 19' N. and 79® 12' E.,lies uino miles to the 
east of Mainpuri and a little to the south of the Nagaria distrihu- 
tary. The population in 1901 was 2,259, the main caste being 
Thakurs. There are no loss than 20 subsidiary hamlets, Tlie 
village is divided into 21 mamals, assessed in all at Es 8,130 
land revenue. Ah old fort by the side of a jhil stands on an old 
abandoned and elevated site that forms a considerable land-mark 
in the neighbourhood. 

JASRANA, Pargana and Tahml Mustafabad. 

This largo village, now the headquarters of the Mustafal)ad 
tahsil, lii.s on the high road from Shikohahad to Etah, about 
12 miles from the former and about 25 miles to the west of 
Mainpuri, in 27® 14' N. and 78® 42' E. It is connected with 
Mustafabad and Kosma vid Ghiror by a metalled road. It carries 
on an active local trade and a manufacture of iron articles and 
glass bangles. The population in 190^ was 4,218 made up of 121 
zaniindars, 1,539 cultivators, 159 traders, and 1,174 labourers. 
There are 11 hamlets. The village possesses a police station, 
a hospital, a post-office, a bazar, a school and an inspection bunga- 
low, while a market is held twice a week at which the chief 
articles of trade are ghi and grain. An annual fair is hold here 
in the month of Ghait The area of the village is 2,722 acres, of 
which 1,601 acres arc cultivated, and the revenue demand is 
Rs. 4,660. The Sengar river running to the south in wet seasons 
floods the tahsil and hospital buildings. The importance of the 
village has been greatly increased by the removal of the tahsil to 
it a few years ago, and it is now administered under Act II of 
1892. ‘ 

•JAWAPUR, Pargana Ghiror, Tahsil Mainpuri. 

This village, in 27® 10' N. and 78® 56' E., lies some 10 miles 
to the south-west of Mainpuri on the uumetallcd road to Sirsaganj. 
Its population in 1901 was 2,116, comprising 86 zamindms, 
Rud 1,326 cultivators. There are 17 hamlets. There is a 
vernacular school in the village. One thousand four hundred and 
three acres out of the total area of 3|237 are cultivated; and 

14 




210 


Mainpfu/n District 


about one-fourth of this is irrigckted from the canal. 
ThakurS; Ahirs and Banias are the zemindars and the village 
consists of one mahal assessed at Hs. ' About three 

miles to the south-west is the Kosma station of the Shikohabad- 
Farrukhabad Railway. The village lies north of and dose to 
the Etawah Canal^ over which there is a bridge. 

JOT, Rtrg'ina Kishxi, Tdhsil Bhongaon. 

This village, in 27® 8' N. and 79® 25' E., is situated four miles 
south of Nabiganj and 15 miles east of Bhongaon, and lies on 
the Farrukhabad border. Its population in 1 901 was 2,069, spread 
over the main site and its 12 subsidiary hamlets, the principal 
castes being Thakurs, Kachhis, and Brahmans. It constitutes 
one pattidari mahal assessed at Rs. 2,730 land revenue. There 
is &jhil to the north. 


KAILAI, Pargana and TahsU Mustafabad. 

This village, in 27® 25' N. and 78® 43' E., lies in the ex- 
treme north of the Mustafabad tahsil on the Etah border, 28 
miles west of Mainpuri and 12 miles north from Jasrana, south of 
the Cavvnpore canal, where there is a bridge. Consisting of one 
Tiiahal assessed at Rs. 5,150, it covers a total area of 2,800 acres, 
of which 1,767 are under cultivation, nearly three-quarters of the 
cultivated area being irrigated from the Cawnpore branch of the 
Lower Gauges Canal. There are 17 hamlets. The zamiiidars i 
are Thakurs, Mahajans, Marwaris and Brahmans. The population 
in 1901 numbered 3,133 persons, of whom 247 were zamindars, 
1,433 cultivators and 247 labourers. Kailai contains a vernacular 
school and is chiefly noted for the manufacture of scissors, 
knives and betel-nut cutters. The village site partly covers 
an old hhera on which remains of stone images are to be 
found. 


KANKAN, Pargana and TahzU Mainpuri. 

This village, in 27® 8' N. and 79® 2' E., lies a little to tha^ 
east of the Etawah road, about seven miles south of MainpurL It 
is situated in part on a very high mound which catches the aye 
t^ traveller a great way off, and eputaius a lar^etaak i|. 




KarilftL 


^11 


UBed for irrigation. There is a vernacular school in the village^ 
and in Daulatpur, one of the five hamlets of which it is composed^ 
two fairs are held every year in honour of Shiva and Kama. 
The, population in 1901 numbered 2,337 persons, of whom 589 
were zamindara and 983 cultivators. The village consists of 
one mahal and covers an area of 3,395 acres, of which 1,251 
acres are cultivated, a little more than half the cultivated area 
being irrigated from the canal. 

KARHAL, Pargana and TahsU Karhal. 

This town, the headquarters of the pargana and tahsil of 
the same name, lies in 27® N. and 79® K, on the Mainpuri- 
Etawah road, 17 miles south of Mainpuri and 16 miles 
^north-east of the Etawah railway station. The population in 
1901 numbered 6,268 persons, of whom 1,782 were Musalmans 
and 4,026 Hindus, mainly Brahmans, Kachhis, and Banjaras, 
while 460 belonged to other religions. The town is approached by 
the Ghiror, Sirsaganj and Kishni unmetalled road ; the metalled 
road from Mainpuri to Etawah skirts the town on the east and the 
principal street winds off from it at right angles to form the bazar. 
The shops and houses are generally poor, but at the back of the 
bazar some of the private dwellings of the merchants, who are 
chiefly Saraogi Banias, are substantial brick-built houses and 
their spired temples are visible from a great distance. The 
principal buildings are the tahsil, police station, school, girls’ 
school, dispensary, cattle-pound and aarai, the last named being 
an enclosure with two gateways, containing a mosque and a well. 
There is also an indigenous Sanskrit school of the Jains. The 
town contains altogether 1,405 houses and is administered under 
Act XX of 1856. A brisk local trade is carried on in ghi and 
cotton, and both saltpetre and glass are manufactured here. The 
village consists of five maliala^ of which four belong to Karhal 
hhiB while the fifth is made up of resumed lands. The land- 
revenue assessed on Karhal Ickaa is Rs. 4,400, the other mahal 
paying Bs. 695 for the first five years, Rs. 775 for the second five 
years and Bs. 850 for the remaining period of the current settle- 
ment. HiJf of the zamindari of Karhcd has now been transferred 
^ Bani Kishori of Lakhna, in the Etawah disMct. A market 




212 


iloA/a'pwti 


is held in the town every Sunday and Thursday and there are foui 
annual fairs : the Dehi Mda^ the Jaini Mda^ the Ram Lila, , and 
the Jagdhar Mda, 

The local traditions arc numerous and are connected with 
the names of the mohallaa. These are the Qazi MoluaHa, so called 
from the old house of a former Qazi ; the Khera, or the old town ; 
the Laddaian, from the trade of the Brahmans living in it ; the 
Bhutela, from the name of the clan of Brahmans living in it ; 
the Mualliman, from a celebrated family of teachers who have 
the lo(;al reputation of having invented tlie shikasta or runuing 
hand mode of writing the Persian character ; the Birtia, from 
that clan of Brahman's ; the Khakrob, or sweepers’ quarter ; and the 
Singhi, from the division of Banias of that name. Tradition asserts 
the site to have originally belonged to a Gaur Thakur who lived in 
Simrau. He was dispossessed by the Miisalmans, who after 
some time conferred the proprietary rights in Simrau and 69 
other villages on a family of Laharia Brahmans who had been the 
servants of the Gaur llaja. These Brahmans founded Karhal, 
the site of which was covered with kirahla jungle, used by the 
Hanjaras for grazing their cattle. These Banjaras had built a 
tine well here, which is still known as the Banjarawala hmn, 
A good deal of the pargana is still in the hands of Laharia 
Brahmans. 


KAllHAL Pargana, 

This pargana, which with pargana Barnahal makes up the 
Karhal tahsil, is bounded on the north by pargana Mainpuri, on 
the west by pargana Barnahal, on the south by pargana Etawah and 
on the east by pargauas Bhongaon and Kish ni. Its area is 81,013 
acres or 1 26*6 square miles, and it contains 86 mauzaa and 380 
makala. It lies between the A rind and the Sengar, and though 
it contains no streams of any importance, yet from the number 
and position of its drainage linos it must be considered to possess 
great natural advantages. The great jhUa scattered over its 
surface give rise to the Puraha and Ahnaiya, which further on, 
in the Etawah district, develop into fair-sized streams, and to 
the Ujhiani, a tributary of the Sengar. The pargana belongs 
to the great loam tract, and its principal soils are loam and day, 




Karhal Ri/irgana. 213 


intorspersQd with extensive plains of usar, strongly impregnated 
with reh» The clay is generally confined to the lowlands and the 
loam to the uplands, whilst hero and there along the Sengar a few 
patches of sandy soil appear. The principal jMs are at Dookali, 
NaglaKondai, Auna,Sauj, Rarer, Timrakh, Bhanti, Sarh, Rurua, 
Bansak, Harwai, Kirthua, Gamhira, Aimanpurand Kurra. Nearly 
all the waste is bad and unprofitable. The pargana is very fully 
irrigated, the bulk of the irrigation being from the canal. Owing 
to the prevalence of canal irrigation, and the consequent raising 
of the water-level, the supersaturated soil is not generally suitable 
for earthen wells but masonry wells are profitable. The cul- 
tivated area is 34,796 acres, an increase of 923 acres over tliat 
recorded at the last settlement. The irrigable area is shown as 
33,072 acres for the year of survey, an increase over the figures 
of last settlement of only 11 acres. The actual irrigated area in 
any normal year is no less than 70 per cent.- of the cultivated 
area, the highest in the district. A comparison of irrigable 
areas gives an increase during the 30 years of 2,021 acres, chiofiy 
due to the extension of canal irrigation. The number of masonry 
and half-masonry wells has more than doubled, there being now 
113 of the former and 206 of the latter. There has been a dim- 
inution in the areas recorded as culturable (waste and fallow) 
and non-culturablo, the former now standing at 13,814 acres and 
the latter at 12,392 acres. 

The principal crops are, in the rabi, wheat and barley, both 
alone and in combination with gram and peas and poppy, the 
latter occupying 2,366 acres ; in the kharify rice, maize, cotton with 
arhaVy juar and bajra >vith arhaVy are chiefly cultivated. 
There is a tendency to mixed-cropping and double-cropping, 
and there has been an increase in the area under poppy, garden 
crops, maize and mixed crops generally : the area under sugar- 
cane has declined. 

Ahirs predominate as cultivators, holding 12,770 acres. 
Brahmans come next with 9,134, and after them Thakurs with 
7,067 acres. There is a fair sprinkling of Kachhis and Chamars, 
but these are not so numerous as in other parts of the district. 
The occupancy area, now 63*31 per cent, of the whole, has largely 
increasedi but the average size of holdings has decreased since 



214 


the last settlement. This is most marked in the non-occupancy 
area, where there is freer competition! Kon-occupancy rentals 
have risen by 66 per cent, and occupancy rents by 13*5 per cent., 
the average incidence for the former being Rs. G’26 and for 
the latter Bs. 5. 

The revenue demand is Bs. 94,702, an increase of 8*71 per 
cent, on the former revenue. About half thepargana is still held 
by co-parcenary communities, though they have been losing heavily, 
mainly to single zamindari tenure, though there has also been a 
gain to joint zamindari Over a thousand acres are still hejd 
in hhaiyacliara tenure. The communities are mainly those of 
Thakurs, petty struggling brotherhoods, on whom increasing 
numbers tell severely. Brahmans, who are here old hereditary 
zaminchrs, have been losing appreciably, and the new acquirers 
are as usual the money-lending classes. Practically none of 
the pargana is owned by Ahirs, a most unusual circumstance in 
this district. In spite of the large increases under single zamin- 
dariy the average holding of each recorded landholder has 
diminished from 81 acres to 39 in the last 30 years. The largest 
individual landowners are the Baja of Partabnair in the Etawah 
district, who holds most of the large village of Kurra-Jarawan 
and the villages of Sarh, Bhanti, Khera and others ; Lala Phulzart 
Lai, Bania of Karhal, who holds five whole villages and other 
property, here and there ; Babu Bansidhar, Bania, of Cawnpore, 
who holds the large village of mauza Patara and Timrakh ; the 
Baja of Mainpuri, who owns part of Salian and Udua Danda ; 
Lala Parshotam Das of Farrukbabad, who owns four villages ; 
and the Brahman family which owns Karhal khas, Muhammadpur 
Nagaria, and shares in other villages. The village of Dhankar- 
pur has been held rent free by a Musalman family since the days 
of the Mughals. 

The population of the pargana in 1872 was 46,257 :in 1881 
it had risen to 56,478, but fell in 1891 to 55,301 and in 1901 
to 54,631. There has thus been a net increase in the 30 years 
of 18 per cent., and like its neighbour Barnahal, though it 
escaped the heavy losses suffered by the rest of the district in 
the eighties, it has decreased in population during the last 
decade. The large area under water makes the pargana malarioaia 



Sflff 


The pargana is a purely iliral tract situated at a distance from 
the railway^ and with no industries but agricultnrec Karhal, 
with a population of 6,268/ is the only Act XX town, and is 
the headquarters of the tahsil. * The only metalled road is that 
which runs through Karhal khda from Ktawah to Mainpuri. 
There are three good unmetalled roads leading from Karhal to 
Kishni, Sirsaganj and Ghiror, but the northern and north- 
eastern portions of the pargana arc poorly provided with com* 
munications. There is little historical interest attaching to the 
pargana. Karhal was formerly a top/xi of the old Akbari 
pargana of Havcli-Etawah, which formed the head of a ildBiVir* 
Before 1840 it received 14 villages from Dehli-Jakhan, and in 
1860 another 19 villages wore added to it from Sauj, two of 
which, Madhan and Saruulia, have since been transferred to 
Mainpuri. 


KARHAL TaltaH. 

Karhal tahsil comprises the Karhal and Barnahal parganas, 
and lies in the south-east of the district between pargana Kishni 
to the east and tahsil Shikohabad to the west. The total area 
is 218*2 square miles, or 139,620 acres, divided into 193 mauzaa. 
The cultivated area is 70,694 acres. Roughly speaking, the 
Sengar river is the dividing line between the two parganas, 
which difPer radically from one another in physical features. 
Karhal pargana lies in the loam tract, with the exception of a 
few villages in the south-west, which have a sandy soil. It 
contains no rivers of any size, but there are chains of depressions, 
jkUa and lakes, which in the rains form lines of drainage. 
The surface is uniform throughout, with large stretches of ubot 
scattered about it. Pargana Barnahal, on the other hand, is 
distinguished by its light loam soil and the high sandy tracts 
near and parallel to the Sengar, while the proportion of usar 
is smaller and the drainage more rapid than in KarhaL 

For purposes of revenue and criminiJ jurisdiction E[arhd| 
in itself a very light charge, is usually combined with another 
tahsil and is in charge of a subdivisional officer belonging to 
the headquarters staff at Mainpuri. A tahsildar with magisterial 
powers is posted at Karhal and the civil jurisdiction is exerciieft 



216 


Mainpuri District* 


by tho munsif of Mainpuri. Lala Phulzari Lai, a local notable ' 
of Karhal, exercises honorary magisterial powers within the 
Karhal police circle. There are two police stations in the tahsil, 
at Kurra and Karhal, and portions of the Mainpuri and Ghiror 
police circles also fall within its boundaries. 

At the census of 1901 the population was 98,398, of whom 
53,924 were males. Musalmaus only contributed 4,896 to the 
total, while of other redigions, Christians, Jains, Ary as, Sikhs, 
etc., there were only 726. Of the Hindu castes Ahirs enormously 
preponderated with 23,104 representatives, nearly twice as many 
as those of the next most numerous bctfly, tho Chamars, of 
whom there were 12,547. Kachhis and Brahmans followed, 
each with a membership of over 9,000, and some way 
behind them Rajputs with 6,713. No other caste l as as many 
as 4,000 representatives, Karhal appears to have monopolized 
the 169 Bhils Avho were recorded for the district. Tho taJisil 
is a purely rural tract, situated at a distance from the railway, 
which only just touches the north-western corner, and possessing 
no special trades or industries other than agriculture. Karhal 
is the only Act XX town, and contains the usual administrative 
offices of a tahsil headquarters as well as a market of merely 
local importance. Barnahal is a village approached by poor 
village tracks. Karhal is comparatively ill off for communica- 
tions. The only metalled road in the tahsil is the Etawah- 
Mainpuri road which passes through Karhal town, and there 
are three very fair unmetalled roads branching out from the 
town, one to Kishni and Baman, along the south of Karhal 
pargana, one through the south of pargana Barnahal to Sirsaganj 
and Shikohabad, and the third north-west to Ghiror. A great 
part of pargana Barnahol and all the northern and north-western 
portions of pargana Karhal are still unprovided with anything 
that can be described as a road. 

KARIMGANJ, Pargana Kuraoli, TaksU Mainpuri. 

This village, in 27® 19' N. and 79® 8' E., lies six miles from 
Mainpuri on the Etah road. Its population in 1901 numbered 
2,263 persons, of whom 18 were zamindarSf 1,383 cultivators 
and 549 labourers. There are nine hamlets. There has been a 



Kanirara Bxmtg. 


211 


remarkable increase in the population of this village since 1872, 
when it contained only 847 inhabitants. It covers an area of 
2,104 acres, of which 1,869 are under cultivation, and consists 
of two TfiahcLls assessed at Rs. 3,750. Xarimganj was in old days 
a much more notable place than it is now. The adjoining khera 
which is now abandoned was once the centre of a considerable 
town. A long lake curves round it, approaching it on the 
west side. But to the east there must have been an imposing 
city containing gome thousands of inhabitants, and perhaps a 
mile in circumference, with an inner bazar reaching nearly to 
the road and a ganj or market outside. There arc few remains 
of the old town, but the ground is everywhere covered with 
fragments of brick, while on the road are traces of a gateway, 
with some remnants of another gateway on the ground beyond 
the road. A broken image lies near the road, but other frag- 
ments found here have been removed. On . the summit of the 
khera arc the ruins of a fort which once belonged to Ehau 
Bahadur, a famous chief who lived about a century and a half 
ago and is still remembered as far afield as Kasganj and 
Aliganj in the Etah district and Nabiganj at the other end of 
Mainpuri. Vague legends suggest that ho l)roke up the central 
part of the town to build his fort, and after his death none of 
his family seem to have lived in the town. Khan Bahadur is 
even said to have helped the then Raja of Mainpuri to enlarge 
that city, whose rivalry ultimately proved fatal to Karimganj. 


KAURARA BUZURG, Pargma and TahsU MustapABAD. 

This village, in 27® 13' N. and 78® 46' E., lies about 24 
miles to the west of Mainpuri near the north bank of the Sengar. 
The population in 1901 numbered 2,648 persons, of whom 141 
were zamindars, 1,360 cultivators and 684 labourers. The village 
consists of one makcU and 13 hamlets covering an area of 
3,764 acres, of which 1,916 are under cultivation. Nearly three- 
fourths of the cultivated area is irrigated from the canal and 
the land revenue assessed is Rs. 6,260. The eamincktrs are 
Thakurs, Brahmans, Banias and Sunars, The village contains 
a vernacular school and there are the ruins of an old fort and 
of an indiffo factory close by. 




218 : Mainpun Didriet. 


KHAIBGARH^ Pmgana and Tahsil Mustafabad. 

This village, in 2.7® 11' N. and 78® 33' E., lies 42 miles to 
the south of Mainpuri and five miles to the north of the Makhanpur 
station on the main line of the East Indian Railway. In 1901 
its population was 1,492, consisting mainly of Banias, Brahmans 
and Thakurs. The village used to be of greater size and 
importance, and is chiefly now remarkable as a local trade centre 
and the residence of wealthy Marwari Brahmans, whose largo 
masonry houses give the place the appearance of a small town. 
There is an old fort of the Chauhans, and a still older one is 
said to have been built by Raja Sanman. There is a good 
bazar with market days twice a week, the principal articles 
traded in being cattle, cotton, corn, sugar, cloth and ghi. The 
village is divided into four maMa paying Rs. 1,160 land revenue. 
Formerly it was owned by Chauhans, but the local Marwaris 
and Kunwar Kushalpal Singh’s family have acquired most of 
the area. There are two subsidiary hamlets. In the village are 
a school, two temples, a pound and a post-office. 


KISHNI, Fargana Kishni, Tahail Bhonqaon. 

This village, in 27® 2' N. and 79® 18' E., lies on the Etawah- 
Farrukhabad metalled road 22 miles from Mainpuri and 24 
miles from the Etawah railway station. The terminus of the 
unmetalled road running from Sirsaganj along the south of the 
district is here. The population, according to the census of 
1901, is 2,339, and its area is 3,122 acres assessed at Rs. 3,750. 
There are 14 hamlets. The village contains a police station, 
a post-office, a village school, a cattle-pound, and shops for the 
sale of liquor and drugs. Markets are held twice a week on 
each Saturday and Tuesday. The village consists of two mahala 
owned by Thakurs and Brahmans. The cultivators are chiefly 
Thakurs, Brahmans, Kachhis, Ahirs and Chamars, and most of 
them are occupancy tenants. 

KI8HNI-NABIQANJ Pargam. 

Pargana Eishni-Nabiganj is situated on the extreme east of 
the Bhongaon tahsil, of which it forms a part, and of the district. 
Its eastern boundaries are parganas Chhibramau and Bakrawatof 



Kislini-NabiifaiiJ Pargana. 


819 


the Farrakhabad district; and it marches with Bewar and 
Bhongaon on the west. Of a long irregular shape; it stretches the 
whole length of this portion of the district from its northern 
boundary; the Kali !N'adi; down to the Etawah district on the 
south. Its total area is 71;706 acreS; or 112*06 square mileS; and 
comprises 87 mai 62 as; which are divided into 114 rnahals. The 
Isan and Ariud rivers and the Cawnporc branch of the Lower 
Ganges Canal traverse it from west to oast. 

The pargana comprises two distinct tracts of country; the 
dividing line being the watershed of the Isan and Arind to the 
north of the Cawnporc branch canal. The upper half belongs 
to the northern bhur tract; and the lower is a continuation of 
the central loam tract of the district. The well capacity of the 
former is poor and there arc comparatively few jliUa and tala, the 
main exceptions being those of J auauru; Jot; and Chirawar. Like 
all bhur, this tract is liable to suffer both in seasons of excessive 
rainfall and of drought ; it underwent a period of deterioration 
in the wet seasons of the last settlement; culminating in 1890 
when it was overrun with kana, and the cultivated area of the 
previous settlement had sunk from 15;480 to 10;573 acres. There 
has been a recovery since; and the introduction of steady irrigation 
in a portion of the pargana from the Bewar branch of the Lower 
Ganges Canal should protect it to some extent for the future, 
though there is always a danger of the recurrence of the pest in a 
series of wet years. In the southern loam tract the soil has much 
less sand in its composition and is of much firmer and heavier 
quality; tending; over large areaS; to run to clay, while there are 
extensive plains of uaa/r. But the intervening culturable soil 
is usually a clean loam of excellent productive quality. The well 
capacity is generally good; the spring level being within easy 
reach and the substratum strong; while there are numerous large 
jhila, which; in ordinary years, usefully supplement the irriga* 
tion. The most important of these are 6aman; the largest in the 
district; Basait, Pharenji, Mahuli, and Shamsherganj . Of the total 
area 36,732 acres are cultivated, of which 30,660 are ir:|[igable. 
The irrigated area in any normal year is well over half the 
cultivated area„ and also above the district average. Eight thousand 
nine hundred and sixteen acres are culturable (fallow and waste)| 




McAifypwi iKtMot* 


1,961 acres are under groves aud||;24,097 acres are unculturable. 
At the last settlement the cultivated area was larger by only 
45 acres, while irrigatiou has now increased by over 300 
acres. 

The kharifekJid rabi areas closely approximate; but in the 
poorer villages more JcMrif is grown than rabi, and in such 
villages hajra is preferred to juai\ Wheat, alone or in com- 
bination, is the principal rabi crop, and maize and juar with 
arhar cover most of the hfuarif area. There has been a consider- 
able increase of late years in the amount of maize sown, and 
also in the practice of double-cropping and mixed-cropping. 
Rice is grown, but the area under it is very variable. Poppy 
and garden crops aro rising in popularity, but sugarcane has 
diminished since the previous settlement. 

The total population is 56,430, giving a density of 604 to the 
square mile of total area and 983 to the square mile of cultiva- 
tion. This is an increase of 16 per cent, over the figures of 
1872 and of 14 per cent, over those of 1891. The vast majority 
are Hindus, among whom Thakurs and Ahirs largely predomi- 
nate. The pargaiia is a purely agricultural tract ; and though it 
contains 17 villages Avith a population of over 1,000, none are of 
any greater importance than petty local bazars. The two biggest 
are Nabiganj to the north and Kishni to the south, the latter 
having still a slight importance as the local centre and camping 
headquarters of this distant portion of the district, while the 
former was once the headquarters of a pargana of the same name. 
There are no trades or manufactures ; the pargana is at some 
distance from the railway on either side, and has not advanced for 
some time past in the matter of communications, the larger 
number of the villages being off the roads that do exist. The 
Isan is not bridged, and communication from the one half of tho 
pargana to the other often means long detours outside its bound- 
aries. A metalled road from Bewar into the Farrukhabad 
district runs through Nabiganj in the extreme north; and 
Ihe metalled Etawah-Bewar road passes through Kishni and 
the south-west of the pargana, but otherwise the greater 
portion of it is served by nothing much better than village 
tracks. 




Kishni-Nabigaoj Pargcma. 


221 


The bulk of the pargana is still held by co-parcenary 
communities, which own 44,806 out of the total 71,706 acres, 34,828 
acres being hold in imperfect poUtidari and 9,978 acres in perfect 
pattidari. These communities hold 56 rmhals out of 114, and 
number 2,219 recorded proprietors. They are mainly Chauhan 
Thakiir brotherhoods, the chief branches of which are those of 
Arjunpur and Bhadai, Tarha, Ramnagar, Rathe and Kishni. Of 
the 68 mahals hold in zamlmlari tenure 30 are single 
the principal proprietors being the Raja of Mainpuri, who owns 
nine and a half villages, the Raja of Tirwa, with four and a half, 
and the Thakur of Saraan who holds the two very large and valuable 
villages of Samau and Basait in the south-west of the pargana. 
In addition to tliese the Raja of Mainpuri receives haqq malihawi 
as superior proprietor in 21 villages of the tahtqa of Laigaon to 
the south-east of the pargana from the local under-proprietors, 
who are called mibqaddims or hiswadw. Those are for the 
most part Thakur village communities, who pay into the treasury 
fixed sums on account of the malikana along with their revenue, 
an arrangement dating from 1840. There are similar hiswadari 
villages in Bhongaon, Alipur Patti and Mainpuri. The revenue 
demand is now Rs. 81,945, an increase of 7*11 per cent, on the 
expiring demand plus owner's rate. 

Thakurs hold the largest area as cultivators, followed 
by Kachhis, who are the best cultivators in the district. Ahirs 
and Brahmans are not far behind, and Chamars hold a fair 
proportion. Thakurs and Ahirs are poor cultivators and 
unsatisfactory tenants, but their rents are the lowest, because 
they are largely related to the proprietary bodies. Kachhis 
pay the highest rents, because, as a rule, their land is the best 
in the village and they can be more easily squeezed than the 
higher castes. Seventy-eight per cent, of the tenants’ area is 
held in occupancy tenure, and the prevailing rule is to pay lump 
« rents on holdings of mixed soils. The average size of holdings 
of all kinds is tending to decrease, that of occupancy tenants 
being now 3*67 acres, of non-occupancy tenants 1*39 acre,* 
and of sir and Ichudkasht 4*66 acres. The standard soil rates 
vary from Rs. 12-7-6 on g'luhan to 12 annas on unirrigated 
and inferior hhur. 




Mainpwri DiatricU 


KOSMA, Pargaim Ghirob, Tahsil Matnpubt. 

This village, in 27° 10' N. and 78® 55' E., lies about 14 
miles to the south-west; of Mainpuri, at a distance of about one 
mile from the railway station of the same name on the Shikoh- 
abad-Farriikhabad line. It is divided into two distinct villages 
called Kosma Hinud and Kosma Muslimin. The former, which is 
divided into six 'niahals, (iovors an area of 3,334 acres, of which 
1,617 are under cultivation, and is assessed at Ks. 4,450. Kosma 
Muslimin, which consists of only one tnahaly covers an area of 
3,302 acres, of whi(;h 1,163 are cultivated, and pays Rs. 3,300 a 
year as Government revenue. There are 27 hamlets in the two 
villages. A rajhaha flows through the village and irrigates about 
1,575 acres in Kosma llinud and 1,163 acres in Kosma Muslimin. 
The population of the two.portions was, in 1901, respectively 2,818 
and 1,714. The Miisalmans of the place, who are converts from 
Hinduism, claim descent from the Jaisalmer family of Tank Raj- 
puts and follow a curious mixture of Hindu and Muhammadan 
customs. The whole village appears to have been at one time in 
the possession of these Musalman converts, but a great part of it 
has now passed into the hands of Hindus, Thakurs, Brahmans 
and Marw’aris. Family disputes which are still going on appear 
to have chiefly contributed to this loss of zmiindarL The village 
contains a small bazar and a vernacular school. 


KUCHELA, Pargana Giiiror, TaJisU Mainpuri. 

This village, in 27° 10' N. and 78° 8' E., lies eight miles to tlie 
south of Mainpuri on the unmetalled road between the Dharmau- 
gadpur-Nagaria and Gangs! bridges. Its total area is 3,341 acres, 
out of which 1,204 arc under cultivation, and it consists of one 
maJtul assessed at Rs 3,100 with seven hamlets. The Gangsi rajbaha 
irrigates about 231 acres in the village. The population in 1901 
numbered 2,187 persons, of whom 77 were minindarSy Thakurs 
oftheChauhan and Tank clans, and 1,504 were cultivators. 
The village contains both a post-office and a vernacular school. 

KUMIIAUL, Pa/rgana Kishni, TahsU Bhongaon. 

This village, in 27° 5' N. and 79° 28' E., is situated seven 
^iles east; of Kishi^i on the left bank of the A^ind river, Ita 



Enraoli. 


223 


population in 1901 was 2369, the principal castes being Ahirs, 
Kachhis, Brahmans and Chamars. Tt is divided into four maAa/s, 
paying Rs. 4,200 land revenue, and 11 hamlets excluding the 
main site. There are two market days in the week. 

KURAOLI, Parg%na Kukaolt, Tohsil Mainpurt. 

This town, in 27® 25' N. and 79° 2' E., lies on the high 
road from Mainpiiri to Etah in the northern corner of the district 
some 14 miles distant from Mainpiiri. The town is open and 
well-built though small, containing several good houses belonging 
to well-to-do traders and money -lenders of the place. Standing 
on the high road without any neighbouring town to rival it, it 
possesses the advantages of a post-oflice, police station and a 
vernacular school which have all helped to increase its compara- 
tively new importance. There are six hamlets of Kuraoli proper, 
and the inhabited site of Sujrai, the headquarters of the Raja of 
Sujrai, whose estate is now under the Court of Wards, is included 
in the town and lies to the south of the Grand Trunk Road, the 
rest of the town lying to the north. Unlike Bhongaon and Bowar 
the Grand Trunk Road is not the main bazar, but skirts Kuraoli 
and Sujrai retaining its normal width free of encroachments, and 
clear of all but one or two shops. The main bazar of the town 
consists of a street loading to a market-place, in the centre of 
which is the school. The market and shops belong to the Sujrai 
estate. There are nine mosques and 21 Hindu temples in and 
about the town, that founded by the Kayasth Qanungos being 
perhaps the oldest, though it does not claim an antiquity of much 
over a century. The “ Satia " oculists have a considerable 
local reputation. There are tenor twelve families of them, 
and they profess to have a practice extending to a distance of a 
hundred miles. They treat nothing but cataract, using a minute 
dagger-shaped lancet to prick with, and a blunt one like a 
bodkin to press out the discharge from the puncture. Their 
instruments are made by the Sikligar Fathans of the place. A 
good deal of the district tarhuahi work is done here. The town 
is administered under Act XX of 1856, the cost being defrayed 
by a house- tax. The total number of houses is 1,608 and the 
popultition in 1901 amounted to 4,339^ consisting of .2,263 



224 


Mainpuri District 


and 2^086 females^ while classified according to religion there 
were 3;062 Hindus, 1,033 Musalmans and 244 others. 

KURAOLI Pargana. 

Pargana Kuraoli, in the north-west corner of the district, 
forms the northern portion of tahsil Mainpuri, the other two 
parganas of which bound it to the south. On the west and north 
is the Etah district, and pargana Bhongaoii lies to the east. Its 
area is 47,841 acres, or 74*8 square miles. 

The Kali Nadi flows along the northern boundary of the 
pargana in an easterly course with a narrow alluvial khadir, 
succeeded to the south by irregular ridges of hhur and sandy 
soil, sometimes disappearing but in places forming rolling sand 
hills. Another line of blmr runs in a steep ridge south from 
Kuraoli town to the Kak Nadi and thence to the Isan, cutting 
through the dumat tract to the south of the pargana. The Kak 
forms the southern boundary of the pargana, except for eleven 
villages which lie between it and the Isan. It is a small stream 
with a narrow area of tarai, and a shallow channel which serves 
to carry the flood drainage from villages in the Etah district 
into the Isan. As its bed is not very well defined damage from 
'floods is not infrequent. There arc several jhUs of considerable 
size, the most important being those at Rasemar, Panwah, Bar- 
khera, Sirsa, Isai and Basra Sultanpur. 

Cultivation now covers 27,378 acres, a decrease of 6*40 per 
cent, since last settlement, when the area was 28,941 acres. It 
it probable, however, that owing to different systems of classifi- 
cation the real loss is not more than 4 per cent. The culturable 
area (waste and fallow,) is 4,603 acres, and the unculturable 15,368 
acres. Five hundred and ninety-two acres are planted with groveSf 
as against 457 at the former settlement. The irrigable area has 
increased by 571 acres since 1873, and now stands at 20,574 acres, 
but the real improvement is not to be measured by these figures. 
The introduction of the Bewar Canal has provided the light soil 
and tracts, which were formerly peculiarly susceptible to 
drought and ill-furnished with facilities for irrigation, with a 
stable supply of water, and no less than 37 per cent, of the irrigated 
area is now able to rely on this source. The actual area irrigated' 



Knraoli Pa/rgam. 


225 


in a normal year is slightly less than half the cultivated area and 
is below the district average. Masonry wells, and those lined 
with block hanka/Tj are built fairly easily in most parts of the 
pargana, and there were 577 of them returned at settlement as 
in effective use. A certain amount of use is also made of the 
jhils and of the Kak Nadi. 

Wheat, alone and in combination, is the chief staple of the 
maize and juo/r (in combination) of the hhar if. The 
areas under poppy, tobacco, potatoes, garden crops and sugar- 
cane have largely increased in recent years and now occupy a 
fairly large proportion of the total cultivated area. The tendency 
of the cultivation is to double-cropping and mixed-cropping 
with the more valuable crops. 

The population was, in 1901, 37,973, having risen by 12 per 
cent, since 1872, and the density was 506 to the square mile of 
the total area and 883 to the square mile of cultivated area, as 
against 447 and 755 respectively at last settlement. The number 
of villages is 91, with 167 inhabited sites. The revenue is 
Es. 46,879, an increase of 8 per cent, on the expiring demand 
the owner^s rate. The great bulk of the pargana is still held 
by co-parcenary communities, nearly two-thirds being owned 
by Thakurs, mainly of the Rathor clan. Next come Kayasths, 
and after them Ahirs and Brahmans. Both Thakurs and Kayasths 
have been losing ground during the last 30 years, but the greater 
part of their losses has been acquired by Ahirs and Brahmans, 
and the money-lending classes have still but very small posses- 
sions in the pargana. The principal single zaminda/ri estate is 
that of Sujrai, now represented by a minor and managed by the 
Court of Wards. The Thakur family of Mirhaoli Kalan have 
also considerable and increasing estates. The Kayasths of qaeba 
Knraoli, descendants of the Qanungo families who amassed their 
property under native rule, are gradually losing their former 
large possessions. The Ahirs holding the Isan villages in the 
south-w'est are good cultivators and successful zaminda/rSf and 
have been adding to their property. Daring the Mutiny their 
ancestors defeated Tej Singh, the rebel Eaja of Mainpuri; and 
captured two of his guns, services for which their two leaders 
received grants of land. 




Uainpuri Vistrict. 


226 


Among the cultivators Ahirs largely predominate as a single 
caste, and they and the Thakurs hold practically all the sir and 
hhudkisht But theie is a good number of Lodhas, as well as 
of Kachhis, Chamars and Brahmans. The lowest rents are 
paid by Ahirs, and the highest by Kachhis. The bulk of the 
cultivated area is held by occupancy tenants, no less than 80 
per cent, of the tenants’ area being so held. There has been a 
great deal of subdivision, and rents of occupancy holdings 
show a large increase of recent years, the average incidence 
per acre of rents being now Rs. 8*65 for occupancy and 
Rs. 3*81 for non-o3Cupancy holdings. The only Act XX town 
is Knraoli, a local mart for the surrounding country with a 
small export trade in grain and a population of 4,339. The 
Kayasth landlords reside here, and they and the rest of the 
population create a demand for vegetable produce, which is 
supplied by the Kachhi market-gardeners of the si^burbs and 
surrounding villages, where cultivation is consequently very 
close and rents very high. There are no other large villages 
and no industries or manufactures, the tract being a purely 
rural one. 

The pargana is generally well served in the matter of 
communications. QasJm Kuraoli lies on the Grand Trunk Road 
from Allahabad to Delhi, which runs through the pargana due 
east and west, connecting it with Bhongaon, Bewar and the 
Farrukhabad district on the one side, and with Etah on the other. 
A little to the east of the town another metalled road takes off 
from the Grand Trunk Road and gives communication with 
Mainpuri town, 13 miles to the south. An unmetalled road, 
fairly good and bridged throughout its length, connects Kuraoli 
with Ghiror, 18 miles to the south-west on the metalled Shikoh- 
abad-Mainpuri road, thus giving access to. the south and west 
portions of the district and the railway. Off the lines of these 
roads, however, the means of communication consist of little but 
village tracks. 

The only historical associations of Kuraoli are connected with 
the Mutiny. It was at the encamping-ground here that the 
native cavalry mutinied in 1857 and murdered several of their 
offioew, 



Maiftpnri OiVU Siatibn. 


There is a fair trade in cotton^ grain, iron and country pro- * 
duce. The inlaid tarkashi or brass wire work has been described 
in chapter I. There is a ginning mill at the east entrance of the 
town opposite the Mission compound. 

The civil station is described below. 

MAINPURI CIVIL STATION, Pargarut and Tahsil 
Mainpuri. 

Mainpuri civil station was constituted a notified area from 
the 1st of April 1909, and includes the small town of Gola Bazar, 
formerly administered under Act XX of 1856, as well as Nagla 
Chamaran near the latter, and Nagla Pazawa near the opium 
compound. Part of the civil station on the right bank of the 
Isan however is outside the notified area, and here are situated 
the civil courts, judge’s residence, flag station and the canal 
office. The jail also, though on the left bank of the river, is 
excluded from the notified area limits. Two bridges over the 
Isan connect the civil station with the flag station and the city, 
and near the latter bridge, on the river bank, is the opium com« 
pound, with weighing sheds, offices and residences. A little 
further from the river, on a high site, lie the revenue and criminal 
courts and offices of the collector and magistrate, together with 
the district board, police, and Public Works offices. To tho 
•west of this group of buildings is the Awa Bagh, a cricket 
ground, and to the east the church, station club and two public 
gardens managed by the district board. Near by also are the 
jail and post and telegraph office, and the Public AVorks 
department rest-house and Opium officer’s residence. Half a 
mile to the north-west is the Gola bazar, near which are the 
d&k bungalow, police lines and seven residential houses com- 
posing the greater bulk of the civil station. There are several 
drives round the civil station on both sides Aof the river. 
The cemetery lies about a mile to tho north- west of thb Gola 
Bazar* The population of the notified area is about l,6od^ 
including the Gola Bazar, with 678 at the 1901 census. The 
notified area is managed by a committee consisting of the District 
Magistrate as president, the civil surgeon, Am district engineer, 
and the sub-divisional^ magistrate of Mainpuri. A 




Maiwp^H Distriet, 


m 


assesses the house>tax^ which amounts to Rs. 300 per annum^ but 
the bungalows are assessed by a special sub-committee. The total 
(estimated) income for 1909-1910 amounted to Rs. 1,860, and 
included, in addition to house-tax, the income from the pound and 
nazul land receipts. The expenditure is devoted to lighting, 
sanitation and public ^^orks. The police force consists of two 
provincial cfwLuhkhivs paid for by Government, and is housed in 
a building provided by the committee. A slaughter-house for 
horned cattle is maintained by the butchers of the Gola Bazar, 
and is supervised by the notified area. 

MAINPURI Pargana. 

Pargana Mainpuri lies roughly in the centre of the district, 
forming, with parganas Ghiror and Kuraoli, part of the Mainpuri 
tahsil. It is bounded on the east by pargana Bhongaon, on the 
south by Karhal, on the north by Kuraoli and on the west and 
south-west by Ghiror. The total area is 104,644 acres, or 
163*51 square miles. The pargana is watered by three rivers, 
the Isan, the Ariud, and the Kak Nadi, a tributary of the Isan, all 
flowing eastwards. The north-east of the pargana, about one- 
third of the whole, lies within the bhur tract, the rest within the 
central loam tract. Between the Isan and the Arind runs the 
Cawnporo branch of the Lower Ganges Canal, sending out several 
important distributaries. Irrigation from the canal is a feature 
of the southern loam tract, while the himr has excellent well- 
capacity and contains numerous jhils of large size. There are 
jhila at Karimganj, Kankan, Manauna, Thorwa, Khichanli, 
Dharmangadpur and Barauli. The cultivated area at the 
recent settlement was 47,304 acres. In 1873 it -was 50,498 
acres, so that there has been a decrease. Part of this is merely 
nominal,.bcing due to .a more accurate survey, but an appreci- 
able f raictiou is caused by the increase in the area under groves 
and vilUgfr sites, and probably in the areas covered with water'' 
and taken up for canal distributaries and channels. The margin 
left for alternating fallow would also seem to have increased. 
The oulturable area (waste and fallow) is 13,857 acres, and that 
under groves is 1,602 acres, ^ ‘an increase of 372 acres 
over the figures of tho previous settlement. The figures 




Mainpurl Pwrgam. 


accepted as correct for the irrigable area at the recent and the 
former settlement are 38,830 and 37,460 acres, respectively. 
The actual area irrigated in a normal year is about lialf the 
cultivated area, and is almost up to tlio district average. 
Though the number of earthen wells has fallen, masonry wells 
have multiplied. The principal ruhi crops are wheat and barley 
alone and in combination with gram and peas. Poppy is also 
largely grown, a great increase having taken place since 
last settlement. The chief Jcharif crops are Jkijra (usually 
in combination with arhar), maize and rice, the area under 
maize having, hero as elsewhere, largely increased of recent 
years. The double-cropped area has also extended. Lump 
rents on holdings of mixed soils are the rule, the grain- rented area 
being insignificant. The hulk of the tenants' area is held by 
occupancy tenants, 78 per cent, of the cash-routed area being 
in their hands. Non-occupancy rents have rapidly risen as a 
result of the recent abnormal rise in prices, and the average 
rental incidence per acre over the whole pargaua is now 
lis. 4*26 for occupancy holdings and lls. 5’07 for non-occupancy 
holdings, the rates ranging from Rs. 11-2-0 for the best irrigated 
grmhan to Re. 1 for maiyar, Thakurs and Ahirs hold about one- 
half of the holdings area, and their rents arc low. Brahmans, 
Kachhis, Lodhas and Ohamars come next in order with a fair 
proportion of the whole. The revenue, excluding a nominal 
sum of Es.;4()0 on a Government property, stands at Rs. 1,01,502 
for the first five years of the existing settlement, Rs. 1,01,067 
for the second and Rs. 1,01,132 for the remainder. The popula- 
tion of the pargana in 1001 was 83,134, as against SS^lS in 
1872, a decrease of 270* The loss has been almost confined to 
the villages in the^ bhur tract, a circtHnstance which supports the 
statement made in the census report that the shrinkage was 
probably due to stress of bad seasons, and injury from^oods and 
hana grass. During the decade 1881—1891 there was a good d^l 
of emigration. 

Mainpuri, the chief town of the pargana, is also the district 
headquarters, and a full description of it will be found in its own 
place. The single notified area is the Mainpuri civil station 
including the Gola Basar, which has a population of about 1,000 




Jllainpwri District. 


and was brought under the operation of the Act merely for 
sanitary and administrative reasons. With the exception of 
tlio extensive tract to the north and north-west of Mainpuri town, 
which is quite innocent of roads, the pargana is well provided 
with communications. There is a metalled road from Bhongaon 
to Shikdiabad which passes through Mainpuri, and gives com- 
munication with Agra. Other metalled roads lead from Main- 
puri to Etawah and Kuraoli, while unmetalled roads connect 
the town with Kishni and Sirsaganj. The Shikohabad- 
Farrukhabad Kailway traverses the centre of the pargana and 
connects Mainpuri with the outside world. 

The 85 maJials wliich existed at last settlement have 
increased to 162, and the area held by communities has 
decreased from 62 to 48 per cent, of the whole, practically the 
entire difference having gone over to the single zamindari tenure. 
The average amount of land held by each proprietor is now 31 
acres as compared with 51 in 1873. The largest individual 
zaminda/r is the Kaja of Mainpuri, who holds full possession or 
shares in 24 villages, while he receives haqq malikana in 28 
more amounting to Rs. 5,987 per annum. Other large proprie- 
tors are the Raja of Tirwa, the proprietor of the Kotla estate, 
and the Baja of Awa. The last-named has been adding to his 
property. Sixty -six thousand nine hundred and five acres out 
of the total area of 104,644 are held by Thakurs, mainly Chauhans, 
though Kachwahas and Jadon Thakurs are also numerous. 
The Chauhans have lost largely since the last settlement, when 
they held considerably over half the pargana. In some of their 
villages there is a minute subdivision of shares, particularly in 
the biswadari villages, such as Auren Fanraria, Sathni Lalpur, 
Ujhaiya Faqirpur and Kankan. Brahmans, Kayasths, Ahirs, 
Khattris, Marwaris and Banias hold most of the remainder of the 
pargana, the three latter money-lending castes having established 
themselves during the period of the last settlement. 

MAINPURI TahsU. 

Mainpuri tahsil comprises the parganas of Mainpuri, 
Kuraoli and Qhiror with a total area of 386*2 square miles. It 
is bounded on the north by the Etah district, on the west by 




nainpiiri Tatiau. 


m 


parganas Mustafabad and Shikohadad, on the south-west and 
south by parganas Barnahal and Karhal^ and on the east by 
pargana JBhongaou. The Kali Nadi flows along the northern 
boundary to the east with a narrow alluvial belt, to which 
succeed ridges of sand. Another spur of sandhills strikes off 
southwards, crossing the Kak Nadi, and the two rivers, with 
the Arind, carry off the drainage. The Sengar just touches the 
south of the tahsil. The Bewar, Etawah and Cawnpore branches 
of the Lower Ganges Canal traverse the tahsil, rimniiig along 
the watersheds of the rivers. In addition to the ridges of sand, 
to the north, about one-third of Maiiipuri pargana lies in the 
bhur tract, but the rest of the tahsil lies in the central loam tract 
and contains stretches of usar and several ^7/ i/s of fair size. 

Tlie tahsil headquarters are at Mainpuri, a description of 
which will be found elsewhere. There are police stations at 
Mainpuri, Kuraoli and Ghiror, but parts of their circles 
go beyond the tahsil boundaries. Containing as it does the 
district headquarters, the tahsil has naturally the best communica- 
tions of any in the district. Metalled roads connect it ^with the 
surrounding districts and with the most important places in the 
other tahsils, and the Grand Trunk Hoad from Delhi runs 
through the north of the tahsil. To complete the communica- 
tions, however, roads to the west and north are required, parti- 
cularly a road connecting Mainpuri with villages west of the 
Isan. In 1901 the population numbered 183,180, of whom 
100,034 were males. Hindus were as usual in an enormous 
majority, Musalmans only mustering 1 1,746, while there were 1,484 
representatives of other religions. Among the Hindus Ahirs 
greatly predominated, there being 32,021 of them, a total only 
exceeded in Shikohabad. Chamars came next with 23,515, and 
after them Kachhis with 18,131 ,* Rajputs numbered 10,783 and 
Brahmans 13,034, and of the other castes the most numerous were 
Lodhas, 9,445; Gadariyas, 7,309; Kahars, 6,475; and Dhanuks, 
4,993. There were 3,510 Mahajans, a greater number than in 
any other tahsil, but the other money-lending castes were 
comparatively scarce, only 858 members of the Bania caste being 
found and 139 Marwaris. Of the latter tribe, however, only 10 
other representatives were recorded in the rest of the district. 



238 


Uainpuri District, 


MANCHHANA, Pargina and TahsU Bhonoaon. 

This village, in 27® 12' N. and 79® 6' E., is situated four miles 
south-east of Mainpuri near the Maiiipuri-Saman road. Its 
population in 1901 was 2,161, consisting chiefly of Thakurs and 
Brahmans. There are seven subsidiary hamlets excluding Nagla 
Soti which lies within the mauzdf but is a separate mauza in 
itself. There are 21 maluiia owned mostly by the Raja of 
Mainpuri assessed to Rs. 3,131 land revenue. There is a village 
school. Formerly the village was important as giving its name 
to takbqd Manchhana now incorporated in Bhongaon and 
Mainpuri. 


MUHAMMADPUR LABHAUA, Pargana and 

Talml SniKOiiABAD. 

This village, in 27® 11' N. and 78® 39' E., lies about three 
miles to the north of Shikohabad town and is usually known as 
Labhaua. It is a small village of 1,053 inhabitants with one 
hamlet assessed at Rs. 850 on a total area of only 387 acres. It 
is chiefly remarkable as the residence of the head of the Kirar 
clan of Rajputs, of whom Bhagwant Singh attained to great 
influence during the last decade of the eighteenth century. There 
are some fine buildings both here and in Shikohabad erected 
by this family, which is now represented by Thakur Laik 
Singh. Ho has recently set up a ginning factory in Sirsaganj,. 
and owns a half interest in the concern. Kirar Ahirs, Brah-* 
mans and Kachhis are the principal castes in the village, which 
possesses a vernacular school, and is in the month of Phagun 
the scene of a fair known as the Jalbahar. 


MUSTAPABAD, Pargam and TahsU Mustafabad. 

This village, in 27® 19' K and 78® 39' E., is about 34 
miles west of Mainpuri and 17 miles north of Shikohabad. Its 
population in 1901 numbered 1,934 persons, of whom 100 were 
za/miiiularSf 844 cultivators, 39 traders and 299 labourers. Com- 
prising six hamlets and eight makalsythe village covers an area of 
I fiZi acifes, of which 746 acres are under cultivation. Musalmans, 
Thakurs, Brahmans and ^nias are the zamivdara, and pay 
Bs. 2422 a year as laud revenue. The tahsil headquarters, 




Mnstafaliad rargam and TahsU, 




which used to be situated here, have now been removed to 
Jasrana. The village is now insignificant. It possesses a post- 
office, a school and a bazar, and a market is hold here 
twice a week. It is connected with Jasrana by a metalled 
road and by unmetalled roads with Shikohabad and Pharha. 
The village was named after one Mustafa Khan, a local magnate 
in the reign of Jahangir. A mud fort, now in ruins, was built 
by Shoo Ghulara, a Diwaii of Almas AH Khan, governor of the 
district under the Nawab of Oudh, at the end of the eighteenth 
century. Butcliers and Blhishtls form the bulk of the Musal- 
man population. An old well hero is known as Dvdkadhari 
from the purity of its water. 


MUSTAFABAD Parg^tna and TahaiL 
Tahsil and pargana Mustafabad, on the western border of 
the district, is bounded on the north by. the J‘"tah district, on 
the east by parganas Ghiror and Maiupuri, on the south by 
pargana Shikohabad, and on the west by parganas Firozabad of 
Agra and Jalesar of Ktah. Its area is 317*59 square miles, or 
203,261 acres, and it contains 274 villages, 466 mahals and 848 
inhabited sites, lu sliape it resembles a triangle with the apex 
to the north. It is traversed by the Aiind, Senhar, Sengar 
and Sirsa rivers, which flow with courses broadly parallel to one 
another in a south-easterly direction. The Arind dries up in 
the cold season and leaves a broad belt of good alluvial soil, 
and the other two rivers, >vhich also dry up in the cold season, 
though occasionally containing scattered pools and escaped canal 
water, afford a fair margin of tarai, but owing to the scanty 
supply in their beds and the height of the banks they are not 
much used for irrigation. The north-eastern portion of the 
tahsil is watered by the Cawnpore and Etawah branches of the 
Lower Ganges Canal, which run at a low level, and the BhognK 
pur branch of the same canal, introduced since the last settlement, 
flows perpendicularly down the centre of the tahsil ; very little 
irrigation is available from any of these branches. A good deal 
of damage was caused at first by the last branch owing to 
saturation and interference with thp natural drainage. The 
liower Ganges feeder canal enters the pargana in its northern 



240 Mainpu/ri 


corner four miles north of tiopalpur^ where it feeds the Qiwnpore 
branchy and thence runs to Jera^ feeding the Etawah and 
Bhognipnr branches. From Gppalpnr this canal, with the 
Bhognipur branch, crosses all the drainage lines including the 
rivers above mentioned. The tahsil lies almost entirelj in the 
central loam tract of the district, the only exception being 
the few sandy villages to the south-west of the Sirsa river on the 
Shikohabad border. The surface is in general uniformly level, 
except in those parts where it is subject to fluvial action or 
broken up into sandy ridges. There are three such lines of hhuvy 
the largest running from pargana Jalesar through the tahsil to 
the Jamna ravines in Shikohabad at a considerable elevation 
above the surrounding country. A smaller line of sand follows 
the course of the Sirsa river, and a third occurs in the northern 
part of the tahsil with isolated patches in Bhadana and Ghagau. 
There are no extensive lowlying tracts, but jhils of fair size 
are met with at Kusiari, Shekhupur Hatwant, Paindhat, Dewa, 
Kailai, Utrara, Kana Kawa, Surel and Uresar. There is a 
certain amount of usar, but for the most part the soil is one 
wide level loam of great natural fertility. One great drawback, 
however, to its cultivation and prosperity is the haAmri weed 
which infects a large number of villages in a broad irregular 
belt from the north<west to the south-east. This weed seems to 
have spread during the last 80 years, and several villages are 
entirely overrun with it, though in the majority of cases only 
specifio portions affected by it. Iii is seldom found in hhwr 
and practically never in lowlying clay, and is nearly always 
accompanied by brackish water, a fact which restricts the num- 
ber of crops which can be sown in land affected by it, while the 
time and labour required for its removal add greatly to the 
expense of cultivation. As the leaves and stems wither in the 
rains the kharif crop is generally unaffected, and it does not 
seem to flourish in villages irrigated with canal water. For the 
khdrifsAoQB a baist^ri-affected field lets for practically the same ‘ 
rent as anK)rdinary field, but when let for the rdbi it fetches 
some 20 to 26 per cent. less. 

The cultivated area is 116,906 acres, a decrease of 2,706 
acres since last settlement, due to the decrease in the total aireft^ 




241 


Hustafabad Pargma and Tohsll, 


according to the new survey. Ninety-fonr per cent, of this area is 
irrigable, the average figures for three years being 108,506 acres 
as compared with 99,844 at last si ttlement. Canal irrigation 
has increased appreciably since then; but the canal supply for 
the whole tahsil is still not large, forming only 19 per cent, 
of the whole, while wells furnish 79 per cent, and the area 
irrigated from wells is increasing rapidly. The natural well- 
capacity is nearly everywhere good ; and durable earthen wells 
are generally possible except in parts near the canals where the 
character of the subsoil has been allected. There is no canal 
irrigation at all in the portion of the tahsil south of the Seiihar 
river or in the extreme north of the tahsil. The actual irrigated 
area in a normal year is about 55 ])er cent, of the cultivated area 
— somewhat above the district average. 44ie culturable area is 
19,980 acres including waste and fallow, 2,57 1 acres are under 
groves and 64,804 acres are unculturahlo. The principal rabi 
crops are wheat and barley, alono and in combination with gram 
and peas, and the chief kharif crops are maize, cotton with 
arhar, and juar and hajra with arJm\ The wheat cultivation 
has declined since last settlement, .as have also sugarcane, indigo 
and cotton, the last named being, however, still an important 
staple. Their place has apparently been taken by the inferior 
and less irrigated crops, barley and gram. On the other hand 
the areas under poppy, cotton with arhar, tobacco, potatoes and 
other garden crops have boon substantially expanding ; and there 
is a tendency, as in the rest of the district, to double-cropping 
and mixed-cropping. But the double-cropped area is still rela- 
tively small, being only 14 6 per cent, of the whole cultivation. 

The principal cultivating castes are Ahirs, ThakurSj, Lodbas, 
Brahmans and Chamars, with a small sprinkling of K^chhis, 
who as usual pay the highest rents. Sixty-six per cent, of the total 
area is held by occupancy and ex-proprietary tenants, and only 
18 per cent, by tenants-at- will, and the average size of occupancy 
holdings is now 4*36 acres, that of non-occupancy holdings 
being 3*29 acres. The rental incidence of the former has risen 
by 20*23 per cent., and of the latter by 62*35 per cent, since 
the last settlement, the average now being Rs. 6*17 per acre in 
the one oase^ and Rs. 6*90 per acre in the other. 



242 


Mainpwri Distriot. 


The revenno demand is now Rs. 3,19,840. Over half the 
tahsil, viz. 114,241 acres, is still held by communities, mostly in 
imperfect pattidari. Single occupies 46,469 acres, 

and joint zamindari 38,352 acres, both the latter 'having 
considerably increased since last settlement. Of the individual 
castes Thakurs, mainly Chanhans and Jadons, are in a very large 
majority, still holding over one-half of the total area, though they 
lost one-sixth of their possessions during the last settlement 
period. Brahmans and Ahirs are the next largest owners, but the 
latter are hardly retaining their position. Among the traders and 
speculators in land who have been ousting the hereditary land- 
owners the most prominent are the Marwaris of Khairgarh and 
Bampur and the Malieshri Banias. Musalmans and Kayasths 
have also slightly increased their possessions in recent years. The 
chief representatives of the Chanhan Thakurs are the Baja of 
Eka ; Kunwar Dirgpal Singh and Kunwar Sultan Singh of 
Uresar; and Thakur Pancham Singh of Darapur Milaoli. The 
Jadons are represented by the Raja of Awa, Thakur Umrao 
Singh and the raia of Xotla. The chief Ahir proprietor is 
Chaudhri Sarnam Singh of Bharaul in pargana Shikohabad, and 
Haji Abdul Bahman Khan of Parham is the most important 
Mtttalman. 

The population, which at the 1872 census was 165,476, rose 
in 1881 to 162,201, but fell during the next decade to 155,263. 
This decrease was general throughout the district and its causesij 
have been discussed elsewhere. At the last census the total was 
163,180, giving a density of 515 per square mile of total area, 
and 901 per square mile of cultivation. The preponderance of 
Hindus was as usual enormous, only 9,663 Musalmans being 
returned for the whole tahsil. Among the Hindus Ahirs largely 
predominated, with 29,506 representatives, Chamars coming next 
with 20,677. Other important castes were Lodhas, 15,356 ; Raj- 
puts, 9,714; Brahmans, 11,891; Kachhis, 8,243 ; and Gadariyas, 
7,653. No other caste had as many as 4,000 representa- 
tives, though Banias, with 3,949, were only just under this limit. 

The tahsil headquarters halve been removed from Mustaf- 
abad to Jasrana, the latter being more accessible from head- 
quarters, but neither of them is anything more than a village 




Nablgaol. 


248 


The other chief villages and local market places are Pharha, 
Parham, Eka, Baragaoii, Uresar, Paiiidhat, Ram pur and Khair- 
j;arh. The two latter are remarkable for the number of 
wealthy Marwaris settled in them, and Pharha, near the Agra 
border, is the most important trading mart in the tah^il and the 
only Act XX town. Paindhat is noted for its shrine, which 
attracts thousands of pilgrims twice a year in and Asarh. 

There is no railway in the tahsil, but the Makhanpur station 
on the East Indian Railway almost adjoins its extreme south-west 
boundary, and the new Shikohabad-Earrukhabad line passes 
within a few miles of its south-east corner. The stations of 
Kosma, Shikohabad, Firozabad and Jalesar also lie within reach. 
A metalled road runs from Etah to Shikohabad through Jasrana, 
and there is another from Mustafabad to Jasrana and on to 
Ghiror and Kosma. Unmetalled roads connect Mustafabad with 
Pharha, Shikohabad, Kailai and Kharit, and there are other 
smaller roads branching off from the canal bridges at Kusiari, 
Baragaon, Kheria, Patikra, Jera, Katana and Fatehpur Pat. A 
new road from Mustafabad to Khairgarh and Makhanpur station 
would open up the south-west of the tahsil. The tahsil is in the 
charge of a subdi visional officer stationed at Mainpuri,and 
magisterial powers are also exercised by the tahsildar. KiiBwar 
Dirgpal Singh, a Chauhan zamindar and local notable, exercises 
^honorary magisterial powers at Uresar and has jurisdiction 
within the Eka police circle. There are police stations at 
Mustafabad (now temporarily located in Jasrana and Pharha) 
and Eka, the circles of which are contained entirely in and 
are conterminous with the tahsil boundaries. 

NABIGANJ, Pargana Kishni, TahaU BnoiraAON. 

This village, in 27® 12' N. and 79® 28' E., lies on the Grand 
Trank Road about 14 miles east of Bhongaon. The populatioli 
was 1,065 in 1901. A good deal of business is done in supplying 
the wants of travellers along the road, and a aarai on the road- 
side built by Khan Bahadur Khan affords them accommodation. 
The , area of the village is 775 acres and the land revenue is 
Bs. 1,456. There is one hamlet. The driginal zamindara were 
Bais Thakurs, who were noted ^oits and were sold up in 1840| 



Mainpuri District 


244 


their rights being purchased by iheChauhans of Bhadai, Chirawar, 
and Arjunpur. 

NAUNER, Pargma and TahaU Mainpuri. 

This large village, in 27® 15' N. and 78® 68' E., lies eight miles 
to the west of Mainpuri, a little removed from the ^gra branch 
of the Grand Trunk Road and situated on a high Jchera or mound. 
It comprises two mahala covering an area of 10,117 acres, of 
which 3,902 acres are under cultivation, assessed at Rs. 10,860, 
The population in 1901 numbered 6,020, of whom 304 were 
zamindara, 3,397 cultivators and 297 labourers. There are no 
less than 42 hamlets. Chauhan Thakurs and Brahmans form the 
bulk of the population. Naunor is noted for its large number of 
wells and tanks said to have been constructed by one Bhola, an 
Ahir, who is said to have owned the village some two centuries 
ago. His praises are still celebrated in rural songs by the Ghosi 
Ahirs of this and neighbouring villages. Nauner afterwards 
passed into the hands of the Chaubans, from whom it was acquired 
by its present owners, the Raja of Awa in the Etah district and 
the Thakur of Kotla. The village contains a school for boys 
and another for girls. The garhi or fort which is now occupied 
by Brahmans is said to have been built by Almaj^Ali Khan, the 
governor under the Nawab Wazir of Oudh. - - 

ORAWAR HASHT TARAF, Pargana and Taha^l Shikohabad. 

This big village, in 26® 58' N. and 78® 44' E., is situated 
among the ravines on the left bank of ihe Jamna river. Its area 
is 6,896 acres, and its population in 1901 was 4,265. It is a 
pattidari village, consisting of 21 hamlets, and pays a revenue 
of Rs. 6,550. The zamindara are Ahirs and Brahmans, one of 
the most important being Panchi Lal^ a retired aubadar. The 
inhabitants, who are almost all cultivators, are Ahirs, Brahmans 
and Chamars. There are two vernacular primary schools in the 
village, which has a certain amount of trade in grain and ghi* 
The village also contains a temple of Kali Devi, where a reli« 
gious fair is held every year in the month of ChaU, The 
principal feature of the village is the hhagna, a very fertile 
silted bed of the Jumna which has been4escribed in chapter L ; 




Parham or Fadham. 


245 


PAINDHAT, Pargana and Tahail Mustafabad. 

This village, in 27® 21' N. and 78® 39' E., lies 29 miles west 
of Mainpuri and nine miles north-west of Jasrana. Its population 
in 1901 numbered 2,423 persons, of whom 76 were zamindara, 
1,244 cultivators and 610 labourers. Classified according to 
religion there were 2,141 Hindus, 219 Musalmans and 63 others. 
The village consists of 23 mahals, with nine hamlets covering a total 
area of 2,976 acres, of which 1,431 acres are under cultivation, 
more than half the cultivated area being irrigated. The zamtn^ 
dard are Ahirs aud Marwaris, who pay Rs. 3,760 as land revenue. 
Unimportant in itself, Paiudhat is famous for the large gather- 
ings which meet at the shrine of Jokliaiya in Magh and Aaarh, 
There is no fixed day, but the Sundays in the latter fortnights 
of those months called jat are chosen. The story runs that 
during the war between Prithiraj and Jaichand of Kanauj an 
Ahir was bringing home his wife, and with him were a Brahman 
and a low-caste man, a Bhangi or a Dhunuk The three men 
joined in the fight and wore killed, the Bhangi first and the 
other two at some distance from him. Even when dead, how- 
ever, their headless trunks (rv,nd) continued the fight. The 
Bhangi became a ghost {phut), as is so often the unpleasant 
habit oi men, under the name of Jokhaiya, and the 

place where^nefell is called Jokhaiya to this day. Droves of 
pigs are grazed here, and part of the ritual at the great gather- 
ings is to have one of them killed and to allow its blood to flow 
on the spot where the Bhangi fell. At the other spot in the 
village, where the Brahman and the Ahir were killed, there is 
a temple, where cocoanuts and the like are offered. People come in 
thousands from the surrounding districts, even from Farrukhabad, 
on the opposite side of the district, to pay their devotions here. 
The great object of the journey is to obtain offspring and have 
an easy childbirth. The mela is said to also have a good influence 
on the mahawat or winter rains. The offerings made at the 
temple belong to the zamindara. 

PAKHAM OB PADHAM, Pargana and Tahail Mustafabao. 

This village, in 27® 20' N. and 78® 46' E., is situated on the 
Ughroad to Etah near the Arind river, at a distance of 28 miles 



246 M<Unpwri Distrid, 


from Mainpnri and 18 miles from Shikohabad. It consists of 
one makal, covering a total area of 5,361 acres, of which 3,367 
are under cultivation, while more than three-quarters of the ' 
cultivated area is irrigated. The land revenue is^Es. 10,300. 
Mauza Parham includes ma<u,»a Milak distributed khithnt through^ 
out its area, and contains also within its boundaries 
Bahlolpur. There are 27 hamlets. The population in 1901 was 
6,614, made up of 3,480 males and 3,034 females; Classiliod 
according to religions there wore 5,356 Hindus, 964 Husalmaus 
and 194 others. The village contains a vernacular school, a 
post-office and a bazar, and a market is held in it twice a week. 
The zamindara are Thakurs and Musalmans, and w^ore, until 
recent times, entirely Musalmans. The place, however, has an 
old history. It is said to have been calk'd Bardan before the time ^ 
of Raja Parikshit, who changed its name to Parichhatgarh or 
Parham. When he died of a snake-bite, his son Janamejaya 
made a great sacrifice on the banks of the A rind. The sacrifi- 
cial pit was excavated many years ago, and cocoanuts, cloves 
and betel-nuts used in Hindu worship were found buried in it. 
Popular belief declares that in this neighbourhood snakes are 
still harmless in consequence of the virtues of that sacrifice. 
The story connecting Parham Avith Janamejaya^s sacrifice is, 
however, looked upon with qualified respect even among the 
Hindus of the place and is contrary to the more generally 
received tradition. There is a masonry tank at this place, said 
to have been built by Janamejaya to mark the site of the 
sacrificial pit, which is still known as Parikshit Kund. The 
khera close to the village is a very large and high one, 
the most conspicuous in the district, and there are on it the 
ruins of a fort, some stone sculptures, and a well called after 
Parikshit. 

PABIAR, fargana zMTOfhail Shikohabad. 

This village, in 26^ 56^ N. 'And 78^ 45^ £., lies among the 
ravines about a mile from the Jamna and five miles from 
Bhadan railw'ay station. It had in 1901 a popiijlation of 2,667 
persons, and its area is 6,010 acres. There are 11 handets. It 
is A very complicated 'paUidaH village pajl^g Bs. 3,930 in laml 




rnarAa or raari&a. 




reyoDUQ. TKe zaminda/rs, who are co-sharers with mostly minute 
shares, 4r0 continually (quarrelling in the courts and out of them* 
There are 11 hamlets attached to the parent village, which con- 
tains a school. Mauza Saruppur Shamlat is partly contained 
in maucae Pariar,! Chhidaoli, Ruriaaud Papri. There is an old 
loop of the ilamna (described in chapter I) in this village, now 
silted up, pf the same nature as the hhagna of Orawar, but 
less valuable than the latter. 

PATARA, Pargxna and Tahsil Earhal. 

This village, in 27® 5' N. and 79® 9' E., is situated 8 miles 
to the north-east of Karhal, and had in 1901 a population of 
1,075 qjersona distributed over eight sites. It covers an area 
of 5,121 acres, assessed at Rs. 6,120. The village is owned by 
Bansi Dhar and Ganga Parshad, Banias, of Cawnpore, and the 
cultivators are mostly Thakurs and Ahirs. There are two 
market-days every week, and once a year a fair, known as 
Barnath, is held in the village and attended by shopkeepers 
from Mainpuri and Etawah. Both the fair and a well in the 
village are named after a Bairagi of great repute for sanctity 
who once lived here. He is now worshipped, and the offerings 
made by devout persons are appropriated by the present Bairagi 
of the name of Ram Das who acts os priest. 


PHARENJI, Parg%m Kishnti, Tahail Bhokgaon. 

This village, in 26® 59' N. and 79® 17' E,, lies a little to the 
west of the Etawah-Farrukhabad road three miles from Eishni. 
In 1901 it had a population of 2,066, consisting mainly of Brah- 
mans, Ahirs, Thakurs, and Kachhis. Therd are six subsidiary 
hamlets. There is only one mahal owned by the Baja of Main- 
^ puri. . There is a village school, and a large jhil to the south of . 
the site drains into th^^'^greAt Sirsainawar jhU in £he Etawah 
^strict. ' - 

< PHABHA or PUABIHA, Pargam, and Tahiil 
'' MOSTlVABAD. 

Ikis village, in 27* 20' N., and 78* 82' E., liM on the western 
bordef ' of the d^ot abont^ miles from Mainpuri and ^ 




2$8 Mainpiri District. 


eight miles from Mustafabad. It is the only town in the 
district, with the exception of Sirsaganj, which has any con- 
siderable external trade, but is not otherwise important. Its 
population in 1901 numbered 2,885 persons, of whom 1,642 
were males and 1,243 females. Classified according to 
occupation there were 52 zaminfldr 8,1 d(j cultivators, 689 traders, 
107 artisans and 239 labourers, and classified according to 
religion there were 1,855 Hindus, G72 Miisalmans and 368 
others. The village consists of one mahal with 11 hamlets 
covering an area of 1,578 acres, of which 995 acres are under 
cultivation. Nearly three-quarters of the cultivated area are 
provided with irrigation. The cammrfarsare JadonThakurs, 
who pay Rs. 3,400 as revenue. I he village possesses a police 
outpost, a post-office, a school and a bazar, and a market is held 
in it twice a week where grain, ghi, sugar, cotton, and other 
country produce are sold. A fair is also hold here every year. 
The village is administered under Act XX of 1866, llio cost 
being defrayed from a house-lax levied on 414 of the 1,041 
^Sbuses in the place. Kunwar Kushalpal Singh of Kotla 
has started a model farm here which has been very successful 
so far. A second-class road, which it is proposed to metal, 
connects the town w-ith Mustafabad ; it is also proposed 
to continue the metalled road to Kotla in the Agra 
district. 

t 

PUNDRI, Pargana and Tahsil Bhongaon* 

TCis village, in 27® 8' N. and 79® 13' E., lies 11 miles to the 
east of Mainpuri and tw'o miles to the north of the CWnpore 
Canal. In 1901 its population was 2,874, consisting mainly 
of Thakurs and Kachhis, distributed over 14 hamlets in addition 
to the main site. There is one mahal assessed at Rs. 3,150 4nd 
owned by the family of Kunwar Kushalpal Singh. 

BAFRI, Pargma and Tahsil ShikohabaJ). ' 

This village, in 26® 59' N. and 78® 32^ E., li^B among the 
ravines on the left bank of the JamnO, about 44 miles from 
Mainpuri east of the Shikohabad^tiaar road. It is noiir' a 
small and unimportant vUlage with^jFdpuktion^uf ^ly 9^ 




Sahan. ' 


249 


thotigh both its history and the numerons ruins of buildingSi 
mosques, tombs, wells and reservoirs, attest its former greatness, 
Ldfi^al tradition ascribes its foui^^ioi^ to one Kao Zornwar Sen, 
also known as Kapar Sen, \v|(^ descendant fell in battle with 
Muhammad Sam, in 1194. vijie ghat across the Jamna to Bate- 
sar is known as Narangi Bah, and is said to derive its name 
from Naurangi, the daughter of Kapar Sen, fpr whoso pleasure 
a garden was planted there. In course of/ume the name was 
corrupted to Narmigi^ an orange tre 0 .v^''here are now no traces 
of the garden, but tradition places it near Papardanda, otherwise 
known as Beh&v-GhaL The general history of Kapri, and the 
important Ala-ud-din Khilji inscription, have been noticed in the 
history of the district. Many of the buildings were erected by 
Sher Shah and Salim Shah, and traces of the gate leading to one 
of the royal residences still exist. Besides the idgik, built in 1312, 
the dargah of Shah Kidu, a celebrated saint, is of considerable 
importance, attracting large numbers of the devout, who attend 
a yearly icrs at his shrine. Ho is said to have been a worshipper 
of the one God, irrespective of creed, and many miracles attest^ 
his power. From its position on the road to Batesar, where the 
great fair is held every year in Kartik, Kapri must always have 
been an impoiiiant place. It is now connected by good fair- 
weather roads with the railway station of Kaurara and the 
town of Sirsaganj, and also with the village of Nasirpur, 
whence a metalled road runs to Shikohabad. The latter is the 
main route of pilgrims to the Batesar fair, and will be metalled 
shortly as far as th)^ river crossing, whore a pontoon bridge is 
maintained by the Agra district board during the dry season. 
Near the site of the bridge is a small hamlet now inhabited 
by Mallahs, Dhobis and Bhaugis, and formerly owned by Brah- 
mins, who emigrated thence to Karhal. Not far from the bridge, 
near the haxplet of Parauli, is a temple built by Bhagwant Singh 
oit tht site df a buming-^^. There are in all four hamlets. 
A outpost odmmands the rive; crossing. 

.1 

j > SAQ^N, 2ViAn{ Eabhal. 

•■■t Hus and 78° 5' E,, lies about 10 miles 

to tb6 ^sott{& of north of and close to the Gaiy;si 




260 


Jllainpuri District. 


distributary. Its popiilatioa was 2,186 in 1901 and its 
area at tho recent ’settlement 4,315 acres. The village is 
divided into 10 mahalSf assessed at Rs. 3,426, and is owned liy 
tho Raja of Mainpuri and some local Thakurs. There are 10 
hamlets. The cultivators are mostly Thakurs and Ahirs who 
have acquired occupancy rights. The village possesses a /laiga- 
bandi school, and is every year tho scene of a local fair in tho 
middle of tho month of Baisakh. The village is proposed as the 
new headquarters of tho Kurra police circle, as tho police 
station there is a wretched building and not in a central 
position. 


SAHARA, Farg'twjb and Talml RnoNGAON. 

This largo village, in 27® 23' N. and 79® 13' E., lies some 
10 miles to the west of Bhongaon. Its population in 1901 was 
2,868 distributed over 12 sites and its area at the settlement 
was 2,899 acres. The village lands are held in pattidari tenure, 
paying a revenue of Rs. 3,510. Most of the area is held by the 
proprietors as sir or by occupancy tenants. A canal minor 
flows through the village lands, providing the means of irriga- 
tion. There is a school in the village. 


SAMAN, IWg^na Kisiini, Taksil Bhongaon. 

This huge village, in 27® 2' N. and 79® 14' E., comprising 
17 hamlets, lies some 20 miles to the south of Bhougoan at the 
junction of the Kishni-Sirsaganj, and Maiupuri-Samau uumetal- 
led roads, aiid had in 1901 a population of 5,536. It is owned 
by a resident Thakur of tho name of Kunwar Bhagwan Singh, who 
is an honorary magistrate and village munsif, and the cultivators 
are mostly occupancy tenants. The big Gangsi distributary 
runs along the whole length of the village, which is thus excel- 
lently provided with means of irrigation, and contains a canal 
bungalow. There are a number of shops hero and a school, 
while markets are held twice a week on Thursdays and Sundays. 
There is a large Jhil to the west of the inhabited site. Saman 
with rfiauza Basait once formed part of the Kishni talvqa, but 
was separated from it at the third settlement. There are village 
banks at Saman and Basait. > 




SUkoli'sbad.' 


261 


SAUfT, Pargma and Tahsil Kahhal. 

This village, iu 27® 2' N. and 70® 12' E., is situated on the 
lushui-Karhal road 24 miles from Maiiipuri and 13 miles from 
Karhal. In 1901 it had a population of 2,797 persons, while its 
area at the last sattloinout was 5,012 acres assessed at Rs. 4,700 
land revenue. The zamindara are Chaubo Ilrahmans of 
^lainpuri and Tliakurs of Jagannathpur in Etawah, and the 
cultivators are mostly occupancy tenants. Tlicrc is a halqaharfdi 
school in tlie village, which is an old oiie; containing on its Jchera 
the remains of an ancient fortress. In the early days of Rritish 
rule Sauj was the chief town of a pargana of the same name, 
but the pargana wa.3 dismembered in 1840, 25 of its villages 
being transferred to Afainpuri and 17 to Karhal. The village is 
large and straggling, containing 26 hamlets. There is a large 
jhil close by the main site. 

SHIKOHABAD, Pargma and 'PaJml Spiikohabad. 

This town, in 27® V N. and 78® 40' E., is situated on the 
Agra-Maiiipuri road about two miles from the railway station of 
the same name and 30 miles from Alaiiipuri cdty. It is connect* 
ed by metalled roads with Alainpuri, Agra, Etah and Sirsaganj, 
and with Etawah by a road which is not metalled beyond 
Sirsaganj ; also with Batesar by a road metalled as far as Nasir- 
pur. The town lies to the east and soutli of the road, but' the 
principal bazar lines the road itself, and there are a number of 
■aaraia scattered about the site. The old town is a straggling 
place, divided into quarters by crooked lanes and inconvenient 
roads. The principal bazar is irregular iu shape and filled, like 
the whole of the old town, with ruinous houses. It is only beyond 
it, in the now quarter and the new bazar, that good houses and 
shops are to be seen. Beyond the new market is the mound on 
which the fort formerly stood, which is now covered with houses 
of the better sort. The water of the wells in the new quarter is 
sweet and good, but in the old town it is often brackish and 
undrinkable.^ The want of good drainage is the great defect in 
the site of Shikohabad, for, except the fort mound, there is no 
rising ground, aud the whole neighbourhood is remarkably level. 
To remedv this Snllan Ali Khan caused a tank to be excavated * 



Main^pf^ri Diitrid, 


littlo way to the uorth of the site which is still capable of receiving 
the drainage on that side, while the surplus water from the south 
might be led into the Sirsa Nadi which flows close to the town on 
the southern side. 

In 1901 the population of the town was 11,139, Hindus 
being to Musalmans in the proportion of three to two. The lauds 
belonging to the town are assessed at Bs. 1,780 for purposes 
of land revenue. The town is administered as a notified area. 
A force of one head constable and 18 constables is entertained 
and paid for from provincial funds. The main heads of 
expenditure are conservancy and lighting (Rs. 2,000) and public 
'works (Rs. 1,400). The expenditure is met mainly by a house-tax, 
which in 1908 yielded Rs. 2,590, sale of manure, slaughter-house 
fees and other sources. The number of houses in the town is 
3,220, of which 1,504 arc assessed to house-tax. There are 14 
muhaUaa or wards in the town. The Musalmans reside princip- 
ally in the northern and eastern muhallaa^ and the Hindus in 
the southern and western, but there arc also points where the 
population is mixed. MuhaUa Katra Miran was founded by 
Sultan All Khan of tlie Naushahra family already mentioned, 
and Katra Muhammad Mah by a Saiyid follower of Dara Shikoh, 
while Katra Mir Khalil is named after a Saiyid landholder who 
fell in .^me local disturbance and whose tomb is visited on 
holidayias that of a martyr. Qazi Tola was founded by Qazi 
Asad Ali of the family of Qazi Shaikh Muhammad Jalil, who 
obtained that office in the reign of Aurangzeb. Muhalla Khat- 
triana is inhabited by Khattris and is the richest ward of the 
town, the houses being built of brick and adorned with a good 
deal of stone ornamentation. Phulapurena is occupied chiefly 
by Banias, Brahmans and Kayasths, and Rukinpur is inhabited 
mostly by Pathans, Shaikhs and other Musalmans. MuhaUa 
Khera forms the oldest part of the town, somewhat detached 
from the modern part. It is marked by an old fort, once the 
residence of Saiyid Sultan Ali Khan, and subsequently used as 
a tahsil but now unoccupied. The other important muhaiUoB 
are Misrana, Garhiya, Chah Rabat and the old bazars. 

The town was formerly a great emporium for cotton, but the 
! tfade has declined for some time past, though it hiay be hoped that 



Shikohabad. 


253 


the three ginning factories set up recently in Iho town will do 
something to restore it to its old importance. A good deal of 
business is done in and gram as well as in cotton. The fact 
that Shikohabad has now become an important junction should be 
a great stimulus to its trade. The tahsil building stands at the 
junction of the railway station road and the Grand Trunk Hoad 
adjoining the police station, and near it are the post-office, 
dispensary, civil court and town school. There is also a well- 
attended girls’ school in the town. 'J'he Etawah branch canal 
flows close by Shikohabad, and a fine garden has been laid out 
beside it by Lala Pati Kam. Travellers are accommodated in 
a dak bungalow and inspection house, and there is also a large 
sarai. 

The site now occupied by the town is said to have been 
colonised by a Musalmaii emigrant from llapri named Muham- 
mad, who gave it the name of Muhammadabad, by which it is 
known even now. This was changed to Shikohabad in honour 
of Dara Shikoh when Badr-us-Salam was governor. Under the 
Marathas the governor was Mura Pandit, who built the 
fort to the north of the town. One of the fino towers, in 
which there is the dargah of Kadir All Shahid, still remains. 
To the west of the town the Muragauj bazar still commemorates 
the name of the Maratha amil. It was here that the transit 
duties were collected on goods crossing the Jamna, and a 9 aydr 
chabutra, or excise post, was maintained until abolished by the 
British. Shikohabad fell successively under the Marathas, Jats, 
Rohillas, the Marathas again, Himmat Goshain and the Oudh 
Nawab. Almas Ali Khan was governor on behalf of the Nawab 
up to the time of the British occupation, Sewa Bam being amil 
under him and Pharha Mai diwan. The British obtained pos- 
session in 1801 and established a cantonment here to the south-west 
of the town near the Sirsa, where the graves of Europeans are 
still to be seen. It was here that a Maratha force under Fleury 
in 1802 surprised the British detachment, after which the canton- 
ments were removed to Mainpuri. 

Amongst the notable men connected with Shikohabad men- 
tion may be made of Nawab Mahtab Khan, who rose 'from the rank 
of a common soldier to high distinction. Two members of j|i|i 



254 


Mainputri District* 


family, Muhammad Ramzan Khan and Muhammad Taj Khan, 
were pensioners of tho British Govcrnmciiit after the acquisition 
of the Mainpuri district. The Qanuiigo family of Kanji Mai, . 
hereditary Qanungo of pargaiia Rapri imdor the Miighals, is 
still of some importance and influence in the town, BaLu Sri . 
Naraiii of Madanpur being its present head. One ^lokaud Misi*’ 
a Kanaujia Brahman, built a temple on the borders of Chah 
Rahat and Qa/i Tola muhaUas aljont tho middle of the 17th 
century, and annually on the second day of a religious fair 
takes place at his tomb. He is said to have been buried alive 
with his dog in the grave which he dug for himself in the garden 
where his tomb now exists. Among tho Agarwal Banias, Suraj 
Sahai was a person of some conscqucuce, and among tho Khat- 
tris, Diwan Ramji and Diwaii Khushal Rai came here from 
Delhi and attained to some distinction under the IVTusalman 
governors. Their descendants still reside in the town. Some 
of tiie Kayasths were dnvan^ under the Marathas^nd possess a 
few villages as landholders or are employed under the Govern- 
ment. 

At Nagla Brindaban there is a temple to Mahadeo, a chatri 
and a hiarantf under tho care of a Bairagi colony from yery 
ancient times. The place was formerly covered with jungle 
aud was the abode of an ascetic, near whose residence some 
Baja built a temple. The Bairagis then occupied the place 
and one of their number named Mangla built the biarant on the 
Aganga. The name of that stream is explained on this wise: 
Mangla was a great saint and worker of miracles, and at the 
time of the great bathing fair of Kartik was unable or unwilling 
to go to the sacred stream of the Ganges to perform his ablu« 
tions there. His ckfiH or disciple was much affected at this 
and remonstrated with Mangla, who merely said Ao Oangc. 
"(come Ganges), whereupon a stream at once burst out beneath 
his feet and has ever since borne the name oi Aoganga or 
Aganga. The banks of this stream are a favourite place' for 
burning the dead, and though in reality only a small drainage 
line which dries up immediately after the rains, local legend 
asserts that it sinks into the ground and joins the Gauges near ' 

• Kanauj. One hundred bighoB of land are held rent-frei^ 



S&ikoliabad TahM and Pargam, 


266 


Chitaoli village to support this shrine, which is surrounded by 
numerous tombs of former heads of Iho Bairngi community, and 
on Hindu holidays, especially the Dasahra^ considorable crowds 
assemble to offer their devotions before the sliriiie of ]\Iangla. To 
.the west of the town, about half a mile away, is tha tahia of Billi- 
chor, so called from a ftqir whoso cat was killed hero by a 
Mewati robber from Khairgarh, who suffered for his impiety. 
To the north-west is the site of i\\v. mud fort, built by one Saiyid 
AH Asghar, and to the west, near muhalUt Muhammad Mah, is 
the idg%h. To tlio south of the town and about a mile distant 
is the garden of a pious jMali named Toriya, where a fair is held 
and an imago of Mahadco is placed on a temporary platform and 
worshipped. A temple dedicated to Panch-mukhi Mahadeo 
exists to the north, near the bastion of the old fort which contains 
the tomb of Kadir Ali Shahid. Other temples are that to Eadha 
Ballabh in the Chah Rabat quarter; to Murli Manohar on the 
south ; to Baldeoji in the great bazar ; and to Rama in the mandi. 
There are also two sang its of Nanak Panthi faqira whose 
cemetery lies to the south of the town. Close to Qazi Tola is a 
fine garden and building erected by Thakiir Bhagwant Singh, 
who possessed great influence in the town during the eighteenth 
century. To the south of the town, again, is the shrine of Jasan 
Doota, at which offerings of chapatis and khir^ arc made when 
cattle bring forth their young. 


SHIKOHABAD Tahsil and Parg^na. ' 

Tahsil and pargaiia Shikohabad occupies the south-western 
dofner of the district. On the south and west it is bounded by 
the Agra district, with the river Jarana as the dividing line on 
the south; on the north by Mustafabad atid Ghiror; on the east 
by pargana Barnahal, with the Etawah district at the south-east 
corner. Its total area is 183,416 acres, or 294*4 square miles/' 
and it contains 297 mauzaa with 595 makals and 685 inhabited 
sites. 

The pargana is well provided with natural dminage, the* 
Sengar mnning through tho northern portion, the Sirsa through 
the centre, and the Jamna along the south, while the tract 
the Sengar and firsa is served by the Aga&ga» 





25C 


Ma inpi(, ri D ist r i ci. 


latter is, however, a small and sluggish stream with a scarcely 
defined bed, and its drainage is not, therefore, very effective in 
wet seasons. The pargana lies partly in the central dmiat tract, 
but the bulk of it falls within the light loam or hhur tract. Five 
fairly distinct stretches of country are recognizable. The first 
comprises 20 villages along the Sengar and consists chiefly of 
loam and usar, though a high ridge of sand runs through the 
centre along the left bank with light loam in the neighbourhood. 
This tract has a good deal of stable canal irrigation. The 
second is a continuation of the main portion of Mustafabad, 
which it closely resembles, though it has more good jhils, A 
few villages on the border have the haisuri weed. The third 
tract extends along the Sirsa river and, with the exception of the 
big hhur spur crossing it to the cast, comprises all the villages, 
lying one or two deep, on either side of that stream, from the 
town of Shikohabad to Ukhrend. The soil is the finest light loam 
or pira, more friable and easily worked than dumat, and capable 
of producing all kinds of crops to perfection. There is no usar 
andnearly the whble area is cultivated, while there is ample irriga- 
tion both from wells and the canal, and the cultivators are 
largely of the best classes. The only drawback is that since the 
opening of the Bhognipur Canal a good many villages of this 
tract are apt to get too much water and to suffer from actual 
waterlogging occasionally and from over-dampness and chilli- 
ness of the soil more or less always. Some of them have deteri- 
orated, apparently for this reason. The fourth tract comprises 
the remaining villages of the pargana other than those inter- 
sected by the ravines of the Jamna or lying along that river. The 
predominant eleihent here is sand, and though in places there 
is a good deal of light pira of productive quality, the soil is 
generally very thin, degenerating at times into miserable rolling 
sand of the poorest description. Irrigation is usually difficult and 
instlffioient and the less industrious and skilful castes, such as 
Ahirs, prevail among the cultivators. The tract is therefore 
comparatively a poor and precarious one, though it has improved 
in places where the Bhognipur Canal water now reaches. The 
fifth tract takes in the villages along the Jumna and its ravines, 
lir is locally called the hMiihoi and is unique in the district. An 



Shikoh^bad Tahsil and Targana, 257 


ordinary typical village has three portions^ first, the portion to 
the north, lying still on the plateau level of the rest of the 
pargana. This is called the u^mrliar^ a term which explains 
itself. From this a series of extensive, intricate and deep 
ravines, alternating with high spurs and ridges, clothed usually 
with low trees, scrub and coarse vegetation, but often bare, 
begins to radiate downwards and continue to the Jamna. This 
is the second portion of the typical ravine village, locally known 
as hekar. It generally occupies the greater part of the whole 
village area. Between the ravines, however, and the Jamna, at 
the foot of the high cliffs, there is frequently a shelf, or series of 
shelves of lowlying arable land, called kachkar in the case of the 
upper ledges, while the lowest ledge of all, a strip of moist soil 
along the water^s edge, boars the special name of tir. Cultivation 
is practically confined to the uparhar and kachhaTf though 
patches of arable soil occur in the hehar, and are called danda 
when found at the top of the ravines, and piori when at the foot. 
The uparhav soil is similar to that of the neighbouring portions 
of the fourth tract, but irrigation is usually difficult and scanty. 
The soil in the fcachhar varies. When it is beyond the reach 
of the river floods it deteriorates, but on the whole it is fairly 
fertile. The tir is rich when available. 

The Jamna has here a very contorted course, though it has 
not changed its bed to any appreciable extent within recent 
times. But in throe villages of this tract there is, in addition to 
the typical soils already described, another locally known as 
bhagm, occurring along what is undoubtedly an old bod of the 
Jamna. It is rich and moist and, though wells are sometimes ’ 
dug, can produce good double-crops year after year without any 
artificial application of water. The village sites in this tract are 
usually perched on the top of high cliffs and look like mountain 
fastnesses, which indeed in the turbulent past they seem to have 
been. 

The cultivated area of the tahsil is now 126,146 acres as 
compared with 128,945 at the previous settlement. Of this 
95,805 acres are irrigable, an increase of 13,732 acres in the 30 
years, chiefly due to the new Bhognipur Canal, which has sup- 
planted well irrigation over a considerable area. The irrigated ^ 




USB Mm^ri 


(krea in ft UQrmftl year ia 46 per cent, of the totalcuUivated area^ 
,tbe third lowest in the district, but in the JcarWia the percent- 
age is of course considerably below that of any other tract. But 
though there has been a great falling off in the number of earthen 
wells, maso nry wells have multiplied. The culiurable area (waste 
and fallow) is 11,654 acres and the non-culturable 49,262 acres, 
while 2;364 acres are planted with groves^ The principal crops 
grqwn in the rahi are wheat, barley and gram, alone and in 
combination, and a considerable area is now under poppy, a new 
development. In the kharif the chief crops are hajra, jmr and 
cotton, grown alone or in combination with arhar and maise, 

Ahirs are largely predominant among the cultivators, but 
there are also large numbers of Thakurs, including Kirars, and 
of Brahmans, and a good sprinkling of Kachhis, Lodhas and 
Cbamars, The tahsil has therefore among its great diversity of 
tenants a fair proportion of the better cultivating castes. 
Occupancy tenants hold 57 per cent, of the total holdings area, 
rather less than in other parganas, but here as elsewhere the 
average size of the holdings has diminished. The average 
incidence per acre of occupancy rentals is Rs. 4*36 and of non- 
occupancy rentals Rs. 5*15, the increase since the last settlement 
being 16*58 per cent, for the former and 47*14 per cent, for the 
latter. The rent rates vary from Rs. 11-9-0 for the best quality 
of irrigated gmhan to Re. l>4-0 for the worst soils in the ravines. 

The revenue demand is now Rs. 2,81,056. All kinds of 
tenures exist from single zamiridari to the several forms of 
communal proprietorship, the hhaiya^hara form being found 
mostly among the Ahir communities owning the Jamna villages 
in 17 mahalB of 10,641 acres. Though single zemindari has more 
than doubled since last settlement, 62*5 per cent, of the tahsil is still 
held by co-parcenary communities, mostly imperfect and 
consisting mainly of Ahirs and Thakurs, who are in the majority 
of cases petty peasant proprietors, often hardly as well off as 
their tenants, A striking exception to this statement is the Ahir 
community of Bharaul, in the north of the pargana^ whose heads 
is Chaudhri Sarnam Singh. This body now owns 17 villagse 
in this district in whole or in part. A portion ol their proper^ 
was received in re^d for loyal service in the hlntiuyi wbHt 




Shikohated TaknH and Pargam. J^59 


they led the oombination which repelled the rebel Baja, of 
Mainpuri from his attack on Shikohabad. Ahirs head the liat 
of the landholding castes with 52J00 acres^ Thakurs coming 
next with 46^05 acres, of which more than half belongs to Kuank 
Brahmans own 33,033 acres, Kayasths 14,291, Miisalmans 6,468> 
and the money-lending castes. Ban las, Mahajans and Khattris, 
hold 22,663 acre.?. These latter have been steadily extending 
their possessions during the last 30 years at the expense of the 
old hereditary castes. 

Of the leading landholders Thakur Laik Singh, a Eirar, is 
perhaps the largest, owning Muhammadpur Labhaua, where he 
resides, and a number of other villages which are well managed. 
The Raja of Bhadawar in the Agra district owns the two hachhar 
villages of Bhartar and Kalianpur Muafi on the Jamna, opposite 
Batesar, free of revenue. The Kayasths, the descendants of the 
old Qanungos, are represented by two branches, one of Madanpur 
and the other of Shikohabad. The former^ with Lala Madho 
Narain as its head, owns, besides Madanpur, a number of 
lucrative villages and shares in Shikohabad. To the latter 
belong Mohnipur, Durgapur-Mohnipur, Nagla Umar and 
Lakhanpur. The Khattris, represented by Sompat Rai and 
Batesar Nath of Shikohabad, own now Aswa, Muhammadpur 
Sarai, Jawai, Shahpur and shares in other villages in this tahsil 
and in Mustafabad. The principal Brahman proprietors arc 
those of Bhadesra, who also own Qamarpur, Baijua, Ubti and 
other villages. The Musalman landowners are the Saiyids of 
Shikohabad and Sarai Bhartara. 

At the census of 1901 the population of the tahsil was 
157,669, an increase of 12*76 per cent, over the figures for 1891, 
but 9*84 per cent, only over those for 1872, the tahsil having 
suffered like most other parts of the district from the wet seasons 
of 1881—1891. The density is 637 to the square mile of total 
area and 808 to the square mile of cultivation. The population 
is overwhelmingly Hindu, there being, only 11,769 Musalmans, 
chiefly to be found in. Rapri and Shikohabad, and 1,310 
representatives of other religions. Among tjie Hindu castes Ahirs 
vastly preponderate, ^with 33,903 members^ Chamars coming neipt 
with 20,692^ and yter them Rajputs with 14i318, Brahmana 




260 


Mainfuri District. 


mimberod 15,714, and no other caste had a membership of over 
10,000, the most miraeroiis being Lodhas, 7,151; Gadariyas, 
5,172; Banias and Mahajana, 4,725 and Kahars; 2,996. The 
tahsil contained 2,364 representatives of that somewhat rare caste, 
tlio Kadheras, who are a subdivision of the Mallahs. They are 
all collected in the Jamna villages, where they have settled down 
as cultivators. Practically all the Kirars are also to be found 
in this tahsil, though -as they were not recorded as a separate 
caste at this census, no figures are available. They are much 
better cultivators than most Eajputs. 

The tahsil contains two towns : Shikohabad a notified area, 
and Sirsagaiij an Act XX town, with populations of 11,139 and 
6,043, respectively. These arc two of the few marts in the 'district 
which have any external trade. The former contains the head- 
quarters of the tahsil and besides some local trade in cloth and 
cotton exports a certain amount of grain, while at the latter an 
important cattle-market is held twice a week, and sugar, grain 
and cotton are collected for export. Factories for ginning and 
pressing cotton have recently been established in each town, 
Naushahra, to the east of Shikohabad, manufactures iron vessels 
and shoes, and Urmara Kirar, close by, turna.out glass bangles 
in largo quantities. With these exceptions the tahsil is a purely 
rural tract with no other industries than agriculture, and though 
there are 39 villages with populations of over 1,000, one, 
the enormous ravine village Orawar Hasht Taraf, having 4,26f 
inhabitants, there is none that has any claim to bo called a town. 

The tahsil is on tho whole well provided with c(nnmumoa< 
tions. The main line of the East Indian Railway runs througl 
it from east to west with four stations within its borders, at 
Bhadan, Kaurara^ Shikohabad a|d j|^akhanpur. Of these 
Shikohabad is the most important,, biing the junction for the 
new line to Mainpuri and Farmkhabad. Besides the . railway 
there is a first>class metalled road connecting Shikohabad witl 
Mainpuri, 30 miles away, and another leads to Agra city, 88 
miles off. Other good metalled jroads run to Jasrana and Etawah, 
to Sirsaganj, and towards the Jamna, the latter boing metalled 
only as far as NasirpiUr 10 miles away and giving aCOess 
famous Batesar faif« There are also several good uSietalled 



Sirsaganj. 


261 


roads ; one from Sikohabad to Mustafabad^ and five radiating 
ont from Sirsaganj to Etawah, Karhal^ Mainpuri, Araou and 
Nasirpur on the Batesar road. Shikohabad formed^ in Musalmau 
times, part of the old pargaiui of Eapri, from which it was 
separated in 1824, since when four villages have been added to 
it from Mustafabad and 34 from the old pargana of Dehli-Jakhaii. 
Its history will be found in the descriptions, of Shikohabad and 
Rapri. The tahsil is in charge of a subdi visional officer stationed 
at Mainpuri, and magisterial ]iowers are also exercised by the 
tahsildar. There are police stations at Sirsaganj and Shikohabad, 
and part of the Ghiror police circle, also, falls within the tahsil 
boundaiies. 

SIRSAGANJ, Pargarut and TahsU Shikohabad. 

This small town, in 27® 3' N. and 78® 46' E., lies on the 
Shikohabad-Etawah road 29 miles from the latter and six miles 
from the former, north of the East Indian Railway station of 
Kaurara, with which it is connected by a metalled road four miles 
in length. The town lies in two revenne villages, Sirsa and 
Bayaganj, and its name, a eominon ^e, is traceable no doubt 
to the same origin as that of the Sii^syriver which flows a short 
distance past the south of the town.>^rhe population is 6,043, the 
principal castes being Banias, Mahajaus, Kirar Thakurs, 
Chamars, ^acbhis and Musalmaiis. The town is administered 
iindel^ Act XX and has a police force of one jamadar and nine 
chankidafs, together with a staff of sweepers for sanitary 
purposes. The total inedke of the town in 1908 was Rs. 1,724, 
Rs. 1,200 being derived from a house-ta;^ and Ks^\^521 from the 
sale of refuse. The tov^ 4kiofly as « trade-centre, 

lying as ^t does at the tertiuiiia of no less than six roads coming 
into it from all diaectious. The Etawah road runs through the 
town and is its main thoroughfare^ The market-place, Raikes- 
ganj, a Government prpperty, \vad< eempleted by Mr, Raikes, the 
^ coUeotor of Mainpuri, in 1852, and is a fine open square to the 
south of the Btawah road, the shops, on oaoh side being the pro- 
pellir of tile traders. A market is held here every AVednesday 
and Ihitfsday, the chief commodities besi^e^eorn being phi and 
cotton. In 1869 the bazar was threuiten^.by a rival market, 




262 Mainpv/fi IHiiiiet. 

■ ^ — T ' V "7" 

Mohangaaj, beloaging to the eomincfore/aud Ae collector issued 
stringent regulations limiting the brokers! fees, which threatenedf . 
to become so exorbitant as to drive the traders to Mobahganj. 
This action was sufficient to prevent Mohanganj becoming 
established| and Baikesganj is the only market-place at the 
present day. A committee of traders agreed to maintain the 
bazar and its gates in a proper state of repairs and cleanliness. 
The main street is lined with shops, and though narrow is well 
kept and drained. Most of the traders are Jains and several 
Jain temples exist in the town. At the southern end of the town 
is a very handsome little mosque covered with flor^ designs 
picked .out in red against its whitened surface. There are two 
cotton ginning factories at the western entrance of the town, 
as well as a police station, post-office and town school. 

UBEB AB, Pargoma and TaheU Mustafabxp. 

This village is comprised in the revenue mauzas of Uresar 
Gajadhar Singh, Uresar Samam Singh and Uresar Budar Singh. 
It lies in 27^ 27' N. and 78^ 41' E., about 28 miles to the west of 
Mainpuri. Its population in 1901 numbered 4,055, of whom 2,057 
were males and 1,998 females. Classified according to religions 
there were 3,722 Hindus, 188 Musalmans and 95 others. The 
tamindara are Chauhan Thakurs of the Partabnair stock and 
the eponymous Gajadhar Singh was an honorary magistrate. 
The total area of the village is 3,943 acres, and nearly the whole 
of the cultivated area, which amounts to 1,942 acres, is irrigablo. 
There are 27 outlying hamlets. The revenue demand is 
Bs. 6,680. There are a vernacular school, a post-office and a 
bazar here. Kunwar Dirgpal Singh, honoiiry magistrate, holds 
Ills court here, and Kunwar Si^tan Singh is the village munsif 
of the Uresar circle. 

UBNIDA, fljrjfflwialSHiBOB, Tahail Maikpum. 

This village, in 27^ 2^^^^^^ 49' E., lies about 21 

miles west of Mainp^ mi 12 miles north of Ghiror. 
population in 1901 was 4,181, of whom 1,199 were males and 
females. Classified according to religion there were ijSHm 
ffindns and 82 Mubrnfinm^ while according to oceapadill 



th^ yrere 14 zac/mnda^9f 1,36!2 cultivators, 142 traders and 111 
labourers. The village, which contains a vernacular school, 
Rovers a total area of 2,970 acres, out of which 1,323 acres ait. 
ctitivated, only 46 being irrigated from the canal. There are 
nii^e hamlets. It comprises one rmhcd, assessed at Bs. 3,900, and 
^ z<mindc^a are Thakurs. 



©ajettcer of fITainpuri. 


APPENDIX. 



GAZETTEER 

OP 

MAINPURI. 


APPENDIX. 


CONTENTS. 

Paob, 

Tiblb I.— Population by TahsiU, 1901 ... ... ... i 

Tablb II.^Fopulation by Thanaa^ 1901 ... ... ... ii 

Tabib III.— >yital statistici ... ... ..» ... iii 


Tablb IV.— ‘Deaths according to cause 

... 

sss 

iv 

Tablb V.— ColtiTation and irrigation, 1314 Fasti. 

SIS s.l 

V 

Tablb VI.— Principal crops by Tohsils 

... 

SSI • • • 

vi 

Tablb VIl.— Criminal Justice 

... 

Mi S.S 

Ii 

Tablb VIIL— Cogniwblo crime ... 

... 

sse •*! 

xii 

Tablb IX.— Berenuc demand at SuccessiTe settlements 

SIS 

xiii 

Tablb X.— BcTenue and Cesses, for settlement year (1903—06) 1814 P 

xit 

Tablb XI.— >]fisciae 

tee 

... ... 

XV 

Tablb XIl.— Stamps 



xvi 

Tablb XIII.— Income-tax 

e.e 

... 

xvii 

Tablb XlV^—Jncome-tax by Tahsils 


It. ... 

xviii 

Tablb XV.— District Board 


... ... 

zx 

Tablb XVl.— Honicipality 

• ts 

... ... 

xzi 

Tablb XyiI.-Distribation of Police, 1906 


... ••• 

Xlii 

Tablb XVllI.^Edacation 

set 


xxiii 

Schools, 1906 ... 



xxir 

BoadB,1908 ... 

... 

... ... 

xxviii 

Ferriet, 1906 ... ... *.• 



HI 

Post-offleei, 1906 

... 


zzd 

Markets, 1908..« 


... 

Hxii 

Fairs, 1906 ... ... ... 

... 

... 

miU 






Table L— Poptrfoitow hy TahaUs, 1901 . 


ffV appendix. i 


Others. I 

«0 

1 

-..»S .. 

s 

a 

•i 

d 

o 

s 

« 

a* 

CO 

a 

iH 

S S S 1 9 

1 

s § ^ § 1 

PH 

1 

00 

1. i 1 1 § 

IH ,4 00 

1 

a 

3 

1 

a 

a 

I 

• 

' 1 

S 

1 1 5 1 1 

1' 

Oi 

1 1 1 1 s. 

ttT lO CD 10 00 

1 

a 

3 

V 

P4 

OO 

s. S R i. 1 

^ 01 !■( 01 '4* 

iH PH 

1 

■ 

*§ 

a 

3 

m 

•s 

a 

£ 


1 1 % 1 1 
& S S S -9 

1 

• 

V 

1 

«P 

S S 9 S g 

1 § g 9 1 I 

1 

m 

S 

m 

»« 

£ 

10 

1 9 1 1. 9. 

i ^ i a i 

IH 00 i-« 

'1 

S 

•s 

a 

£. _ 

s 

s 

1 

-ii i 

_.i 

00 

' s I ” § S 
^ 1 s a 9 

1 

~ T | 2 "s i 

1 f ^ S 

1 

..!! ... 

1 

1 

00 

^ S § B § 

S 8 S f S 

1 

> 


; ! : : : * i 

iilii 1 


















APPENDIX. 


m 


Table III.— atatistics. 




Births. 



Deaths. 


Year. 

Total. 

Males. 

Females. 

lUic 

per 

1,000. 

ToUl. 

Males, 

Fi*iii los 

Halo 

per 

1,000. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

1891 

22,678 

12,063 

10,626 

^•76 

17.616 

9,869 

7,746 

23*11 

1892 

23,164 

12,469 

10,696 

30*88 

18,424 

10,170 

8,264 

24-17 

1893 

29,357 

16,689 

18,788 

38-50 

15,386 

8,416 

0,970 

20*19 

1894 

29,926 

16,838 

14,088 

39*26 

20,228 

11,002 

0,226 

26*64 

1896 

31,644 

16,697 

15,047 

41*52 

16,023 

8,642 

7,181 

21*02 

1896 

30.311 

16,963 

14,348 

39-77 

19,839 


8,000 

26*03 

1897 

26,691 

14,067 

12,634 

36*02 

27,600 

11.577 

13,023 

38-21 

1898 

26,695 

13,620 

12,176 

33*71 

26,691 

] 3,580 

12.002 

33 68 

1899 

38,608 

20,172 

18,336 

60*52 

81,962 

IC,6<!0 

15,296 

41-93 

1900 

34,114 

17,879 

16,336 

•44*76 

26,602 

14,33.5 

12.267 

34*90 

1901 

34.640 

17,976 

16,566 

41*64 

25.808 

13,423 

11,883 

30 61 

1902 

34,244 

17,866 

16,378 

41*29 

24,444 

12,803 

1 ,661 

29*47 

1903 

34,769 

18,176 

16,694 

41*92 

29,812 

15,023 

14,189 

36*94 

1904 

33,133 

17,264 

16,869 

89*96 

81,254 

15,808 

15,440 

37*68 

1906 

28.076 

14*792 

13,283 

83-86 

83,706 

16,708 

16,908 

40-64 

1906 

33,382 

17,623 

16,769 

40*25 

26,015 

13,400 

12,555 

31*87 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 ... 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1916 

1916 ... 

1917 

1918 ... 

32.094 

16,913 

! 

I 

16.181 

1 

38*69 

80.439 

1 

1 

! 

: 15,884 

1 

1 : 
i 

1 

1 

! 

14,555 

36*70 


* The ntei from 1881 to 1900 oro o»lealit«l from tbo returai of the 1891 conifii. 




iv 


Mainpuri DiBinet. 


Table I V.— Deaifca according to cause* 


Year. 

Total deaths fi on^ 

m 

1 

Plague. 

Cholera 

Small. 

pox. 

Fever. 

Bowel 

com- 

plaints. 

1 

2 

8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

1891 

• •• 


17.616 

... 

178 

66 

16,363 

74 

1892 

... 

... 

18.424 

... 

1,160 

83 

16,416 

27 

1898 


..t 

16,385 

... 

22 

13 

14,217 

86 

1894 


••• 

20.228 

... 

762 

11 

18,387 

82 

1895 

• •• 

... 

16,023 

... 

4 

81 

14,878 

49 

1896 


... 

19,839 


2 

1,377 

17,118 

61 

1897 


•*« 

27.600 

... 

107 

1,699 

24,621 

60 

1898 



25,691 


• M 

3 

24,477 

16 

1899 


... 

31.962 

... 

1 

... 

30,656 

13 



«•. 

26,602 

... 

29 

6 

24,962 

29 

1901 


... 

25,808 

... 

882 

3 

28,240 

9 

1902 

• •• 

... 

24,444 

... 

' 3 

It. 

22,837 

6 

1908 



29,812 

6 

270 

63 

27,141 

68 

1904 


i.« 

81.264 

2,831 

84 

69 

26,791 

82 

1906 


... 

33,706 


1 

67 

21,364 

80 

1906 

•f 

... 

26,016 

172 

109 

499 

23,177 

16 

1907 



80,439 

873 

135 

26 

26,878 

80 



■M 







1909 

.«• 

... 









•at 







1911 


... 







1912 

••• 

••• 







1918 

• •• 

... 







1914 


... 


i 





1916 


... 







1916 

• •• 

... 







1917 

.M 

... 


j 





1918 




j 

































































Table acres vmder the TahsU Mainpwri. 

I ' Babi. ’ 1 Kbarif. 



(a) Details not available as tbe returns have been weeded out. | • Figures not available owing to settlement operations. 











• ^^ABLE VI — (continaed ). — Area in acres under the principal crops, Tahsil Bkongaon. 



(•) 09UiiA not ftTMlHble as the returns have been wee^i^ out, | • Figures not available owing to settlement operations. 

t Tear of V8riflcatiott~]^sent setUement. 








Table VI — (continued).— ilrea in acres under the pri/ncipal crops, TahsU ShikolKdxid, 































Tabus VX-— (continued).— ^rea in acres under the principal crops, Tahsil Mtutafabad. 


APFEKDIX 



<«0 OtUili sot ftwiUlito M tlie retaros lieve b«»en weeded oat. | * Figaree not aveilaUe owing to settlement operations. 

t Tear of Teriflcstioa — present settlement. 





















Table VI — (concluded ). — Area in acres vmder the principal crops^ TahM Karhal. 



(a) Betoili not av^iilable ng the returns have been weeded oat. | * Figures not available owing to gettlement operations. 

f Year of verifioation^nreaenf. aaftlAment. 











Ta 3US VII.— rOimiwaZ Justice. 


APPEITDIX. 





i 

Excise 

Act. 

lO 

S*S”*S*-®8S*SS 


s 

« 

0 

l-g 


r^NiXDi'^soweseoosoiOsOi 



Seeping 

the 

peace. 

so 

MOOt^i-liOOCONCO-JWOO 

eoiHOuoeo-H uouomcooi 



Bad 
liveli- 
hood. 1 

1 

C!| 

S!S3S2gSSSSSSfe 

rH iH iH iH pH 

1 

4a 

1 

Criminal 

trespass. 

l-l 

Q w> « 05 00 SO pH 00 op N 90 00 ej 
i 5 o 5 05 aoo®opHOOsco 5 t>o 
pH PH pH PH pH p^ iH 

s 

a 

»4 

I 


Receiving 

stolen 

property. 


„ 

i>^.Hoooico«eo:fO‘op*2 

00 0 a p^ 05 01 1-- 0 » i> i> i> 

iH pH 

1 

J 


Robbery , 
and 1 
dakaiti. ! 

1 

a 

(M-iKMOt-OpOWlOpHt^SO 

»OeO»OrHpHPH»OpHpH 

0 




■*» 

& 

0 


49 

*8 

s 

00 

S3SS3!2SSS«SSS 

(rt 4 fl<NpH 3 ><'H«H»HiHpH.H pH 

« 

0 

OB 

U 

& 


]!riminali 
force and 
assault. 

t> 

S', »0 or 05 »f 5 *1 0 p< i 5 

soc 5 soeo<Mw'«fiOw?»wcoeo 

>4 

1 


battle 

theft. 

1 

(0 

<N 05 05 eo CO 1 ^ 00 g ^ 00 CO 2 g? 

eoio iHpHpHbHpHpHOQ'V^CO 

a 

— 




& 


i 

to 

i> ; ;ph 5 



S 




m 

0 . 

0 49 

> *4 

s- 

yf 

oo»'- 30 <M 5 r“®? 2 $ 22 S 3 SS 

1 W PH pH so CO iH pH ^ ^ W ^ N 


Offences 
effecting 
life. 1 

CO 

iOb-aOHSCOpHNOWC.COOO 
es|.^ 01 PHpH 94 'erH pHpH 


S ■** 

ll 

0 ? 

public 

tran- 

quillity, 

chapter 

VIII. 

09 

Q0'NO5co-rt^iow®®IlS2*a 

cowo.co^cop-oot-Hueo®^ 

PH , pH pH 

1 





si!:::::::::::::::::! 



Year. 

r-l 



Mainpuri District, 




Table Ylll,—Oognig(Me crime. 


.Year, 

Number of easeB invefti- 
gated by police— 

Number of persons.— 

8uo 

motu, 

By 

orders of 
Magis- 
trate. 

Sent up 
for trial 

Tried. 

Acquit- 
ted or 
dis- 
charged. 

.Con- 

victed. 

1 

2 

8 

4 

B 

6 

7 

1892 

t«4 


2,214 

18 

1,063 

1,548 

467 

1,076 

1898 



.1,898 

49 

1,065 

1,709 

418 

1,896 

1894 

• •f 

... 

1,777 

41 

1,189 

L660 

48t 

1,222 

1896 

••• 

•M 

•1,686 

88 

1,072 

1,516 

414 

'1108 

1896 

• •• 

■•t 

1,662 

80 

1,00? 

1,4S5 

601 

984 

1897 

•ft 

*$• 

1,912 

61 

1.809 

1,784 

.461 

1,828 

1898 

•M 

9M 

1,879 

81 

860 

1,460 

866 

1,096 

1899 

«*« 

996 

1,718 

29 

1,161 

1,494 

284 

1,810 

1900 

•«« 

Itt 

1,741 

44 

1,008 

1,866 

814 

1,068 

1901 

4*4 

• 9* 

1,616 

16 

847 

1,211 

240 

971 

1902 


Ml 

1.846 

21 

766 

1.188 

248 

948 

IPQS 


999 

1.211 

17 

745 

1,249 

266 

998 

1904 

•M 

•M 

1.827 

12 

810 

1,168 

218 

960 

1905 

M« 

••• 

2,919 

176 

938 

1,009. 

448 

1.161 

1906 

tM 

••• 

8,217 

221 

694 

1,839 

647 

792 

1907 

M4 

M* 


215 

816 

1,625 

485 

1,040 

1908 

••• 

999 

2,208 

816 

678 

884 

98 

791 

1909 

9M 

999 







1910 

9M 

999 







1911 

•90 

999 







1918 

•M 

9M 







1918 

tM 

999 







1914 

•M 

•99 







1915 

.M 

999 






' 

1916 

••• 

•99 







1917 . 

M8 

»«9 






















* 





































Table 1X .«— demand at successive settlements* 


APPENDIX 



* Noti.— F igaiet showing the demand at the earlier settlements are not available for these parganss as great portions of them wore in- 
•IndM in large talnqas, each as Manchhana ant llahaminadpar*Labhaa\ which comprised ▼illagas Assessed colle jl^ively and nst inliTida • 
nUjf^ and no reeoid the assessment Tillsge by fiU»ge, if it was erer made, now exists. 






xiv Mainfuri District 


Table X,-~*Pre8ent demand for revenue and cesses for 
the year 1314 Fasli. 


Pargana and 

Where included 
in Ain4^ 
Akbari» 

Rcvenuo 

Ccssca. 

• 

Total. 

Incidence per 
aero— 

tahBil. 

Culti- 

vated. 

Total. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 



Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Rs. a. p 

Ke. a. p. 

Uainpuri 

Bhongaon Sauj\ 

1,00.812 

10,091 

1,10,903 

2 4 7 

1 0 11 

3hiror 

Rapri 

1,01,187 

10,119 

1,11,306 

2 11 1 

1 2 8 

[Cai'soli 

Kuraoli 

4G.413 

4,641 

61,054 

1 12 10 

1 1 0 

?ali8il Maiupuvi, 

... 

2,48,412 

24,861 

2,73,263 

2 5 0 

118 

Bhougaon ... 

Bhongaon 

1,88,447 

18,845 

2,07,202 

2 1 0 

1 2 11 

Uewar 

Birwar 

26,399 

2,640 

27,939 

14 8 

t 0 1 

klipur Patti ... 

Patti AH pur . 

20,78] 

2,078 

22,859 

1 1 9 

1 2 7 

Kisliai Nabi- 
gmj. 

Bhongaon 

81.804 

8,181 

89,985 

2 5 4 

14 0 

Tahiil Bhongaou 

... 

3,16,431 

31,044 

3,48,076 

1 16 11 

1 2 11 

Karhal 

Etawah 

94,026 

9,436 

1,03,462 

2 15 7 

14 5 

Barnabal 

Etawah 

93,456 

9,346 

1,02,802 

2 12 9 

1 12 1 

rahiil Karhal, 

... 

1,87,482 

18,782 

2,06,264 

2 14 2| 

1 7 7 

Shikohabad ,m 

Rapri 

2,81,024 

28,236 

i 

o 

2 7 2 

1 10 3 

1 

rabsil Shikoha- 
bad. 

... 

2,81,024 

28,236 

3,09,260 

8.7 2 

1 10 8 

Ifuitufabad 

Rapri 

3,18,898 

31,890 

3,60,788 

8 0 7 

1 11 7 

rahail Mustafa- ' 
bad. 

soe 

3,18,898 

31,890 

8,50,788 

3 0 7 

1 11 7 

District Total, 

saa 

13,62,247 

1,36,403 

14,87,860 

2 7 sj 

16 2 





APPENDIX.' 


I -"anols aa 3 s sss 32 | 8 § 88 aagg 
r 5 ?S 3 SSa 3 SK 3 S 3 ^ 33 SgSSS 
SSggSSSSSSSSigSRSg 

g Ii^anoQ 


4|J_ 

I 

88 . _5 

|§ ut 

4 gg g 

I il 




n .3 i-» o -H o «» o -fi 3 cs ^ -f ^ ?o lo 30 f'» »o 


H a ® ®'» ' 


h — ’I H'>* 

A VI vi vf Vi 


to fO t-^ :o to ^ Vi Vi T. oco-fi-eoiotp 
.1!c53SM?icoM?ijx)'M5C»'»?o»;oeo»*«^ 

2 '*,“'1.20 't o c;^ 

^ V lO* CD* p“ I 'T CO «r ^ Q — ' -fT -rr D5* csf iflT r* 

eoeoco^-f'i'eO’ii-^ocDOcooocioo cco 


1 3 -5oiOUOiOOOOO>OlCSO-«?0-<M.»^<Mri 

^ iHiH 

i ■ T| 3 ‘^|'S" 3 T:¥?? 5 * 2 :: 5 ^ ^ 8 ^ i “ 

i ’ 23 ^ «fi ^ 09 ^ 00 «r 50 ?5 -f *0 ^ »(5 O »D •« 


« *'^00 CD CS *> f !'• 3 

. « eo^-.M MOJco 

5 3 rjasriirisas 


c) iS « I 


M 5 3 »o CO -4 -4 » 55 cr 1^ »o *0 ( 

Jj Ne0?0»DtDi5cD'^-f'-J'e0NNNM« 

!• S aocO'N)ncox©^>0 

,4* COTISOM 

':-3 ,5 '^20-Hr«-oo^-fO : : * : ? : : 

4 A nto r^to 


L-Sf3‘a2.%'2':;12S3pii8^a 

3 00 W cc oo/x>^C5 cs B -^.eo 

i CO UO JO Ci ri 1-. ci d" of O “5 55 cf of of 55* O 

-f^W'Sji-ceocoeooieo 


-5 -0 55 Cl CO CO 55 C 

CO CO «-c eo CO eo CO e 


1 .o»o»o^«OOCDr^cocooi3:*-<w5MO-H-4i(5 

! ef of CO of CO* of vi -f -iT -o* -)»* ^ -O'* '<•’ eo* ctf 

“"l ** " — — 


I 1=11 
I I 


»^ 85 asig§§=aS 25 iillS 


i -• ss 


llllilill liillillil 


SsSS* 


• liiilaiiM OM .diop fot Bcdieat purpote. (<lriiggi.t>. permtU and the Uke) from the year 1899-1900 to 190508. 


Diririctf 


Table X11.^8tamp8. 


18994900 

1900-01 

190L'02 

1902-03 

1963-04 

1904- 05 

1905- 06 

1906- 07 

1907- 08 

1908- 09 

1909- 10 

1910- 11 

1911- 12 
191248 
191844 
191446 
1916-16 

1916- 17 

1917- 18 


Receipts from — 

^ Court-fee 
. . 1 including All soaroes. 



25,972 1.36,378 

23,190 1,22,154 

21,136 127,925 ^50^733 

23,975 1,36,083 13,^715 

24,884 1,36,819 733,306 

24298 1,44.474 1,71,046 

26272 1.42.423 141,117 







Table XllL- 


Appstoit, *vrt •/ 


0'- 

§S3&S§|SSSSSf:399SS ; 

hit = 

eiO)qQOU3*HkOQO<-4MkoeQioeeiHe9^0 

i| = 

00 o 00 a CO o fio iH ^ lo ^ m Q « 09 M i> 

. i>“2 

«ir 

fc “ i ~ 

S 1 1 * 

^eoeoeoi-ii-iOOMQ90i-ii-iiHAO»ooo» 


[i 

iij- 

M" 

*** touSta ioto Qo'oDitfx otT 

^ iH pM| pH 

983 
980 
979 
973 
1.012 
999 
965 
943 
945 
909 
908 
. 924 
952 
335 
323 
316 
326 
320 

1 ‘ ■ 
iT- 

,3 i «::::::: i t :: I 


1 ^ " 
£■< 

Bb. 

*203 

124 
182 
177 
170 
161 
185 

99 

168 

166 

125 
418 

m 

f-«rHfHiHf-lMeOM«9eO^O» 

If ■ 


i - 

! i : ! ! : ; 1 : : : ! : : : .1 ii i i i si > 1 i i 

1 i i ! : i I } ! i i t i i i M ! i i } i i i n i 

SSJSSSS§j;|is^83888!$8Sag«S»S§ 









Table XIV. — Income-tax hy TahsUs (Part IV only). 


Tabsil Maiiipuri. 

Under Over 

Bs. 2,000. Rb. 2,000. 


Rs. ft. p. 


1890- 91... 

1891- 92... 

1892- 93 ... 

1893- 94... 

1894- 95... 
1896-96... 

1896- 97... 

1897- 98... 

1898- 99... 

1899- 1900 

1900- 01... 

1901- 02... 

1902- 03... 

1903- 04... 

1904- 06... 

1905- 06... 

1906- 07... 

1907- 08... 

1908- 09... 

1909- 10... 

1910- 11... 

1911- 12... 

1912- 18, .. 
1918-14... 
1914-16... 
1916-16 

1916- ir... 

1917- 18... 


SCO 5,261 35 

302 4,374 44 

297 4,436 38 
286 4,138 37 
317 4,173 36 

336 4,271 33 

291 4,161 31 

272 4,411 41 

260 4,136 43 
240 3.600 39 
236 3,783 36 
244 4,001 34 

262 4,100 34 

80 2,179 32 
85 2,220 29 
85 2,130 32 

88 2,267 34 
85 2,254 31 


4,136-0-0 
3,850 0-0 
4,205-9-1 
6,253-2 6 
4,017-1.1( 


Year. 

1 

1891-92 


1892-93 


1893-94 


1894-95 


1895-96 


1896-97 


1897-98 


1898-99 


1899-1900 

••• 

1900-01 


1901-02 


1902-03 


1903-04 

... 

1901-05 


1905-00 

... 

1906-07 


1907-03 

... 

1908 09 


1909-10 


1910-11 

... 

1911-12 


1912-18 

... 

1918-14 


19J4-16 


1916-16 

... ; 

1916-17 


1917-18 



Tahsil Shikohftbad. 

Under Over 

Rb. 2,000 Rs. 2,000. 


H ^ Eh 

3 4 6 


200 8.636 

193 3,082 

194 3,073 
198 3,161 
216 8,381 
202 3,280 
181 2,803 
188 2,944 
181 2,f^9 
18S 3,d62 
180 3,139 
200 '3,353 
210 3,415 

60 1,866 
70 1,944 
62 J,792 
83 2,350 
80 2,251 


42 4,076 

38 3.777 

39 3,823 
33 3,136 
3' 8,069 
29 2,699 
31 2,874 
36 3,007 
36 2,908 
26 2,234 
29 2,553 
29 2,636 

28 2.893 
26 2,191 

29 2,687 
28 2,499 

21 1,929 

22 2.062 




. APPENDIX. XIX 


Table XIV — (concluded). — Income-tax hy Tahsils (Part IV only ), . 



Tahsil Bhougaon. 

Ttthttil MnstafabaJ. 


ruhsil Karbal. 


Under 

Over 

Under 

Over 

Under 

Over 

Year. 

Us. 2,000. 

Ha. 2 000. 

Ba. 2,000. 

Ka. 2,000. 

Ra. 

2,000. 

Ka. 2,000. 

QB 

a> 

Si . 

SB 

Q> . 

H* 

% 

CD 

a> 

M 

5 

ce 

{A 

H 

. ^ 

(A 

H 

u 

S 

oa 

8 

H 

CO 

0> 

0) 

« 

CD 

» 

CD 

H 



A 

CD 

◄ 

C9 


H 

< 

h’ 

at 

< 


< 

S 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

2 

3 

4 

6 

2 

3 

4 

5 

1890-91 ... 

159 

Ks. 

2,294 

17 

Bh. 

1 ,060 

IGO 

Ks. 

8,064 

26 

Us. 

2.693 

114 

Ba. 

2,211 

21 

Ks. 

1,774 

1891-92 ... 

181 

2,671 

15 

!)52 

170 

2,807 

24 

2,525 

134 

2,167 

20 

1,659 

1892-98 ... 

180 

2,603 

13 

872 

176 

2.918 

24 

2,525 

132 

2,164 

10 

1.612 

1893-94 

175 

2,400 

10 

. 038 

74 

2,902 

22 


142 

2,341 

19 

1,612 

1894-95 ... 

176 

• 2,612 

10 

689 

172 3,010 

20 

2,310 

131 

2,193 

18 

1,665 

1895-90 ... 

104 

2,572 

9 

541 

l6.»j 2,671 

24 

2,34i 

l2Vi 

2,171 

19 

1,678 

1896-97 ... 

180 

2,567 

10 

610 

17. 

2,630 

21 

2,352 

132 

2,192 

18 

1,334 

1897-98 ... 

169 

2,052 

11 

703 

183 2,951 

23 

2,305 

•31 

8,812 

10 

1,617 

1898-99 ... 

174 

2,711 

10 

623 

198 

8,241 

25 

2,330 

132 

2,296 

17 

1,220 

1899-1900 

158 

2,563 

(i 

534 

187 

3,219 

25 

2,547 

136 

2,344 

15 

1,364 

1900-01 ... 

m 

2,775 

8 

612 

187 

3,199 

29 

2,773 

138 

2,269 

18 

1,636 

1901-<J2 ... 

169 

2.640 

8 

672 

177 

2,984 

30 

2,985 

134 

2,255 

17 

1,662 

1902-03 ... 

172 

2,664 

7 

697 

179 

3,058 

26 

2,508 

139 

2,363 

17 

1,480 

1903-04 ... 

48 

1,243 

7 

685 

83 

2,059 

17 

1,693 

58 

1,503 

12 

1,137 

1904-05 ... 

49 

1.317 

6 

534 

60 

1,664 

18 

1,S6{‘ 

69 

*1,659 


1,020 

1906-06 ... 

61 

l,41ri 

5 

429 

ei 

1,625 

19 

1,927 

67 

1,602 

10 

968 

1900-07 ... 

44 

1,235 


436 

58 

1,534 

20 

2,034 

63 

1,416 

10 

880 

1907-08 ... 

39 

1.120 

5 

360 

51 

1,278 

20 

2,090 

66 

1,692 

8 

822 

1908- 09 ... 

1909- 10 ... 

1910- 31 ... 
1911^^12 ... 
1912-18 ... 
1918-14 ... 
1914-16 ... 

1916- 16 .. 
1910-17 ... 

1917- 18 ... 









i 

• 

t 

I 



iiainpuri District. 










Table XVI.— Jtfu^yoKiyo/ Jfoifljjwri. 


AFPBBBIX 



191248 . 
1918 - 14 ... 
1914 - 16 ... 
1916-16 . 











Maimpwri Jmnet. 


Tablb XVII.— ®/ 


Sob* Head- gon- ““"I®*' Town R^l B|^ 

itr .ss;- p»^«®- 


Mainpuri 

Bbongaon 

Kiibni 


KuraoU 


Siriagan] 

Sbikobabad 

Muttafabad 

Ska 

Citil Eeifrte 
Armed Police 







APPiitrotx. 


um 


Table XVIII. — Edueation, 1908. 




Total. 


Secondary ednoation 

Primary edacation. 

Year. 

i 

Scliolara. 


Scholars. 

I 

Scbolari. 


Schools am 
leges. 

Males. 

Females. 


8 


I 

Males. 

Females. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

1896-97 

127 

4,013 

64 

6 

863 


120 

8,184 

64 

1897-98 

126 

8,648 

63 

6 

786 

... 

119 

2,788 

68 

1898-99 

128 

4,236 

138 

6 

768 

... 

116 

8,445 

188 

1899-1900 ... 

134 

4,662 

140 

7 

861 

... 

126 

3,791 

140 

1900-01 

188 

4,701 

147 

7 

862 

,,, 

126 

8,889 

147 

1901-02 

134 

4,641 

166 

6 

828 

... 

121 

8,704 

166 

1902-03 

144 

4,843 

183 

6 

788 

... 

188 

4,066 

188 

1908-04 

164 

6,016 

178 

6 

762 

,, 

148 

4,264 

178 

1904-06 

148 

4,678 

181 

6 

776 

... 

142 

8,908 

181 

1906-06 

164 

6.991 

880 

6 

877 

1 

168 

6,114 

829 

1906-07 

236 

7,169 

704 

6 

886 

... 

229 

6,288 

704 

1907-08 

264 

7,948 

797 

6 

946 

1 

248 

6,997 

796 

1908-09 

260 

7,767 

888 

7 

1,110 

94 

242 

6,817 

784 

1909- 10 

1910- 11 

1911- 12 

1012-18 

1918-14 

1914-16 

1916-16 

1916-17 

lil7-18 

j 

j 

. i 

1 


. 

i 


1 

i 

1 

i 

i 













MlV 


liainpuri tidrict 


List of Schools, 1908 . 


Tahsil. 

Locality. 

Claaa. 

■ 


/ Mainpuri ... 

Ditto I... 

High School 

137 


Mission High School 

130 


Ditto ... 

Vernacular Middle School, 

175 


Aunchlia ... 

Primary School ... 

23 


Jeonti 

Ditto ... 

26 


Sikandarpur 

Ditto 

23 


Ohiror ... 

Ditto 

41 


Nauner ... 

Ditto 

45 


Aurcn 

Ditto 

106 


Naurangpur 

Ditto 

17 


Bhatani 

Ditto 

19 


GhitauH ... 

Ditto 

29 


Faailpur • ... 

Ditto 

16 


Kuraoli ... 

Ditto ,,, 

111 


Daulatpnr 

Ditto 

63 


Lalpur ... 

Ditto 

24 


Kuchela ... 

Ditto 

80 


Lakhaura 

Ditto 

18 


Angautha ... ... 

Ditto 

19 


Jawapur 

Ditto 

19 


Usnida ... ... 

Ditto 

21 


Tinrauli 

Ditto 

46 


lladhan 

IHtto 

16 

MainpuriM,^ 

Belahar ... ... 

Ditto 

17 

Ikri „ 

Ditto 

21 


Faiapor 

Ditto 

21 



Ditto 

60 


Ganj and Mainpuri free 
icliooli. 

Ditto 

196 


Purohitana... 

Girls* School 

20 


Naunor ,,, 


18 


Kuraoli 

Ditto 

10 


Mainpuri ... 

Model School 

18 


Minrhauli ... 

Aided School 

19 


pupwi 

Ditto 

28 


SoMj 

Ditto 

18 


Baaemar ... 

Ditto 

17 


Siraa 

Ditto 

12 


Sarai Latif... 

Ditto 

88 


Oe 

Ditto 

16 


Thorwa ... 

Ditto 

1 


Cbapri ... 

Ditto 

19 


Manauna 

Ditto 

16 


PiinuBkb ... > ... 

Ditto 

29' 

\ 

^nmrpur 

Ditto 


Kaaon ' 

••• f.. 

Ditto 

16 


Shikohabid 

Vernacular Middle School. 

164 


Swbnput ... 

Primary School ...' 

44 

0hikohaUdMi 

... 

Bhmnl ... „ 

Ditto 

Ditto ... 

86 

88 


IfclhMpnr 

Ditto 

44 


Sothia 

Ditto 

B1 










APFBNDIXf 


ZZY 


List of Schools, 1908— (continued). 


Tabsil. 

Locality. 

Class. 

Average 

attend* 

ance. 


IillljllAllfli 


Primary School 

•a* 

64 


Saboouli ,M 

... 

Ditto 

u. 

SO 


Madanpar ... 

... 

Ditto 

••• 

81 


Kesri ' ... 

... 

Ditto 

iti 

26 


Karora 

... 

Ditto 

•M 

20 


Aswai ... 

... 

Ditto 




Simra ... 

... 

Ditto 

Ml 

20 


Nagla Gulal 

... 

Ditto 

*«• 

26 



... 

Ditto 

• tt 



Sirsaganj ... 

... 

Ditto 

• M 

70 


Kam •.« 

... 

Ditto 


27 


Urmara 

... 

Ditto 


23 

Shikohftbad^ 

Birai Jabanabad 

„ 

Ditto 


19 

(e^nelud- 

Puncbha 

... 

Ditto 

• •• 

28 

Irf). 

Bhadan 

... 

Ditto 


26 


Arann ... 

*•• 

Ditto 

ti* 

28 


Shikohabad .. 

M. 

Girls* School 


68 



... 



17 


Dandiamai ... 

». 

Ditto 

... 

10 


Smajpur .m 

.. 

Ditto 

aa« 

21 


Orawar 


Ditto 

Me 

24 


Salem par ... 

... 

Aided School 

• M 

21 


Tiliani ... 

... 

Ditto , 

eae 

28 


(Tntri ... 


Ditto 

... 

27 


Jaimai ... 

... 

Ditto 

••• 

20 


Garbsin ... 


Ditto 

••• 

80 


Naairpur ... 

... 

Ditto 

M. 

17 

\ 

Pilepur 

... 

Ditto 


84 


Karbal ... 

... 

Ycroacular Middle School, 

93 


Barnabal ... 

... 

Primary School 

... 

66 


Dihali ... 


Ditto 


88 


Sab'in ... 

... 

Ditto 


12 


Ghandikra ... 


Ditto 

.t. 

20 


Harwai ... 

... 

Ditto 


28 


Bam pur 

... 

Ditto 


20 

Earhsl ... ^ 

Terha Nawa 

... 

Ditto 


19 


Rahmatullabpur 

... 

Ditto 


16 


Takhrau ... 

... 

Ditto 


29 


Karbal 


Aided Girls* School 

to 

24 


Kamalpar ... 


Aided School 

eet 

14 


Nagla Dayal 

... 

Ditto 

aao 

20 


Chandpura ... 

... 

Ditto 


21 


Dandgaon ... 


Ditto 


10 


Terha ... 

... 

Ditto 

... 

10 


Bhongaon ... 


Yernaoutar Middle School, I 

148 


All Kbera ... 


Primary School 

... 

121 


Kirpalpar ... 

... 

Ditto 

•M 

60 

BhoBgaoii.MY 

Kirpia 

••• 

Ditto 

••• 

72 


Kishni 


Ditto 

••• 

61 


Allahabad ... 


Ditto 

eol 

62 

\ 

Bewar 


Ditto 

•M 

62 





















zxvl 


list of Sohodt, 1908— (continued). 


Tfthiil. 



Bhongaon— , 
(tonclud^ ' 
td). 


MuitofabadJ 


Kuimanb ... 
Toratpur ... 
Saltangan j ... 
Kinawar ... 
Katra Saman 
Aurandh ... 
Agbar 

Jagatpnr ... 
Naigawan ... 
Tarba 

Gujarpnr ... 
Batanpnf ... 
Qarbia 
Pbarenji ... 
Deogan] ... 
Kaitbauli ... 
Sugaon ... 
Sahara 
Humayunpur 
Nagla Pontb 
Sakra 

Nabiganj ... 
Cbbacbha ... 
Jaramai ... 
AjUgsiiJ 
Bewar ... 
Knamara ... 
AliKbera ... 
Biobbwan • •a 
Barauli ... 
Jaraali 
Hindupur ... 
Barhat 
BbalntrauU 
Mangaon ... 
Tiliani 
Cbilaunia ... 

I Jairana ... 
Farbam 
Muatafabad 
I Ureiar 
I Kbairgarb ... 
I Faindbat ... 
Pbatba 
I Baragaon ... 


I Kuiiari ... 

I HatwanI ... 
Jbapara ... 

Bka ..• 
Kaurara Bniarg 
Hataoli Jaitingbpar 



At 

CUii. 

at 

a 

Primary School 

... 

Ditto 

••• 

Ditto 

Ditto 

... 

Ditto 


Ditto 

... 

Ditto 

Ditto 

oaa 

Ditto 

... 

Ditto 

... 

Ditto 

Ditto 

•M 

Ditto 

aac 

Ditto 


Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

*.r. 

Ditto 

... 

Ditto 
,. Ditto 

oaa 

.. Ditto 

to 

. Ditto 

.. Ditto 

... 

.. Ditto 

... 

,. Qirla* School 

... 

Ditto 

sm 

.. Ditto 

... 

».. Aided School 

... 

Ditto 

Ditto 

... 

... Ditto 

... 

Ditto 
.. Ditto 

... 

... Ditto 

Ditto 

... 

... Ditto 

... 

Primary School 
... Ditto 

... 

Primary School 
Ditto 

... 

.. 

Ditto 

Ditto 

... 

... Ditto 

... 

Ditto 

.. 

... Ditto 


Ditto 

... 

... Ditto 

... 


... 

Z Ditto 

... 

Ditto 


Ditto 

... 


49 

40 

83 
28 

84 
49 
23 

41 
26 
81 
26 
19 
80 

19 
28 

20 
28 
66 
26 
84 
28 
40 
86 
19 

27 
22 
16 
19 
88 
18 
16 

28 
23 
26 
18 
18 


64 

64 

28 

47 

64 

22 

40 

20 

26 

19 

21 

19 

87 

10 

18 


APPENDIX, 


. xxxii 


List of ScKodSj 1908-— (concluded). 


Tahsil. 

Locality. 

/ 

Nagla Dhir 

Bairni Sanaura 

... 


Sanao 

Kailai 

Pilakhtar ... 

Bnhat ... 

Khudadadpiir 

... 

Mastafabad 

Koahpar ... 

... 

•— (o0«o{«d- \ 

Khflirgarb ... 


•rf). 

Tharaua ... 
Sankhni ... 
Katena Haraa 
Kharit Milaoli 
Kizampur ... 

... 


Kanwarft ... 
k Rampur ... 


Clasa. 

ArereM 
) attend- 
ance. 

Primary School 

21 

Ditto 

18 

Ditto 

14 

Ditto 

17 

Ditto 

81 

Ditto 

16 

Ditto 

11 

Ditto 

13 

Aided Oirle* School 

28 

Aided School 

28 

Ditto 

20 

Ditto 

16 

Ditto 

28 

Ditto 

18 

Ditto 

21 

Ditto 

16 



zxviii 


Mainpuri uiBtrwu 


BOADS, 1908. 


A 


.—Fbotivoias. 


Milef Fup. Ffe. 


(i) Grand Trunk road, Aligarb, Etah and Cawnpore 

aeetion. 

(ii) Agra, Mainpuri and Bbongaon Trunk road ... 
Etawab, Bewar and Fatobgarh road 

Total 

A.-LOOAK. 


87 8 610 

46 6 667 

80 1 98 

103 2 600 


mtalUd road» Ifiiged and drointd 
ilr^ughouL 

(i) Etah and Sbikobabad road ... 

(ill Sbikobabad railway feodor road 
(iii) Jaarana and Musiafabad road ... 

(it) Sirsaganj and Bateaar road ... 

t(v) Obiror and Jaarana road ••• 

f (vi) Obiror Kosma railway feeder road «*# 

Station roado. 


Poat*office to cricket ground road *.« 
I Great circular road ... ... 

I Little „ „ 

) Sansarpur junction 
I Ditto to d&k bungalow road 
) Cricket'ifround to Bbongaon road 
) Encamping'ground road ... 
i) Police linea road 

) Church to Judge's court road ... 

) Jndgo’a court to lean Nadi road 
) Cburob to lean Nadi road ... 

Poat-office to Oolleotor'a kacbahri road 
Kacbahri jnnetion road 
I Jail road ... ... 

I Judge's court to city road ... 

I City to Devi road ... 


Total 


19 7 690 

1 4 180 

a 7 600 

2 2 880 

9 6 222 

8 2 180 


1.5 7 807 


6'J 6 279 


local metalled roade partiallg hridgid 
and drained % 

(i) Mainpuri and Kursoli road ... ... 

(li) Mainpuri and Etawah road ... •.» 

(iii) Sbikobabad and Sirsaganj road ... 

* (iv) Sbikobabad and Batesar road ... 

(v) Kaurara railway feeder road 

Total 

JLS,^8eeond‘elati unmetalUd roade. 



Sbikobabad and Batesar road 
Gbiror and Knraoli road ... 


11 

4 

180 

18 

4 

0 

7. 

2 

0 

8 

8 

0 

1 

2 

190 

40 

7 

820 

8 

0 

0 

18 

0 

0 


• ProvinoiaUied from let April 1908. f Bailed and metalled la 1907-08. 

** M x... 1. A. 



APPEKDIX. 


ROADS. im^CooneludedJ. 


JM»"»StcohMaii unnuialled roait— (concluded). 

(ill) Jaerenn and Bangaon road ... •• 

(It) Siriagani and Araon road ... ... 

(▼) Sirsoganj and Etawah road ... ... 

(▼i) Mustafabad and Pharha road «m 

(▼ii) Siriagan] and Karhal road ... ... 

(Tiii) Karhal and Kishni road 
(xix) Bhadan railway feeder road 
(xi Mainpuri, Bhanwat and Saman road ... 

(xi) Karim ganj and Biohhwan road ... 

(xiil Makhanpur railway itaiion road 
(xiii) Chbachba and Ali-Khera road 
(xir) Madar Darwaza road and laan Nadi road to diati 
lery road. 


IIL’^Tkifd^elait roadi hankid and iur/ae§d hui not drnimd^ 


(1) Mustafabad and Paindbat road 
(iij Mainpurl and Sirsaganj road 

(iii) Sirsaganj and Batesar road 

(iv) Obiror and Karbal road ... 

(t) Sbikohabad and Mustafabad road 


IV,—FouftK^elau rondo honhed hnt not our faced, 
partiaU^f hridgod oaif drninod, 

(1) Paindbat and Kailai road ... 

(ii) Mustafabad and Kana-Kuan road 
(iiij Kusiari and Pachawar road ... 

(m Obiror and Pachawar road 

(v) Kalhor to Jarara road ... 

(▼il Jawapnr and Dannahar road 
(Yii) Nagaria to Gangs! road * ... 

(fiii) Pul Pachawar to Nagla Fateh Khan road 
(ixi Pul Aurangabad to Pol Patikra and Barsgaon road, 
(x) Nagla Saleh! to Kusiari and Baragaon road 
*(xi) Mota Alipur road ... ... ... 


Gbavd total 


Miles Fur. Ft. 


2 8 0 

6 4 0 

12 0 0 

6 6 0 

16 0 0 

19 4 U 

2 0 0 

17 0 0 

8 0 0 

0 6 0 

8 0 0 

10 0 


109 

6 

0 

2 

4 

0 

28 

4 

0 

7 

8 

0 

15 

• 2 

0 

12 

0 

0 

60 

6 

0 

8 

0 

0 

8 

0 

0 

4 

7 

0 

6 

0 

0 

2 

0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

7 

0 

0 

6 

0 

0 

12 

0 

0 

12 

0 

0 

7 

0 

0 

66 

7 

0 


416 1 489 


^ Banked and dressed in 1908i 




Ma/UipuH Uiinnot, 


FBB&IKS, 1900. 


River 

Nftme of ferry. 

Name of village. 

Tahiil. 

Management. 

Income. 

■ 


... 



Re. 


■ 

Bejghat 

Bajghat •«#. 

Bhongaon... 

Dietriot Board, 

MO^ 


d 

Bhanan, Maira 

Bhaian ... 

Ditto .. 

Ditto 

746 

«M 

1 

Auriodh. * 
Hanna Khera ... 

Hanna Khera ... 

Ditto ... 

Ditto 

870 



Kakarghata ... 

Kakarghata ... 

Ditto ... 

Ditto 

180 

r 

1 

Alnpnra 

1 

Ala para ... 

1 

Mainpari ... 

i 

1 

Ditto 

690/ 

i3 










APmsiz. 


mi 


POST'OFriCSS, 1906, 


nbtii. 


Locality. 

Claia of office. 

Mainpnri ... 

Head office 

Mainpuri city 

Sub-office ... 

Knraoli 

Ditto ... 

Aanckha ... .. 

Branch office 

Jeonti ... ... 

Ditto 

Euchela ... 

Ditto 

^ Qbiror ... 

Ditto 

r Sultanganj .. 

Branch office 

Bhongaon ... 

Sub-office 

Bcwiir 

Ditto ... 

Kiibni ... ... 

Ditto 

Alipnr Fbtti ... 

Branch office ... 

Kusmara ... 

Ditto 

^ Kabiganj ... 

Ditto 

# Karbal ... 

Sub-office 

1 Barnahal 

Brancli office 

[ Knrra ... 

Ditto 

, Sbikobabad 

Sub-offico 

ehikohatadB. 8. 

Ditto 

Siriaganj ... 

Ditto 

Bara wicr 

Branch office 

Bhadan ... 

Ditto 

Bbaranl .*• ... 

Ditto 

Madanpnr ... 

Ditto 

Makbanpnr 

Di to 

Natirpur ... 

Ditto 

Tiliani ... ... 

Ditto 

\ Unnara 

Ditto 

Kbairgarb 

Branch office. 

Jairana ... 

Sub-office. „. 

Eka 

Branch office 

( Moatafabad 

Ditto 

I Fharba 

Ditto 

Parham ... 

Ditto 

Urcmr 

j 

Ditto 


Mantgfmtttt, 


Main pair! 


Bhongaon 


Karhal 


ShIkobaUd.. 


Mnitafabad.. 


tmparial. 






Jiavitpwi JMrid. 


uxii 


MABKETS, 1908. 


Tabsils. 


Mainpuri 


Towns or villages. 


Market days. 


I 



Manckhana 

Nauner 

Kuraoli 

Qhiror 

Darbah 

Kosma 


Sunday and Wednesday. 
Monday. 

Monday and Friday, 
Tuesday and Friday. 
Monday and Thursday, 
Sunday and Thursday, 


Bhongaon 


Earhal 


Shikohabad 


Moatafabad 


Allahabad 

Aung 

Kundi 

Tara pur, masra Hatpao ... 
Kusmara* ... ••• 

Bewar 

Katra, masra Saman 
Chauraipur ... 

Kishni ••• . 

Mahuli-Shamfchcrganj 
1 Kamnagar ... 

Nabiganj ... 

Arsara ... 

Kumbaul ... 

Laigaon ... 

Cliitain 
Ali Khera 
Barauli 
i Lalnpnra 

Karhal ..i 

Kishanpnr, mazra Patara, 
Karra Khas ... ••• 

Ram para, mazra Karra ... 
( Makhiani, masra Ninaali 
I Urthan ... ••• 

Dalelnagar ... 

\ Dihuli 

Nawa Tehragaon 


Monday and Friday. 
Wednesday and Saturday, 
Wednesday and Sunday. 
Ditto. 

Monday and Thursday. 
Tuesday and Friday. 
Sunday and Thursday. 
Tuesday and Saturday. 
Ditto 

Monday and Friday. 
Monday and Thursday. 
Ditto. 

Sunday and Wednesday. 
Tuesday and Saturday, 
Sunday and Thursday. 
Monday and Friday, 
Tuesday and Friday. 
Friday. 

Wednesday. 

Sunday and Thursday, 
Tuesday and Saturday. 
Wednesday and Saturday. 
Thursday and Saturday. 
Tuesday and Saturday, 
Monday and Friday. 
Ditto. 

Monday and Saturday. 

I Tuesday and Saturday, 


••• 


/ 



Shikohabad ... 
Sirsagan] 
Bharaul ... 

Sarhupur ••• 


Khairgarh ... 

Mustafabad 

Parham 

Pharha ... ••• 

0re.M CtaJaaiiM SisgU „ 

Jasrana 

Bahat ••• 

Kusiari ... ••• 

Shekhupur Hatwant 


Tuesday and Friday. 
Monday and Wednesday. 
Wednesday and Saturday, 
Tuesday end Friday, 

Monday and Friday, 

Sunday and Thursto. 

Tuesday and Saturday, 
Monday end Friday. 
Sunday and Wedneswy. 
Six days except Monday. 
Wednesday and Saturday. 

Ditto. 

Thursday, 


APt>£KSl±. 





Malniiuri { 


BhoDgaon ; 


Mainpuri *.■ 

Ditto ... 

Ditto ... 

Aunchha 
Ditto 

Bidhauu ... 

Sujrai 

Fatehganjpur ... 
Sarhpura 
> Isai Sarai 

Allahabad ... 

Ditto 
Aungh 
Knamara 
Chaunraipur ... 
Mahul i-S h a m- 
shorgang. 

Ditto 

Laigaon ... ! 
Banakia 
Nagla Debi 
Jakha ... 

Maachhana ,.. 

Katanpur Bara, 
Bhanwat 
Sakat Bewar ... 
D^anatnag a r 

Baghera ... 
Tarha 

Dhamianpur ... 
AUpnr*Koihoii- 
por. 

B ai gawan 
Khena. 

Jatpnra 

Hindupar 

Nagla Barna Nadi 
Sheopura ... 
Patna Tilna ... 
Madhkarpor ... 
Ditto 


I Hardal fair 
I Devi fair 
Ditto 

, ! Bagliraj fair , 
, Mahadeo fair 
Makrand fair 
Tij fair 
Mahadeo fair 
Ditto 
Ditto 


Sawan Sudi 16lh ... 
Chait Badi 8th ... 

Chait Sudi 8th ... 

Chait Sudi 9th 
Bhadon Sudi 15th ... 
Katik Sudi 16th ... 

Chait Badi Srd ... 

Phagun Badi 18th... 
Ditto 

Bhadon Sudi 14th ... 


Kale Khan fair On every Thursday... 
Devi fair ... Chait Sudi 6th ... 

Ditto ... Chait Sudi I6th ... 

Mahadeo fair ... Phngun Sudi 13th... 
Devi fair .. A-saih Sudi 16th ... 

Ditto •« Chait Sudi 9th ... 


Mahadeo fair ... 
Ditto ... 
Ditto ... 
Devi fair „. 
Ditto 
Ditto 

Ditto ... 
Mahadeo fair ... 
Devi fair 
Mahadeo fair ... 

Devi 

Bam Nawmi ... 

Shcoratri ... 
Devi 


Ditto ... 

Asarh Sudi l6th n. 
Chait Sudi 13th ... 
Baisakh Sudi 18tb.., 
Chait Sudi 6th .„ 
Ditto 8th ... 
Chait and Kuar ... 
Katik Sudi 2nd ... £ 
Ditto 10ih&15th, 
Phugun Badi 18th ... 

Chait Sudi Ist to 9tb, 
16th Chait to 16th 
Baisakb. 

Phagun Badi 18th... 
Chaii Sudi 6th ... 


100 

800 

200 

800 

1,200 

2,000 

2,000 

600& 1.600 
400 
1,000 


Bam Nawmi Chait Sudi 9th 


Chnreiar 
Dhannsh-Jng , 

Devi 

Bhairon 

Mahadeo 

Aitik 

Ditto 


Sahara 

Chhachha I 
Jogpnr ... 1 
MairaDebiparj 


Mahadeo 
Sobal Sunt 


Katik Sudi lit ... 
Agban Sudi 6th 
to l5th. 

Chait Sudi 5th 
Chait Sudi 9th ... 
Chait Badi 18th ... 
On every Monday, in 
Chait and Knar Sudi 
9th. 

Chait Sudi 9tb and 
Badi 8th. 

Bhadon Sudi 6th •«. 
Every Sunday m. 
Phagun Sadi I8tb ... 
Bhadon Sudi 6th 





ixtiv 




fAlBS, 








Approxi* 







mate 

Tihiili. 

Loeality. 


Name of fairs. 

Date, 

. average 






attend- 







anee. 

/ 

’ AUpurFktti 


Xabadoo 

aa* 

Cbait Sudi 9tb ... 

400 


. Sand* 

••• 

Ditto 

tf- 

Pbagnn Sndi 18ih... 

600 

if 

il 

1 Chandpar 
Ditto 

•M 

Devi 

Do 

... 

Cbaft Sudi 8tb ... 
Asarb Sudi 15tb ... 

600 

600 

Fartabpar 

Ml 

BadUSbab 


Magb Sudi 6tb ... 

200 


Bui Sanaun 


Xabadflo 

ttt 

Bbadon Sndi 6tb .. 

4.000 

\ 

Bhongaon 

ao« 

Bam LiU 

aae 

Knar Badi 18tb ... 

10,000 

r 

. Karhal 


Jababar 


Bbadon Badi 18tb ... 

200 


Ditto 

aaa 

Nemnatb 

... 

Cbait Badi 9tb ... 

600 


Ditto 


Jagdbar 

... 

Kartik Badi 2nd ... 

160 


Ditto 

aaa 

Devi 


Cbait Badi 8tb ... 

800 


Karra Kbat 

Ml 

Do. 


Ditto 

200 


Urban 


Jidbikar 


Kartik Sudi 16th ... 

200 


Dibali 

aa« 

Ditto 


Bbadon Badi ;i8tb ... 

860 


Kirthoa 

Ml 

Mabadeo 


PbagUn Badi l^tb ... 

200 


Bajpnr 

••• 

Hannman . 


KtrUk Sndi 16tb ... 

200 


Qambbira 


Ditto 

ChiitBidi2iid 

200 


Andani 


Mabadeo 

M. 

Fbagnn Badi 18tb m. 

200 

Ktrlial... ^ 

Saban 


Devi 

M* 

BiiMkhB.di8rd 

200 

Baniak 

••1 

Do. 


Knar Badi 9tb 

200 


Udban 


Do. 


Cbait Sndi 9th ... 

160 


Dnndwa 


Do. 


Cbait Badi 8tb ... 

160 


Bharti 


Bbaifon 


Cbait Badi lltb ... 

J60 


Fatara 


Bababar Matb... 

Cbnit Sudi I6tb 

800 


lyhiyani 

^taoli 

Ml 

Ml 

Mabadeo 

Devi 

tae 

Pbagun Badi 14tb.,. 
Cbait Badi 8th ... 

200 

800 


Bhagwatipar 


Do, 


Ditto 

200 


Maniarpar 

„ 

Do. 

MS 

Cbait Badi 9tb ... 

200 


Sanapnra 

IM 

Do. 

•»a 

Ditto 

200 


Barnahal 

Ml 

Do. 

tee 

Ditto 

400 


Lakbanman 


Do. 


Ditto 

160 


Knaberl 

m! 

Do. 


BaisakhSadi9tb ... 

200 


Cbandikra 

••• 

Mabadeo 

Ml 

Cbait Sndi 8rd 

. 260 

/ 

Xnttafabad 

IM 

1 Bam Nanmi 


In Cbait 

1.000 

ICnttaf. ; 

Pirtbipar 


Nagarsen 

#•* 

Baiiakb SndiStb...; 

600 


Santbi 

Faindbat 

Ml 

III 

Sbeoratri 

Jakbia 

ttt 

Fbagnn 18tb ..j 

In Magb, when f nil 

8.000 

20.000 






moon ie vjiible on 
Snndif. 












GAZETTEER OF MAINPURL 

INDEX. 


A. 

Aganga, the, pp. 16, 264. 
Agrloultural operations, p. 38. 

Ahirs, p. 88. 

Ahmad Khan Bangash, p. 160. 
Ahmad Shah, p. 160. 

Ahmad Shah Durrani, pp. 160, 162. 
Ailau, p. 181. 

Akbar, p. 167. 

Akbarpur Auncha, p. 181. 
Ala*ud-din, p. 152. 

All khora, p. 182. 

Alipur Patti, p. 182. 

Aliput Patti pargana, p. 183. 

Alipur Patti mahal, p. 158. 
Allahabad, p. 186. 

! Angautha, p. 186. 

I Animals, domestiQ, p. 29. 

' . Araon, p. 186. 

I Area cd the district, p. 1. 

Arind, the— p. 14. 

Aryas, p. 86. 

! Assessment circles, p, 128. 
Attestation, p. 127. 

Aung, p. 186. 

Aurandh, p. 187. 

Auron Fanraiia, p. 187. 

B. 

: Babar, p. 166. 

Bahult p. 28. 

Bahlol, p. 162. 

JBaitan, p. 65. 

Bangai, p. 6. 

I Banias, p. 97. 

I Baragaon, p. 187. 

JSarfM, p. 6. 

I Barley, p. 41. 

' Bamahal paragana, p. 188. 
Bamahal, p. 188. 

Bamath lair, p. 246. 

Basait, p. 191. 

Behar,pp.6, 257. 

Bewar, p. 191. 

Bewar pargana, p. 192. 

Bhadan, p. 196. 

Bhadana, p. 195. 

Bhagna, pp. 5, 10. 

Bhanwat, p. 195. 

Bharaol, p. 196. 
plunraiii 8i^, Bao^ p. 165. 
p.196. 


Bhongaon pargana, p. 198. 

Bhongaon mahal, 168. 

Bhongaon Ikta, p. 148. 

Bhongaon Humayun attacked at, p. 157. 
Shur, p. 4. 

Bir Bahan, p. 149. 

Brahmans, p. 90. 

Building materials, p. 26. 

c. 

Canals, p. 47. 

Canals, and spread of rth, p. 46. 

Canals doficiency of supply, p. 46. 
Canals, Bewar branch, p. 49. 

Canals, Bhognipur branch, pp. 51, 125. 
Canals, Cawn^ore branch, p. 60. 

Canals, Etawah branch, p. 51. 

Canals, Upper Ganges, p. 68. 

Canal divisions, p. 46. 

Canal inspection houses, p. 78. 

Canal telegraph, p. 140. 

Castes, Hindu, pp. 88, 100. 

Castes proprietary, p. 104. 

Castes cultivating, p. 107. 

Cattle, p. 29. 

Cattle, disease, p. 30. 

Census, p. 80. 

Chamars, p. 89. 

Chauhans, p. 91, 

Chitain, p. 204. 

Cholera, 88. 

Christianity, p. 86. 

Climate, p 80. 

Cocks, Mr., p. 165. 

Commanications, 76. 

Condition of the people, p. 111. 

Cotton, p, 42. 

Cotton ginning, p. 74. 

Grime, p. 182. 

Criminal tribes, p. 100. 

Crops, p. 40. 

Cultivated area, p. 86. 

Cultivating castes, p. 107. 

Cultivating tenures, p. 106. 

Cultivation, p. 87. 

Oultuiable waste, p. 87. 

Cunningham, Lt.-Col., p. 168. 

D. 

JD0ad0, pp. 5, 257.* 

DeKantiow, Ideatenan^ p. 165^ 

Dehli, pp.l61,20«. 

B^Jalhan t^ppa, p. 204. 

Density ol popi^Utti, p..82. 



11 


IlTDEX. 


Dirgpal Singh, Eonwar, p. 262. 
Dhenkli, p. 68 
Dhixnars, p. 97. 

Dispensaries, p. 144. 

District boa^, p. 142. 

Drainage, p. 19. 

Drainage lines, p. 20. 

Drugs, hemp p. 188. 

J>umat, p. 4. 

E. 

Education, p. 142. 

Eka, p. 205. 

Eka, raja of, pp. 104, 205. 
Excise, p. 138. 

P. 

Fairs, p. 76. 

Famines, p. GO. 

Farrukhabad Nawabs, p. 158. 
Fauna, p. 27. 

Fever, p. 82. 

Fiscal history, p. 116. 

Fisheries, p. 28. 

Formation of district, p. 116. 

G. 

Gadariyas, p. 97. 

Oanra, p. 23. 

Oauhan, p. 5. 

Ohiror, p. 205. 

Ghiror pargana, p. 205. 

Glass, crude, p. 71. 

Glass bangles, p. 73. 

Groves, p. 24. 

H. 

Hafiz BiOimat Ehan, p. 161. 
Matpa0t p. 209. 

Hayes, Major, p. 169. 

H^th, p. 8L 
Hemp drugs, p. 188. 

Hindu sects, p. 87. 

Hindu oastes, pp. 88—100. 
History, early, of district, p. 146. 
Hodson, p. 175. 

Holkar, attacks Mainpuri, p. 164. 
Horses, p. 29. 

Humayun, p. 157. 

I. 


Ibrahim Lodi, p. 155. 
Ibrahim Shah, p. 151. 
Infanticide, p. 184. 
Infirmities, p. 81. 
Inspection houses, p. 78. 
Interest, p. 68. 


Iqbal Ehan, pp. 150, 151. 
Irrigation, pp. 44, 69. 

Isan, the, p. 13. 

J. 

JaU, p. 137. 

Jains, p. 86. 

Jamna, the, p. 9. 

Janamejaya, p. 246. 

Jasrana, p. 209. 

Jaunpur kingdom, p. 149. 
Jawapux, p. 209. 

Jhilt, p. 18. 

Jhorit pp. 5, 257. 

Jokhaiya, p. 245. 

Jot, p. 210. 

Jungles, p. 23. 

K. 

I Eahar, p. 4. 

Kabsa, p. 5. 

KaekKoTt pp. 6, 10, 267. 

Eaohhis, p. 89. 

Kadheras, p. 260. 

Kahars, p. 97. 

Eailai, p. 210. 

Eak Nadi, the, p. 17. 

EaU Nadi, the, p. 12. 

Eali Nadi floods, p. 125. 

Eankan, p. 210. 

Kankar, p. 26. 

EaM#, p. 125. 

Earhal, p. 211. 

Earhal pargana, p. 212. 

Earhal tahsil, p. 215. 

Karimganj, p. 216. 

Karkha, p. 256. 

Eaumra Buzurg, p. 217. 

Ehan Bahadm Ehan, p. 217. 
Ebarif crops, p. 42, 

Ehizr Ehan, p. 151. 
Khwaja-i'Jalian, p. 149. 

Eirars, p. 260. 

Eishni, p. 218. 

Eishni-Nabiganj pargana, p. 218. 
Eosma, p. 222. 

Euchel^^ p. 222. 

Eumhaul, p. 222. 

Euraoli, p. 223. 

Kuradi, pargana, p. 224. 

Euraoli, mutiny at, p. 170. 

Eurra, p. 827. 

Eushal Pal Singh, Thakur, p. 106. 
Eusiari, p. 227. 

Eusmara, pp. 202, 227. 

L. 

Laik Singh; Thakur, pp. 288, 269. 
Lakes and Marshes, p. 18. 


xavisx. 


m 


Ula Pholzari Lai, p. 216. 
jjane, Mr,, p. 232. 
janguago, p. 102. 

'jevels, p. 2. 
jiteraoy, p. 143. 
jiterature, p. 102. 
jodhas, p. 96. 
jupton, Mr., p. 12G. 

M. 

ifadhan, p. 228. 

Hahtnud of Ghazni, p. 146. 
tiahmud of Jannpur, p. 152. 
ilahali Shamsherganj, p. 228. 
tfainpuri, p. 229. 
ilainpuri, Civil station, p. 233. 
ilainpuri pargana, p. 234. 

^inpuri tahsil, p. 236. 

Ifatyar, p. 4. 

Vlalik Kafur, p. 148. 

^nohhana, p. 238. 
lilanohhana laluqa, p. 115. 

Manjha, p. 5. 
iianufaaturos, p. 71. 

Ifanure, p. 89. 
ilarathas, pp. 159, IGl. 

Uatijfar, p. 3. 
iioOonaghoy, Mr., p. 123. 

Ifilauna, p. 5. 
ilubarak Shah, p. 150. 
ifuhammad Khan Bangash, 159. 
duhammad Shah Tuglaq, p. 149. 
luhammad Shah of Jaunpnr, p. 153. 
luhammadpur Lobhaua, p. 238. 
luhkamganj, pp. 229, 232. 
funioipality, p. 140. 
lusilmans, p. 85. 
fuBtafabad, p. 238. 

lustafabad pargana and tahsil, p. 239. 
lutiny, the, pp. 164—176. 

N. 

Tabiganj, p. 243. 

Tadir Sh^, p. 160. 

Tandia, the, pp. lu, 17. 

Tanner, p. 244. 

Totified areas p. 141. 

Tusrat Shah, p. 150. 

o. 

iooupations, p. 101. 

'pinm, p. 138, 

>pium department, p. 114. 

Irawar Hasht Tataf, p. 244. 

P. 

'adham, p.245. 
aindhat, p. 245. 
toaimkha» pp. 157, 1S2. 


Parham, p. 245. 

Pariar, p. 246. 

Patara, p. 247. 

Patsni nala, p. 12. 

People, condition of, p. 111. 

Pharenji, p, 247. 

Pharha or Phariha, p. 247. 
Phariha>Kotla estate, p. 105. 

£ilia p. 4. 

Plagne, p. 84. 

Police, p. 132. 

Police stations, p. 182. 

Poppy, p. 41. 

Population, density of, p. 82. 

Population, migration of, p. 84. 
Population, oocupations of, p. 101. 
Population, sex of, p. 84. 

Population, of towns and villages, p. 83. 
Post office, p. 140. 

Power, Mr. John, p. 165. 

Power, Mr. James, p. 166, 

Precarious tracts, p. 24. 

Prices, p. 65. 

Printing presses, p. 102. 

Proprietary tenures, p. 102. 

Proprietary castes, p. 104. 

Pundri, p. 248. 

Puth, p. 4. 

Q. 

Qaim Khan, p. ICO. 

R. 

Rahi crops, p. 40. 

Bai Partab, pp. 161, 152. 

Baikes, I^Iajor, 171. 

Baikes, Mr. pp. 134, 230, 2C1. 

Bailways, p. 76. 

Bainfall, p. 31. 

Baja Sheomangal Singh of Mainporii 
pp. 94, 200, 208, 23G. 

Baja Tej Singh of Mainpuri, p. 174. 

Baja of £ka, 104. 

Bajpats, p. 91. 

Bapri, p. 248. 

Kapri, history of p. 147. 

Bapri, merc^ in neighbouring flefiii 
p.156. 

Bapri, mahal of p. 158. 

Begistration, p. 189. 
p. 45. 

Beligions, p. 85. 

Bents, 103. 

Bind, the, p. 14. 

Bivers, p. 9. 

Beads, p. 77. 

8 . 

8 ^du;Mig,lfS 0 ^ 168 . 

B.hu(; P.S49. 



Sahara, p. S60. 

Saltpetre p. 74. 

Barman, p. 250. 

Barman, ^kux of pp, 106, 921. 

Barman jhil at, p. 910. 

Bamam olngh, p. 196. 

Sanradharan of Etawah, p. 140. 

*' Batia '* oculists, p. 228. 

Sauj, p. 251. 

Seaton, Brigadier, p. 175. 

Bengar, the. p, 16. 

Senhar, the, p. 15. 

Settlement, first iriennial, p. 117, 
Settlement, second triennial, p. 118. 
Bettlem^t, first quadrennial, p. 119. 
Settlement, quinquennial, p. 120. 
Bettleinent, Mr. Edmonstone’s p. 122. 
Settlement, Mr. Edmonstone’s, revision 
■ of p. 128. 

Bettleinent, of 1870-78, p. 128. 
Settlement, of 1002-06, p. 126. 

Sex statist ioB, p. 84. 

8hahab-ud-din Ghori, p. 146. 

Sher Sht^h, p. 157. 

Shikohahad, p. 251. 

Bhikohabod, attacked by Marathas, p. 
159. 

Bhikohabad, cantonment at, p. 163. 
Shikohabad tahsil, p. 255. 
Bhuja-ud-daula, p. 161. 

Shuja-ud-daula, ^acquiries Mainpnri 
parmnas, n. 163. 

Sikanoar Lodi, p. 155. 

Binkh, p. 28. 

Bitsa, the, p. 16. 

Bitsaganj, p. 261. 

Small-pox, p. 88. 

Bmeaton, Mr. p. 123. 

SqU8,p,8. 

Bofi tm^, p. 6. ^ 

Staff, dmiot, p. 118* « 

Stamps, p. 139. 

> Streams^ minor p. 16. 

Bub-divisions, p* 118. 

Buiiai estate, p. 186. 

Sultan Bi^, Kunwas, p. 969. 


•iirtra..; 


T. 

Tajhul-mulk, p. 151. 

Tarai,p.6. 

TaHt p. 189. ^ 

TarkaAit PP* 78, 228. 

Titnti, tenure, p. 103. 

Tej Singh, Baja of Mainpuri, pp. 169, IV 
Telegraphs, p. 140. 

Tele^phs. Uanal, p. 140. 

Tenures, proprietary, p. 102. 

Tenures, onJtivating, p. 106. 

Tenures, tau8i,.p. 108. 

Tikuriya, p. 4. 

Timur, invasion of, p. 150. 

Tir, pp. 5, 11, 257. 

Topo^pliy, p. 1. 

Town Acts XXi.l41. 

Trade, p. 71. 


Vvatkati p.i6, 257. 
Uresar, p. 262. 
Unnara Kirsr, p. 260. 
Usnida, p. 262. 


Value of land, p. 110. 

Village banks, p. 70. 

Village munsifs, p. 114. 

Vital statistics, p. 82. 

w. 

Wages, p. 67. 

Waste land, p. 22. ^ 

Weights and measures, if. 68. , * 

Well s, p. 68. 

Weils, methods of maMng an^ 
p. 64. 

Whealr, p. 40. v 

■Z. 

«* 48 ..